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AE 372 – Spring 2010




ASSIGNMENT #1:
Construction Project
Observation & Analysis
Millenium Science Center
Becca Dick, Mike Kostick, & Josh Wentz




                                         2/1/10
Table of Contents
Introduction............................................................................................................................................... 1
Observation Narrative ............................................................................................................................... 1
   CONSTRUCTION SITE PLAN .............................................................................................................. 1
   ACTIVITIES ...........................................................................................................................................2
   MANPOWER .........................................................................................................................................2
   EQUIPMENT .........................................................................................................................................2
   CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT ISSUES ........................................................................................4
   SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................................................4
Topic of Interest Research & Summary ....................................................................................................4
Project Delivery Method ...........................................................................................................................6
Bid Package Scope of Work: Concrete .................................................................................................... 8
   GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................. 8
   MATERIALS ......................................................................................................................................... 8
   PLACEMENT ........................................................................................................................................ 8
   FINISHING ........................................................................................................................................... 8
Project Log .................................................................................................................................................9
Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................9
References................................................................................................................................................ 10
Introduction

        The objective of our project is to do an in-depth study of the construction process and
management of the Millennium Science Complex. In doing so, we will observe daily activities of the
job site, recording our findings. These will include the jobs being performed, the equipment being
used on site, the materials in use on site, the workers, assumptions of what will be done next and
where a specific portion of the project is headed, safety standards, and construction management
responsibilities and goals. To accomplish this, we will look at photo documentation of our
observations and create diagrams of equipment and technical procedures.
        We will also do a comprehensive analysis and study of concrete. We will look at how concrete
is made, what standards must be met, how forms are built, and what all goes into making, pouring,
and curing concrete. In addition to our informational section on concrete, we will also do a bid
package for concrete, where we will analyze the materials needed, the assumed schedule for the work,
and other specifics related to concrete.
        Finally, looking at the major scope of the MSC project, we will discuss what delivery method
we feel is most appropriate for the project as a whole. This will include advantages and
disadvantages to our choice and our reasons for choosing that particular method.
        With this project, we hope to inspire a higher level of interest in the construction process and
management in addition to a better understanding of the responsibilities of individuals in the
construction management field.

Observation Narrative
CONSTRUCTION SITE PLAN                                                            Site Fence(s) /Site Perimeter

                                                                                              Safety
                                                                           Fence/Tape

                                                                                  Exhumed/Excavated Earth

                                                                                  Above Ground Structure

                                                                                (work trailers included)

                                                                                   Foundation/Underground
                                                                           Structure

                                                                                  Material Storage

                                                                                 Equipment

                                                                                 Site Waste

                                                                                 Roadway (Transit Area)


Figure 1 Millennium Science Complex Construction Site Plan & Key as              Site Area
                        of January 22, 2010




AE 372                                   Dick, Kostick, Wentz                                              1
ACTIVITIES

                          Waste removal occurred on site with an expected outcome of keeping the
                       construction site clean and safe for all personnel on site. This was completed by
                       using cherry-pickers to remove waste bins from upper levels of the building and
                       construction trucks removing waste from the site.


                          The transportation of material was a major activity on site. This was
                       executed by the cranes moving materials from the ground level to the upper levels of
                       the building, construction trucks delivering materials, bobcats carting equipment
                       and materials to different areas of the site, and the bobcat transporting materials
                       from a stockpile to an area where they will be used.

                          Formwork was another major activity on site. Forms were being built and
                       being put in place by a crew of several workers. This included workers cutting 2”x4”
                       lumber for stabilizers, nailing forms together, setting the forms in place, and
                       securing their position with the stabilizers. The final step of this process is to pour
                       the concrete into the forms.


                          Another important activity on site was the surveying of concrete decking.
                       We observed a construction worker using a surveying laser to ensure that the
                       concrete deck was level. He was also ensuring that the texture of the concrete met
                       industry standards.

                            Equipment transportation occurred continuously on site. From bobcats
                         moving mechanical equipment to cranes lifting materials to the upper floors,
                         equipment transportation comprised a lot of the activity on site. Cherry pickers
                         removed waste from the site while forklifts transported materials across the
                         construction site to areas where they could be used. Construction trucks delivered
                         gravel, which was then used by excavators to backfill around the foundations of the
Figure 2 Site Activities building.

  MANPOWER
           We observed, on January 22, 2010, from 2:00pm-3:00pm, that there were approximately
  15 workers on site. It was a cold, rainy, overcast day which could be a reason for the small
  number of construction workers present on site that day.
            On this day, preparation work was being done. Concrete forms were being constructed by
  several men. There were several men preparing the rebar cages around steel columns so forms could
  be installed later. Surveyors were on site to ensure levelness of concrete. Also, a few management
  personnel were on site. We suspect they were inspecting the elevator shaft openings.
           On January 27, 2010, between the hours of 1:00pm-2:00pm, we noticed a considerable
  increase in the amount of workers from the previous day of observations. We estimated this number
  to be approximately 40 workers. Much more activity was going on this day.
           The workers were performing tasks anywhere from pouring concrete to using a crane to move
  materials. Foundations were being backfilled by two men, concrete was being poured into
  foundation forms by three or so men. Also, there were about six men working on figuring out how to
  install the cantilever section and tying cables to the sections to be attached to the crane cables.


  AE 372                                  Dick, Kostick, Wentz                                        2
EQUIPMENT
        On January 22, 2010, from the hours of 2:00pm-3:00pm, we observed the Millenium Science
Complex construction site. Although there were numerous types and quantities of equipment, not
all were in use. The stationary equipment consisted of two large cranes, one smaller crane, a
sheepsfoot, multiple mini-excavators and large excavators, and several bobcats and forklifts.
Generators were in constant use along with bobcats, forklifts, and a few cherry-pickers.



                             Of the two cranes, one was a 400 ton Manitowoc and the other was a
                           275 ton Manitowoc. Neither was in use the first day of observation, but we
                           did notice that both were positioned on a bed of railroad ties, distributing
                           the weight, preventing them from sinking into the mud.




                              A telescopic forklift was used to remove a waste bin from the second
                           floor, while the bobcat was used to cart mechanical equipment into the
                           basement of the structure. The forklifts were very active, carting wood
                           forms, lumber, mortar mix, and other various materials around the site.
Figure 3 Site Equipment
  on January 22, 2010

          On January 27, 2010, between the hours of 12:00pm-1:00pm we observed the site again.
In addition to the equipment on site on the previous day of observation, we saw a fourth crane on
wheels, several concrete trucks, a concrete pump truck, and multiple construction trucks.



                                The wheeled crane was lifting and moving materials near the tunnel
                             excavation. The concrete trucks were delivering mixed concrete to the
                             site, and the concrete pump truck was pumping concrete out into
                             foundation holes near the basement opening. The cherry-pickers were
                             moving men from floor to floor near the cantilevered sections.




                                A mini excavator was backfilling the area around the foundations
                             with gravel. This process was a two man job. One worker would operate
                             the excavator and the other would direct the operator where the gravel
                             needed to be placed. We also observed the 400 ton Manitowoc crane
                             moving equipment and tools at about 12:40pm.
 Figure 4 Site Equipment
   on January 27, 2010




AE 372                                   Dick, Kostick, Wentz                                        3
CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT ISSUES
        Coordination and discipline are of key importance on the job site. While observing the MSC
site, we observed how a group of workers work as a team to complete a task. Such an example of
team effort is the assembly of concrete formwork. A pair of workers assembled the forms while
another two cut and installed bracing. We also noticed a flaw in management on site. A worker was
seen smoking in a work zone. He not only posed as a threat to himself but also his fellow co-workers.
Such a safety issued should be reported to a supervisor.

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
        Safety seemed to be a very high if the highest priority on the job site. All construction
workers on site were wearing hard hats and work boots, however not all workers were wearing
proper eye protection. Each floor of each wing of the building was surrounded by a cable railing. In
addition, areas on ground level that risked possible injury, such as the tunnel area, were surrounded
by orange caution fencing. Workers working close to a ledge were properly harnessed, and the
crane's drop zone was also roped off.


Topic of Interest Research & Summary

            From observation of the Millennium Science Complex, one can see that concrete is a major
staple of building construction. It can be seen in the poured slabs, the foundation, interior walls and
shear walls, the precast concrete façade, and even the sidewalk surrounding the site. Besides its use
in building construction, concrete provides the backbone to the United States’ infrastructure. This
versatile material has become common place in today’s world, but two hundred fifty years ago, the
word concrete was unheard of.
             Concrete was first utilized by the Ancient Romans; however this concrete varies greatly from
the one we see today. The Romans used a mixture of fine volcanic ash, pumice, quicklime, and
water. This mixture provided the substance to create magnificent structures such as the Roman
Pantheon and Coliseum. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, concrete had become a lost
technology. That is until 1756, when an engineer developed a way to mix hydraulic lime and pebbles,
and thus concrete.
             Modern day concrete is composed of Portland Cement, gravel or coarse stone, sand, and
water. Although it has various uses, this paper will highlight the topic of cast in place concrete. Cast
in place concrete is transported to the construction site in its unhardened form, and then pumped or
piped to its needed location. But before the concrete is sent to the job site, a lot has to be taken into
consideration.
             First off, it must be decided what will be the use of the concrete. As stated earlier the primary
usages of concrete on the Millennium Science Complex are pouring the foundation, pouring the
floors of each level, and pouring the shear wall. Whenever pouring concrete on site, concrete
formwork is absolutely necessary. Because concrete is liquid-like, there needs to be a sort of barrier
to keep the mixture in place until it fully cures. Materials such as plywood and timber, aluminum,
steel, and re-usable plastic are used to create such barriers. Plywood and timber are the most
commonly used materials for creating formwork, because they are inexpensive and easily
produced. Forms are assembled on site to the desired dimensions, and braced to counteract the
hydraulic pressures of the fluid concrete.



AE 372                                     Dick, Kostick, Wentz                                            4
Concrete on its own is rather strong in compression but very weak in tension. In fact the only
strength it has against tensile stress is the cement bond that holds the bits of aggregate
together. Because cement is fairly brittle and can crumble under little pressure, concrete is
reinforced using steel, thus adding more tensile strength. Steel reinforcing, or rebar as it is
commonly known, is assembled in a cage like structure. The rebar itself is designed with ribbing to
ensure a good mechanical bond with the concrete. The bars are held together with metal ties, to
make sure that the structure remains intact until the concrete has cured. Once the reinforcing cage
is constructed it is enclosed by the concrete formwork. However a space must be maintained
between the formwork and the reinforcing. This is to prevent contact between the rebar and air,
which would cause rust, weakening the steel.
        Once the formwork and steel reinforcement are in place, the concrete pour can begin. It is
important to remember that concrete should be placed near its final resting location. Excessive
moving or raking of the mixture can cause the aggregates to separate and ultimately weakening the
final product. As the concrete is being poured, it is also being compacted by the use of a
vibrator. Vibrating the mixture prevents air pockets, honeycombing, from developing. Once the
form is filled and compacted, the concrete can be finished. Finishing can range from simply
removing excess concrete, to texturing and coloring the surface. For example a concrete floor would
be finished smooth, using a tool called a bull float, whereas a concrete sidewalk would be finished
rough by brushing the surface with a broom.
        The hardening of concrete is a chemical reaction known as hydration. In order for hydration
to occur, specific moisture and temperature levels must be maintained. Curing can be a delicate
process. If the right conditions are not met, the concrete will not achieve its max durability and
strength. During the curing process the concrete must be kept moist. The longer it is kept moist the
stronger it gets. Often times, the finished surface is covered with burlap or plastic, either to maintain
moisture or prevent it from evaporating. Concrete gains strength in a logarithmic fashion. Most of
its strength is obtained early on, however it continually gets stronger as it matures. Once concrete is
fully hardened cuts may be made in it to relieve pressure and prevent unwanted cracking.
        As stated earlier, concrete is a very versatile material. It can be manipulated by adding
admixtures, chemicals, to the mixture to achieve desired results. There are five main admixture
types, water-reducing, air entraining, accelerating, retarding, and plasticizers. Water-reducing
admixtures reduce the ratio or water to cement in the concrete mixture, resulting in a stronger
concrete. Accelerating admixtures, typically used in cold weather conditions, decrease the curing
time leading to a high early strength of concrete. Retarding admixtures, typically used in hot
weather conditions, increase the curing time extending the workability of the mixture. Plasticizers
are used also to reduce water content of a mixture; however the concrete is still fairly fluid and can
be placed with little or no compaction.
        Other admixtures do exist such as ones that prevent corrosion and others that improve the
workability of the concrete. One of the most important advancements in concrete is the air
entraining admixture. Air entraining concrete is simply creating microscopic air bubbles in the
concrete. These air bubbles allow moisture trapped within the concrete a space to expand when
exposed to freezing temperatures, thus preventing cracking. One can see the usefulness of air
entrainment especially in locations where regular freeze-thaw periods exist.
         Concrete is one of the greatest advancements of the modern world. As a material it continues
to stand the test of time, from the Ancient Romans to present time. Its uses seem endless. Without
it, much of what we know would not exist, let alone even be possible.



AE 372                                   Dick, Kostick, Wentz                                         5
Project Delivery Method

        Every building project has a hierarchy of how tasks are managed and who is responsible for
completing each task. There is a specific break-down of who reports to whom, and what portions of
the project are done by the individual parts. This is known as a delivery method. There are several
different types of delivery methods, but depending on the project, there are certain methods better
suited for the situation. Some delivery methods include Design-Bid-Build, Design Build, and
Construction Management. Design-Bid-Build has a single prime option and a multi-prime option,
and Construction Management has an Agency option and a General Contractor option. Each of
these choices has specific advantages and disadvantages, and it is important to find the best delivery
method for the project you are working on.
     While observing the site, we found a sign for Whiting-Turner Contracting Company, a company
specializing in Design-Build and Construction Management (At Risk and Agency), and a trailer for
Leonard S. Fiore, General Contractor. We also know that the project is being fast-tracked since
construction started in July 2008, but plans weren’t finalized until September 2008. Additionally,
we know that about 50% of the funding for the MSC is from Penn State University (private funds),
and 50% state funding. Based on our knowledge of the Millennium Science Complex construction
and our knowledge of different delivery methods, we believe the project is using a hybrid of the
Design-Bid-Build multi-prime method and the CM at risk method.
     The Design-Bid-Build method, also known as the traditional method, is a delivery method where
the owner hires a designer and contractor separately. During the design portion of the project,
designs are submitted to the owner for approval. After the owner selects a design, contracts are
drawn up between the owner and the designer. Then, the construction process is bid on. The owner
will select a general contractor or contracting company to build the project. Contracts are drawn up
between the owner and the contractor(s). In a multi-prime delivery, the owner will hire separate
contractors for specific areas of the project, such as Mechanical, Electrical, Civil, and General. This
allows the project to get specific attention for very specific, detailed portions of the project. For
example, the life science portion of the MSC will have clean rooms, so a Mechanical contractor may
be preferable for this portion of the project to ensure proper ventilation, air filtering, and air supply.
     The MSC project is most likely using a Design-Bid-Build multi-prime delivery method, for
multiple reasons. About 50% of the funding is from the state. Therefore, it would have to use a
Design-Bid-Build method, as required by state law. Another reason for using this delivery method
would be that a fixed price would be given before work begins. Since part of the project is funded by
Penn State and part from the state, budget would be an issue, and they would want to know how
much money the project will cost before signing off on it.
     The CM at risk method allows for a Construction Management company to be hired to manage
all subcontractors and suppliers to the project. The contractor can be involved in the design phase of
the project, which is helpful when complicated construction needs to be planned. Also, this method
allows for fast-tracking the project, which we think the MSC project has done. Also, we know the
Life Science building on campus was built using a CM at Risk method, and was successful with their
project. We think Penn State would be comfortable with this method since they have had good
experiences with it previously.
     There are obviously also some disadvantages to using these methods. Design-Bid-Build usually
has a longer timeline than other delivery methods. This is because designs have to be complete
before construction can begin. In this case, Penn State was able to fast-track the project by
integrating a CM at Risk in their delivery method, cutting down on construction time. Also, any

AE 372                                    Dick, Kostick, Wentz                                         6
changes to the project have to follow proper channels, and contracts have to be renegotiated any
time there are changes to be made. This takes time, and consequently lengthens the time span of the
project. Also, because the designers and contractors don’t work closely together in this situation,
conflicts can arise easily, and can slow down construction. A major disadvantage of using a CM at
Risk is that financial losses can be great if construction proceeds too far too early and changes need
to be made.
     Below, we have diagrammed what we think the setup of this delivery method would look like.




                                          The Pennsylvania
                                           State University
                                                      

                                                         

                                                         
                                                                          The Whiting-
                                          Leonard S. Fiori,
              RV Architects, Inc.                                       Turner Contracting
                                         General Contractor
                                                     
                                                                            Company
                                                         

                                                         
                 Designers &                                                     Subcontractors
                 Consultants
                                                         

                                                         

                                                         
                                                                                      Suppliers
                                                         

                               Figure 5  Organization Chart of the Delivery Method 




AE 372                                     Dick, Kostick, Wentz                                     7
Bid Package Scope of Work: Concrete

GENERAL
         1.   The scope of work under this section will consist of all cast in place concrete.
         2. All work shall be in accordance with the American Concrete Institute Standards.
         3. Tests shall be conducted to confirm the strength of the concrete placed at the job site.
         4. Materials will arrive on site from a local manufacturer. Faulty materials are not to be
         used and shall be removed from the site.

MATERIALS
         1.   Ready-Mixed Concrete shall be used, provided from an approved local manufacturer.
         2.   Aggregate size shall range from ¼” to 1”.
         3.   Concrete shall be easily workable around reinforcing and into corners.
         4.   Concrete slump shall not exceed 4 inches.

PLACEMENT
         1.   Machinery for transportation and placement of concrete shall be washed clean of all
              debris prior to use.
         2.    Debris shall be removed from concrete resting location
         3.    Reinforcing shall be securely and properly in place according to schematics.
         4.    Formwork shall be installed and braced for specified concrete pours
         5.    Forms shall be wetted or oiled prior to pour, unless otherwise specified
         6.    Concrete shall be pumped from delivery trucks to its final resting point to avoid
              separation. Sufficient machinery shall be used to ensure no separation occurs in the
              pumping process.
         7.    Concrete shall be pumped at a rate to ensure plasticity, and a continuous pour.
         8.    All concrete shall be compacted via vibration.
         9.    If cold weather pour: Proper admixtures can be added. Mixture shall be heated to
              prevent freezing. Remove all snow and ice to forms and reinforcing before pour. All
              frozen concrete will be discarded.

FINISHING
         1.    Surface shall be struck off with screed and finished smooth with a trowel. (¼” in every
              10’ tolerance) Exterior slabs and steps shall have a brushed finish.
         2.    Finished surface shall be protected from premature drying, frost, and rain.
         3.    Tarping shall be placed to cover and protect finished product from the elements for a
              minimum of 7 days.
         4.    Finished product shall be barricaded or roped off to prevent traffic
         5.   Surface and forms should be kept moist to ensure proper curing
         6.    Finished product shall be inspected for levelness, shaped, and texture. Concrete can be
              rejected if it does not meet the requirements of the inspector or superintendent.




AE 372                                    Dick, Kostick, Wentz                                         8
Project Log

RESPONSIBILITY TABLE
NAME                            REPORT SECTION                   OTHER
                                                                 RESPONSIBILITIES
Becca Dick                      Introduction, Project Delivery   Photos, Detailed observations
                                Method, Conclusion,              with times
                                Observation Narrative
Mike Kostick                    Topic of Interest Research &     Photos, Detailed observations
                                Summary, Bid Package Scope       with times
                                of Work, Observation
                                Narrative
Josh Wentz                      Cover Page, Table of Contents,   Formatted & Compiled final
                                Observation Narrative,           document
                                References, Project Log,
                                PowerPoint Presentation
ACTIVITY LOG
DATE                            ACITIVITY                        ATTENDANCE
1/22/10: 2:30pm-4:30pm          Site observations, took photos   All members were present
                                                                 observing the Millenium
                                                                 Science Complex construction
                                                                 site.
1/24/10: 4pm-6pm                Looked over notes & photos,      All members were present in
                                divided work for project         the HUB.
1/25/10: All Day                Wrote individually assigned      All members worked on their
                                sections                         assigned section on their own
                                                                 time.
1/31/10: 8pm                    Compilation & Revision,          All members were present in
                                PowerPoint Presentation          the Studio.


Conclusion
        In conclusion, we can see that a lot of work goes into the construction of a building. The
construction process is rather broad and therefore, is broken down into a series of individual
projects. Projects are grouped according to the required materials and equipment, the processes that
will occur, and the workers who will perform these tasks.
         We observed the Millennium Science Complex construction over two days, and documented
the activities we saw. Work was done simultaneously in various areas. Concrete was being poured
for shear walls in one section of the building, while workers formed rebar cages around steel
columns in another area of the building. We saw mechanical equipment being transported into the
basement, and waste being removed from an upper floor. Workers were active in many parts of the
building, performing a variety of tasks.
        This project has helped us to understand the process of pouring concrete on site, as well as
the material’s origin. From our lecture in class and a bit of research online, we were able to
determine a proper delivery method that corresponds to the Millennium Science Complex
project. We found that a design-bid-build method in tandem with a CM at risk approach best fits the
stipulations of the project.
        Construction is a collaborative effort; everyone has to do their part, from management to the
subcontractors, and the subcontractors to the workers. We have observed first hand that the
construction process is more than just nuts and bolts, and heavy equipment. It is a delicate process
that involves quite a bit of planning, and beyond stellar execution.

AE 372                                  Dick, Kostick, Wentz                                      9
References

"Millennium Science Complex." Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences. Web. 29 Jan. 2010.
   http://www.huck.psu.edu/facilities/msc.
"Millennium Science Complex." Office of Physical Plant. Web. 28 Jan. 2010.
   http://www.opp.psu.edu/planning-construction/projects/Millennium_Science_Complex.
Rushton, Geoff. "Millennium Science Complex to facilitate cutting-edge research." Penn State Live.
   The Pennnsylvania State University, 19 Sept. 2008. Web. 26 Jan. 2010.
   http://live.psu.edu/story/34688.
Whiting-Turner. Web. 28 Jan. 2010. <http://www.whiting-turner.com/>.
"Cement & Concrete Basics." Concrete Basics. 2010. Portland Cement Association, Web. 27 Jan 2010.
   <http://www.cement.org/basics/concretebasics_concretebasics.asp>.
"Concrete Thinking." Cast-In-Place. 2010. Portland Cement Association, Web. 27 Jan 2010.
   <http://www.concretethinker.com/applications/Cast-in-place.aspx>.
"Concrete Network." What is Concrete: Concrete and Cement Define. 2010. Concrete Network, Web.
   27 Jan 2010. <http://www.concretenetwork.com/concrete.html>.
"Ecology Action." Green Building Materials Guide: Concrete Formwork. 2009. EcoAction, Web. 31
   Jan 2010.
   <http://www.ecoact.org/Programs/Green_Building/green_Materials/concrete_formwork.htm>.
Jezek, Geno. "History of Concrete." History of Concrete. Geno Jezek, Web. 26 Jan 2010.
   <http://www.howconcreteworks.com/>.




AE 372                                Dick, Kostick, Wentz                                    10

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AE 372 Construction Project Observation & Analysis

  • 1. AE 372 – Spring 2010 ASSIGNMENT #1: Construction Project Observation & Analysis Millenium Science Center Becca Dick, Mike Kostick, & Josh Wentz 2/1/10
  • 2. Table of Contents Introduction............................................................................................................................................... 1 Observation Narrative ............................................................................................................................... 1 CONSTRUCTION SITE PLAN .............................................................................................................. 1 ACTIVITIES ...........................................................................................................................................2 MANPOWER .........................................................................................................................................2 EQUIPMENT .........................................................................................................................................2 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT ISSUES ........................................................................................4 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................................................4 Topic of Interest Research & Summary ....................................................................................................4 Project Delivery Method ...........................................................................................................................6 Bid Package Scope of Work: Concrete .................................................................................................... 8 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................. 8 MATERIALS ......................................................................................................................................... 8 PLACEMENT ........................................................................................................................................ 8 FINISHING ........................................................................................................................................... 8 Project Log .................................................................................................................................................9 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................9 References................................................................................................................................................ 10
  • 3. Introduction The objective of our project is to do an in-depth study of the construction process and management of the Millennium Science Complex. In doing so, we will observe daily activities of the job site, recording our findings. These will include the jobs being performed, the equipment being used on site, the materials in use on site, the workers, assumptions of what will be done next and where a specific portion of the project is headed, safety standards, and construction management responsibilities and goals. To accomplish this, we will look at photo documentation of our observations and create diagrams of equipment and technical procedures. We will also do a comprehensive analysis and study of concrete. We will look at how concrete is made, what standards must be met, how forms are built, and what all goes into making, pouring, and curing concrete. In addition to our informational section on concrete, we will also do a bid package for concrete, where we will analyze the materials needed, the assumed schedule for the work, and other specifics related to concrete. Finally, looking at the major scope of the MSC project, we will discuss what delivery method we feel is most appropriate for the project as a whole. This will include advantages and disadvantages to our choice and our reasons for choosing that particular method. With this project, we hope to inspire a higher level of interest in the construction process and management in addition to a better understanding of the responsibilities of individuals in the construction management field. Observation Narrative CONSTRUCTION SITE PLAN Site Fence(s) /Site Perimeter Safety Fence/Tape   Exhumed/Excavated Earth   Above Ground Structure (work trailers included)   Foundation/Underground Structure   Material Storage   Equipment   Site Waste   Roadway (Transit Area) Figure 1 Millennium Science Complex Construction Site Plan & Key as   Site Area of January 22, 2010 AE 372 Dick, Kostick, Wentz 1
  • 4. ACTIVITIES Waste removal occurred on site with an expected outcome of keeping the construction site clean and safe for all personnel on site. This was completed by using cherry-pickers to remove waste bins from upper levels of the building and construction trucks removing waste from the site. The transportation of material was a major activity on site. This was executed by the cranes moving materials from the ground level to the upper levels of the building, construction trucks delivering materials, bobcats carting equipment and materials to different areas of the site, and the bobcat transporting materials from a stockpile to an area where they will be used. Formwork was another major activity on site. Forms were being built and being put in place by a crew of several workers. This included workers cutting 2”x4” lumber for stabilizers, nailing forms together, setting the forms in place, and securing their position with the stabilizers. The final step of this process is to pour the concrete into the forms. Another important activity on site was the surveying of concrete decking. We observed a construction worker using a surveying laser to ensure that the concrete deck was level. He was also ensuring that the texture of the concrete met industry standards. Equipment transportation occurred continuously on site. From bobcats moving mechanical equipment to cranes lifting materials to the upper floors, equipment transportation comprised a lot of the activity on site. Cherry pickers removed waste from the site while forklifts transported materials across the construction site to areas where they could be used. Construction trucks delivered gravel, which was then used by excavators to backfill around the foundations of the Figure 2 Site Activities building. MANPOWER We observed, on January 22, 2010, from 2:00pm-3:00pm, that there were approximately 15 workers on site. It was a cold, rainy, overcast day which could be a reason for the small number of construction workers present on site that day. On this day, preparation work was being done. Concrete forms were being constructed by several men. There were several men preparing the rebar cages around steel columns so forms could be installed later. Surveyors were on site to ensure levelness of concrete. Also, a few management personnel were on site. We suspect they were inspecting the elevator shaft openings. On January 27, 2010, between the hours of 1:00pm-2:00pm, we noticed a considerable increase in the amount of workers from the previous day of observations. We estimated this number to be approximately 40 workers. Much more activity was going on this day. The workers were performing tasks anywhere from pouring concrete to using a crane to move materials. Foundations were being backfilled by two men, concrete was being poured into foundation forms by three or so men. Also, there were about six men working on figuring out how to install the cantilever section and tying cables to the sections to be attached to the crane cables. AE 372 Dick, Kostick, Wentz 2
  • 5. EQUIPMENT On January 22, 2010, from the hours of 2:00pm-3:00pm, we observed the Millenium Science Complex construction site. Although there were numerous types and quantities of equipment, not all were in use. The stationary equipment consisted of two large cranes, one smaller crane, a sheepsfoot, multiple mini-excavators and large excavators, and several bobcats and forklifts. Generators were in constant use along with bobcats, forklifts, and a few cherry-pickers. Of the two cranes, one was a 400 ton Manitowoc and the other was a 275 ton Manitowoc. Neither was in use the first day of observation, but we did notice that both were positioned on a bed of railroad ties, distributing the weight, preventing them from sinking into the mud. A telescopic forklift was used to remove a waste bin from the second floor, while the bobcat was used to cart mechanical equipment into the basement of the structure. The forklifts were very active, carting wood forms, lumber, mortar mix, and other various materials around the site. Figure 3 Site Equipment on January 22, 2010 On January 27, 2010, between the hours of 12:00pm-1:00pm we observed the site again. In addition to the equipment on site on the previous day of observation, we saw a fourth crane on wheels, several concrete trucks, a concrete pump truck, and multiple construction trucks. The wheeled crane was lifting and moving materials near the tunnel excavation. The concrete trucks were delivering mixed concrete to the site, and the concrete pump truck was pumping concrete out into foundation holes near the basement opening. The cherry-pickers were moving men from floor to floor near the cantilevered sections. A mini excavator was backfilling the area around the foundations with gravel. This process was a two man job. One worker would operate the excavator and the other would direct the operator where the gravel needed to be placed. We also observed the 400 ton Manitowoc crane moving equipment and tools at about 12:40pm. Figure 4 Site Equipment on January 27, 2010 AE 372 Dick, Kostick, Wentz 3
  • 6. CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT ISSUES Coordination and discipline are of key importance on the job site. While observing the MSC site, we observed how a group of workers work as a team to complete a task. Such an example of team effort is the assembly of concrete formwork. A pair of workers assembled the forms while another two cut and installed bracing. We also noticed a flaw in management on site. A worker was seen smoking in a work zone. He not only posed as a threat to himself but also his fellow co-workers. Such a safety issued should be reported to a supervisor. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Safety seemed to be a very high if the highest priority on the job site. All construction workers on site were wearing hard hats and work boots, however not all workers were wearing proper eye protection. Each floor of each wing of the building was surrounded by a cable railing. In addition, areas on ground level that risked possible injury, such as the tunnel area, were surrounded by orange caution fencing. Workers working close to a ledge were properly harnessed, and the crane's drop zone was also roped off. Topic of Interest Research & Summary             From observation of the Millennium Science Complex, one can see that concrete is a major staple of building construction. It can be seen in the poured slabs, the foundation, interior walls and shear walls, the precast concrete façade, and even the sidewalk surrounding the site. Besides its use in building construction, concrete provides the backbone to the United States’ infrastructure. This versatile material has become common place in today’s world, but two hundred fifty years ago, the word concrete was unheard of. Concrete was first utilized by the Ancient Romans; however this concrete varies greatly from the one we see today. The Romans used a mixture of fine volcanic ash, pumice, quicklime, and water. This mixture provided the substance to create magnificent structures such as the Roman Pantheon and Coliseum. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, concrete had become a lost technology. That is until 1756, when an engineer developed a way to mix hydraulic lime and pebbles, and thus concrete. Modern day concrete is composed of Portland Cement, gravel or coarse stone, sand, and water. Although it has various uses, this paper will highlight the topic of cast in place concrete. Cast in place concrete is transported to the construction site in its unhardened form, and then pumped or piped to its needed location. But before the concrete is sent to the job site, a lot has to be taken into consideration. First off, it must be decided what will be the use of the concrete. As stated earlier the primary usages of concrete on the Millennium Science Complex are pouring the foundation, pouring the floors of each level, and pouring the shear wall. Whenever pouring concrete on site, concrete formwork is absolutely necessary. Because concrete is liquid-like, there needs to be a sort of barrier to keep the mixture in place until it fully cures. Materials such as plywood and timber, aluminum, steel, and re-usable plastic are used to create such barriers. Plywood and timber are the most commonly used materials for creating formwork, because they are inexpensive and easily produced. Forms are assembled on site to the desired dimensions, and braced to counteract the hydraulic pressures of the fluid concrete. AE 372 Dick, Kostick, Wentz 4
  • 7. Concrete on its own is rather strong in compression but very weak in tension. In fact the only strength it has against tensile stress is the cement bond that holds the bits of aggregate together. Because cement is fairly brittle and can crumble under little pressure, concrete is reinforced using steel, thus adding more tensile strength. Steel reinforcing, or rebar as it is commonly known, is assembled in a cage like structure. The rebar itself is designed with ribbing to ensure a good mechanical bond with the concrete. The bars are held together with metal ties, to make sure that the structure remains intact until the concrete has cured. Once the reinforcing cage is constructed it is enclosed by the concrete formwork. However a space must be maintained between the formwork and the reinforcing. This is to prevent contact between the rebar and air, which would cause rust, weakening the steel. Once the formwork and steel reinforcement are in place, the concrete pour can begin. It is important to remember that concrete should be placed near its final resting location. Excessive moving or raking of the mixture can cause the aggregates to separate and ultimately weakening the final product. As the concrete is being poured, it is also being compacted by the use of a vibrator. Vibrating the mixture prevents air pockets, honeycombing, from developing. Once the form is filled and compacted, the concrete can be finished. Finishing can range from simply removing excess concrete, to texturing and coloring the surface. For example a concrete floor would be finished smooth, using a tool called a bull float, whereas a concrete sidewalk would be finished rough by brushing the surface with a broom. The hardening of concrete is a chemical reaction known as hydration. In order for hydration to occur, specific moisture and temperature levels must be maintained. Curing can be a delicate process. If the right conditions are not met, the concrete will not achieve its max durability and strength. During the curing process the concrete must be kept moist. The longer it is kept moist the stronger it gets. Often times, the finished surface is covered with burlap or plastic, either to maintain moisture or prevent it from evaporating. Concrete gains strength in a logarithmic fashion. Most of its strength is obtained early on, however it continually gets stronger as it matures. Once concrete is fully hardened cuts may be made in it to relieve pressure and prevent unwanted cracking. As stated earlier, concrete is a very versatile material. It can be manipulated by adding admixtures, chemicals, to the mixture to achieve desired results. There are five main admixture types, water-reducing, air entraining, accelerating, retarding, and plasticizers. Water-reducing admixtures reduce the ratio or water to cement in the concrete mixture, resulting in a stronger concrete. Accelerating admixtures, typically used in cold weather conditions, decrease the curing time leading to a high early strength of concrete. Retarding admixtures, typically used in hot weather conditions, increase the curing time extending the workability of the mixture. Plasticizers are used also to reduce water content of a mixture; however the concrete is still fairly fluid and can be placed with little or no compaction. Other admixtures do exist such as ones that prevent corrosion and others that improve the workability of the concrete. One of the most important advancements in concrete is the air entraining admixture. Air entraining concrete is simply creating microscopic air bubbles in the concrete. These air bubbles allow moisture trapped within the concrete a space to expand when exposed to freezing temperatures, thus preventing cracking. One can see the usefulness of air entrainment especially in locations where regular freeze-thaw periods exist. Concrete is one of the greatest advancements of the modern world. As a material it continues to stand the test of time, from the Ancient Romans to present time. Its uses seem endless. Without it, much of what we know would not exist, let alone even be possible. AE 372 Dick, Kostick, Wentz 5
  • 8. Project Delivery Method Every building project has a hierarchy of how tasks are managed and who is responsible for completing each task. There is a specific break-down of who reports to whom, and what portions of the project are done by the individual parts. This is known as a delivery method. There are several different types of delivery methods, but depending on the project, there are certain methods better suited for the situation. Some delivery methods include Design-Bid-Build, Design Build, and Construction Management. Design-Bid-Build has a single prime option and a multi-prime option, and Construction Management has an Agency option and a General Contractor option. Each of these choices has specific advantages and disadvantages, and it is important to find the best delivery method for the project you are working on. While observing the site, we found a sign for Whiting-Turner Contracting Company, a company specializing in Design-Build and Construction Management (At Risk and Agency), and a trailer for Leonard S. Fiore, General Contractor. We also know that the project is being fast-tracked since construction started in July 2008, but plans weren’t finalized until September 2008. Additionally, we know that about 50% of the funding for the MSC is from Penn State University (private funds), and 50% state funding. Based on our knowledge of the Millennium Science Complex construction and our knowledge of different delivery methods, we believe the project is using a hybrid of the Design-Bid-Build multi-prime method and the CM at risk method. The Design-Bid-Build method, also known as the traditional method, is a delivery method where the owner hires a designer and contractor separately. During the design portion of the project, designs are submitted to the owner for approval. After the owner selects a design, contracts are drawn up between the owner and the designer. Then, the construction process is bid on. The owner will select a general contractor or contracting company to build the project. Contracts are drawn up between the owner and the contractor(s). In a multi-prime delivery, the owner will hire separate contractors for specific areas of the project, such as Mechanical, Electrical, Civil, and General. This allows the project to get specific attention for very specific, detailed portions of the project. For example, the life science portion of the MSC will have clean rooms, so a Mechanical contractor may be preferable for this portion of the project to ensure proper ventilation, air filtering, and air supply. The MSC project is most likely using a Design-Bid-Build multi-prime delivery method, for multiple reasons. About 50% of the funding is from the state. Therefore, it would have to use a Design-Bid-Build method, as required by state law. Another reason for using this delivery method would be that a fixed price would be given before work begins. Since part of the project is funded by Penn State and part from the state, budget would be an issue, and they would want to know how much money the project will cost before signing off on it. The CM at risk method allows for a Construction Management company to be hired to manage all subcontractors and suppliers to the project. The contractor can be involved in the design phase of the project, which is helpful when complicated construction needs to be planned. Also, this method allows for fast-tracking the project, which we think the MSC project has done. Also, we know the Life Science building on campus was built using a CM at Risk method, and was successful with their project. We think Penn State would be comfortable with this method since they have had good experiences with it previously. There are obviously also some disadvantages to using these methods. Design-Bid-Build usually has a longer timeline than other delivery methods. This is because designs have to be complete before construction can begin. In this case, Penn State was able to fast-track the project by integrating a CM at Risk in their delivery method, cutting down on construction time. Also, any AE 372 Dick, Kostick, Wentz 6
  • 9. changes to the project have to follow proper channels, and contracts have to be renegotiated any time there are changes to be made. This takes time, and consequently lengthens the time span of the project. Also, because the designers and contractors don’t work closely together in this situation, conflicts can arise easily, and can slow down construction. A major disadvantage of using a CM at Risk is that financial losses can be great if construction proceeds too far too early and changes need to be made. Below, we have diagrammed what we think the setup of this delivery method would look like. The Pennsylvania State University       The Whiting- Leonard S. Fiori, RV Architects, Inc. Turner Contracting General Contractor   Company     Designers &   Subcontractors Consultants       Suppliers   Figure 5  Organization Chart of the Delivery Method  AE 372 Dick, Kostick, Wentz 7
  • 10. Bid Package Scope of Work: Concrete GENERAL 1. The scope of work under this section will consist of all cast in place concrete. 2. All work shall be in accordance with the American Concrete Institute Standards. 3. Tests shall be conducted to confirm the strength of the concrete placed at the job site. 4. Materials will arrive on site from a local manufacturer. Faulty materials are not to be used and shall be removed from the site. MATERIALS 1. Ready-Mixed Concrete shall be used, provided from an approved local manufacturer. 2. Aggregate size shall range from ¼” to 1”. 3. Concrete shall be easily workable around reinforcing and into corners. 4. Concrete slump shall not exceed 4 inches. PLACEMENT 1. Machinery for transportation and placement of concrete shall be washed clean of all debris prior to use. 2. Debris shall be removed from concrete resting location 3. Reinforcing shall be securely and properly in place according to schematics. 4. Formwork shall be installed and braced for specified concrete pours 5. Forms shall be wetted or oiled prior to pour, unless otherwise specified 6. Concrete shall be pumped from delivery trucks to its final resting point to avoid separation. Sufficient machinery shall be used to ensure no separation occurs in the pumping process. 7. Concrete shall be pumped at a rate to ensure plasticity, and a continuous pour. 8. All concrete shall be compacted via vibration. 9. If cold weather pour: Proper admixtures can be added. Mixture shall be heated to prevent freezing. Remove all snow and ice to forms and reinforcing before pour. All frozen concrete will be discarded. FINISHING 1. Surface shall be struck off with screed and finished smooth with a trowel. (¼” in every 10’ tolerance) Exterior slabs and steps shall have a brushed finish. 2. Finished surface shall be protected from premature drying, frost, and rain. 3. Tarping shall be placed to cover and protect finished product from the elements for a minimum of 7 days. 4. Finished product shall be barricaded or roped off to prevent traffic 5. Surface and forms should be kept moist to ensure proper curing 6. Finished product shall be inspected for levelness, shaped, and texture. Concrete can be rejected if it does not meet the requirements of the inspector or superintendent. AE 372 Dick, Kostick, Wentz 8
  • 11. Project Log RESPONSIBILITY TABLE NAME REPORT SECTION OTHER RESPONSIBILITIES Becca Dick Introduction, Project Delivery Photos, Detailed observations Method, Conclusion, with times Observation Narrative Mike Kostick Topic of Interest Research & Photos, Detailed observations Summary, Bid Package Scope with times of Work, Observation Narrative Josh Wentz Cover Page, Table of Contents, Formatted & Compiled final Observation Narrative, document References, Project Log, PowerPoint Presentation ACTIVITY LOG DATE ACITIVITY ATTENDANCE 1/22/10: 2:30pm-4:30pm Site observations, took photos All members were present observing the Millenium Science Complex construction site. 1/24/10: 4pm-6pm Looked over notes & photos, All members were present in divided work for project the HUB. 1/25/10: All Day Wrote individually assigned All members worked on their sections assigned section on their own time. 1/31/10: 8pm Compilation & Revision, All members were present in PowerPoint Presentation the Studio. Conclusion In conclusion, we can see that a lot of work goes into the construction of a building. The construction process is rather broad and therefore, is broken down into a series of individual projects. Projects are grouped according to the required materials and equipment, the processes that will occur, and the workers who will perform these tasks. We observed the Millennium Science Complex construction over two days, and documented the activities we saw. Work was done simultaneously in various areas. Concrete was being poured for shear walls in one section of the building, while workers formed rebar cages around steel columns in another area of the building. We saw mechanical equipment being transported into the basement, and waste being removed from an upper floor. Workers were active in many parts of the building, performing a variety of tasks. This project has helped us to understand the process of pouring concrete on site, as well as the material’s origin. From our lecture in class and a bit of research online, we were able to determine a proper delivery method that corresponds to the Millennium Science Complex project. We found that a design-bid-build method in tandem with a CM at risk approach best fits the stipulations of the project. Construction is a collaborative effort; everyone has to do their part, from management to the subcontractors, and the subcontractors to the workers. We have observed first hand that the construction process is more than just nuts and bolts, and heavy equipment. It is a delicate process that involves quite a bit of planning, and beyond stellar execution. AE 372 Dick, Kostick, Wentz 9
  • 12. References "Millennium Science Complex." Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences. Web. 29 Jan. 2010. http://www.huck.psu.edu/facilities/msc. "Millennium Science Complex." Office of Physical Plant. Web. 28 Jan. 2010. http://www.opp.psu.edu/planning-construction/projects/Millennium_Science_Complex. Rushton, Geoff. "Millennium Science Complex to facilitate cutting-edge research." Penn State Live. The Pennnsylvania State University, 19 Sept. 2008. Web. 26 Jan. 2010. http://live.psu.edu/story/34688. Whiting-Turner. Web. 28 Jan. 2010. <http://www.whiting-turner.com/>. "Cement & Concrete Basics." Concrete Basics. 2010. Portland Cement Association, Web. 27 Jan 2010. <http://www.cement.org/basics/concretebasics_concretebasics.asp>. "Concrete Thinking." Cast-In-Place. 2010. Portland Cement Association, Web. 27 Jan 2010. <http://www.concretethinker.com/applications/Cast-in-place.aspx>. "Concrete Network." What is Concrete: Concrete and Cement Define. 2010. Concrete Network, Web. 27 Jan 2010. <http://www.concretenetwork.com/concrete.html>. "Ecology Action." Green Building Materials Guide: Concrete Formwork. 2009. EcoAction, Web. 31 Jan 2010. <http://www.ecoact.org/Programs/Green_Building/green_Materials/concrete_formwork.htm>. Jezek, Geno. "History of Concrete." History of Concrete. Geno Jezek, Web. 26 Jan 2010. <http://www.howconcreteworks.com/>. AE 372 Dick, Kostick, Wentz 10