American Expansionism


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American Expansionism

  1. 1. Overseas Expansion Chapter 22
  2. 2. American Expansionism • The Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned European countries to stay out of “Latin” America – this opened much of the South American market for US influence only • The idea US expansion stopped during the Civil War – in fact, expansion was one of the causes that led up to the Civil War • After the Civil War, the US quickly became a heavily industrialized nation • The U.S. was producing more goods than it could use • This surplus led the U.S. to look for new markets abroad
  3. 3. American Expansionism • The search for raw materials and markets drove the idea of imperialism – when one nation has political and economic control over another • European nations such as England and France had already carved up Africa and parts of Asia into colonies and "spheres of influence” • Secretary of State William Seward believed the should expand in the Pacific Ocean in its effort to reach Asia • He arranged for the purchase of the Midway Islands and Alaska
  4. 4. American Expansionism • The purchase of Alaska was known as “Seward’s Ice Box” until gold was discovered in the 1890’s • The Midway Islands that would serve as a stopping place for US ships headed to China • Hawaiian sugar plantations were very profitable - eventually most of the business came under the control of the US • In 1893 US planters staged a revolt and overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and in 1898 the US annexed the islands • In 1898 the US annexed part of the Samoa Islands – they would serve as a stopping place for US ships headed to Australia
  5. 5. American Expansionism • The US’s ultimate goal was China • China was divided up into “spheres of influences” by several European countries – sections of a country where a foreign nation has political and economic powers • The chinese staged a revolt known as the Boxer’s Rebellion – the rebellion was crushed, but led to the Open Door Policy • The Open Door Policy which allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely and other nation’s spheres – US gained much with this agreement
  6. 6. Spanish - American War • In the late 1800’s, Cuba led many unsuccessful revolts against Spanish rule • This attracted US attention: businesses were worried about US investments in Cuba and newspapers printed graphic details about the atrocities committed against the Cuban people • Newspapers tried to out do each other with shocking stories. “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war.” William Randolph Hearst • This type of sensational, biased, and sometimes false reporting became known as yellow journalism
  7. 7. Yellow Journalism A satire drawing of Hearst and Pulitzer pushing the Spanish- American war.
  8. 8. Spanish - American War • In January of 1898, the US sent the battleship the Maine to the Havana harbor to protect US citizens and property • 3 weeks later the ship blew up • Newspapers quickly came up with the slogan “Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain” • In April the US declared war on Spain • The first place the US attacked was the Philippines – within a matter of hours the Spanish navy was destroyed
  9. 9. Remember the Maine
  10. 10. Spanish - American War • The US then turned its attention to Cuba - after taking Cuba, the US attacked Puerto Rico • By August the war was over - “US Secretary of State called it “a splendid little war” • The war lasted 4 months and about 400 soldiers were killed in battle • Cuba became an American protectorate - independent yet under the control of the US • Platt Amendment – part of Cuban constitution that gives US the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and control of Guantanamo Bay
  11. 11. Spanish - American War • Puerto Rica and Guam became American territories • The US paid Spain $20 million for Philippine Islands • US occupation of the Philippines led to the Philippine – American War – ultimate the US had to pull out (1946) • Anti-Imperialists League - not everyone in the US supported the war
  12. 12. Uncle Sam Picking Apples
  13. 13. United States and Latin America
  14. 14. Greater America
  15. 15. Latin America
  16. 16. U.S. & Panama Canal • US controlled territory in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans – US wanted to build a canal connecting the two oceans • Panama was an isthmus – a narrow strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land • When Colombia refused to sell or rent the land to the US – the US supported the Panamanians in rebelling against Colombia • Two weeks later the US signed a treaty with the newly created Panama for the construction of the Panama Canal • These events upset many of the countries in Latin America, and caused them to mistrust the US • The canal opened in August of 1914
  17. 17. Policing the Western Hemisphere • Teddy Roosevelt’s philosophy was “Speak softly and carry a big stick” – he believed US should respond to problems with military force rather than threats • America should exercise “an international police power” to preserve order and prevent the world from falling into anarchy • Instability in the Carribbean and South America (revolts) caused Roosevelt to worry about European intervention • Roosevelt Corollary – America has the right to act as a “policeman” in Latin America in cases of wrongdoing or when a nation seemed “unstable”
  18. 18. Dollar Diplomacy in the Western Hemisphere • William Howard Taft replaced Teddy Roosevelt as president of the US • He did not want to “police” Latin America and hoped to change US foreign policy by “substituting dollars for bullets.” • American investments would bring stability to trouble areas as well as power and wealth to the US • Linking business interest to political interest was known as Dollar Diplomacy • This policy helped build roads,railroads, harbors, and stimulated trade • However, when American businesses were endangered often led to military intervention • Which in turn led to resentment
  19. 19. Walk Softly
  20. 20. Dollar Diplomacy