The Middle Ages


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The Middle Ages

  1. 1. From the fall of the Roman Empire to the Age of Exploration Creating America Chapter 1 pg. 44 - 48
  2. 2. <ul><li>* Began when the Roman Empire grew weak and fell to invading Germanic tribes (400’s) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>* Government and trade networks were destroyed as Europe was divided into small kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>* People stopped using money and began to barter </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>* Vikings began invading small villages (800’s to 1000’s) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>* Europeans developed a system of feudalism for protection </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>* Feudalism is the political system in which a king allows nobles (lords) to use lands that belong to him and in return the nobles owe the king military service and protection for the people living on the land </li></ul><ul><li>* The Manor System is an economic system in which nobles (lords) divided their land into manors , large estates, that were farmed by serfs and in return serfs were promised protection </li></ul><ul><li>* Serfs didn’t own land and could not leave the manor </li></ul>
  4. 4. This diagram created using Inspiration® by Inspiration Software, Inc.
  5. 5. <ul><li>* The church took over duties of the former Roman government (collecting taxes, aiding the sick, punishing crimes) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>* Since Europe was divided it became a powerful, unifying force </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>* Feudalism led to peace and stability </li></ul><ul><li>* Merchants began to travel, new ideas began to spread </li></ul><ul><li>* New farming methods were developed which led to a surplus of food, which led to more people, which led to a increase in demand for goods, which spurred trade, which caused towns to grow, money came back into use </li></ul><ul><li>* Serfs began to run away from manors and became merchant and craftspeople </li></ul><ul><li>* A new class developed, the middle class </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>* Mediterranean countries started to trade with Asian countries </li></ul><ul><li>* The Crusades also spurred trade because ships that took soldiers to the Middle East also brought back goods to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>* After the Crusades ended trade continued </li></ul><ul><li>  * Spices were among the most luxurious products available in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper, cinnamon, cumin, nutmeg, ginger and cloves. </li></ul><ul><li>* They all had to be imported from Asia and Africa, which made them extremely expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>* It has been estimated that around 1,000 tons of pepper and 1,000 tons of the other common spices were imported into Western Europe each year during the late Middle Ages. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>* The Black Death , or The Black Plague , was one of the most deadly pandemics in human history. It began in South-western or Central Asia and spread to Europe by the late 1340s. </li></ul><ul><li>* The total number of deaths worldwide is estimated at 75 million people; there were an estimated 20 million deaths in Europe alone. The Black Death is estimated to have killed between a third and two-thirds of Europe's population. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>* As serfs fled the manor, nobles lost part of their workforce and power and profits </li></ul><ul><li>* In 1300’s the bubonic plague swept Europe, killing ¼ of the population and further reducing the number of workers </li></ul><ul><li>* Kings and townspeople developed a different relationship, Kings promised armies to protect towns and trade routes and townspeople agreed to pay taxes </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>* Growth of trade caused merchants to develop new business practices, such as tracking profit (bookkeeping) </li></ul><ul><li>* Italian merchants began to use military strength to protect trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>* Other European merchants began searching for different routes to Asia </li></ul>