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Robert MiGagne(1916-2002)


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Robert MiGagne(1916-2002)

  1. 1. Robert Mills Gagné (1916-2002) Jennifer Santos Juan Salmerón EDIT 451 Fall 2010 Dr. P. Chen
  2. 2. About Robert Gagné... • He was... o born on August 21, 1916 in North Andover, Massachussets. o educational psychologist and Instructional theorist o received his Ph.D. from Brown University in 1940. o a Professor at Connecticut College (1940-1949), Pennsylvania State University (1945-46), and Florida State University. o the Research Director for the U.S. Air Force (1949-58)
  3. 3. Gagné's 3 Theories of Instruction Taxonomy of learning outcomes Nine Events of Instruction Conditions of Learning 1 2 3
  4. 4. Gagné's Nine Events of Instruction... 1.Gaining attention  2.Informing learners of the objective  3.Stimulating recall of prior learning  4.Presenting the stimulus  5.Providing learning guidance 6.Eliciting performance  7.Providing feedback 8.Assessing performance 9.Enhancing retention and transfer
  5. 5. 1. Gaining attention... Corresponding Cognitive Process: Reception   • Focus learner attention • Motivate learner • Lesson Set: Provide students with realia to get them interested and motivated in lesson 
  6. 6. 2. Informing the learner of the objective... Corresponding Cognitive Process: Expectancy   • Set goals for learner • Simple statement • Lesson Objective: Students should be told prior to lesson what will be expected of them by the end of the lesson.
  7. 7. 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning... Corresponding Cognitive Process: Retrieval   • Question or activity to stimiluate prior knowledge • Building Background Knowledge: Building on students pre- existing knowledge allows for a stronger understanding of concepts taught.
  8. 8. 4. Presenting the stimulus... Corresponding Cognitive Process: Selective Perception   • Activity that presents information/content of what is being learned •  Present information for all learning styles •  Lesson: Teach step-by-step, utilizing multimedia and other resources for better understanding.  
  9. 9. 5. Providing learning guidance... Corresponding Cognitive Process: Semantic Encoding   • A cue or strategy to promote encoding • Present information for students long term understanding • Provide examples, guide instruction for maximum comprehension • Guided Instruction:  Students learn, teacher is there for support and guidance.
  10. 10. 6. Eliciting performance... Corresponding Cognitive Process: Responding   • Opportunity to practice or perform what is being learned   • Students chance to show what they have learned by demonstrating understanding of lesson   • Teacher observes students as they respond to information taught
  11. 11. 7. Providing feedback... Corresponding Cogntive Process: Reinforcement   • Provide immediate feedback • Help students correct any misunderstanding about information presented • Opportunity for positive reinforcement and chance for students to understand strengths and weaknesses • Consistent feedback enhances and reinforces learning
  12. 12. 8. Assessing performance... Corresponding Cognitive Process: Retrieval   • Assessing student learning and understanding • Students demonstrate mastery of material • Individual activities provide students with opportunities to use what they have learned and apply it
  13. 13. 9. Enhancing retention and transfer...  Corresponding Cognitive Process: Generalization   • Provide examples or activities to help prompt students understanding beyond what has already been taught   •  Apply learning to real life situations
  14. 14. Gagn's Instructional Principles... • Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes. • Events of learning operate on the learner in ways that constitute the conditions of learning. • The specific operations that constitute instructional events are different for each different type of learning outcome. • Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned and a sequence of instruction.
  15. 15. Learning Outcomes  Five Categories     • Verbal Information • Intellectual Skills • Cognitive Strategies • Attitudes • Motor Skills  
  16. 16. Sources Image - Info -         - %           20Gagn%E9s%20Instructional%20Design%20Approach.htm         -           id=12152&project_step=28465 Textbook - Reiser, Robert A., and John V. Dempsey. Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology, Second Edition. 2007
  17. 17. Discussion Questions 1. According to Gagne’s theory, why is the first event of instruction important?  2. Why are Gagné's five major categories of learning/learning outcomes important to his nine events of instruction? 3. Gagné accounted for different learning styles, why are learning styles important to consider when designing instruction? 4. As educators, do you agree with Gagné's Nine Events of Instruction?  5. Setting goals is an important part of Gagné's theory of instruction, how do you express goals to your students?