Chapter 3 Notes


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Chapter 3 Notes on currents, waves, and tides.

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  • Now let’s look at regional variations in Earth’s energy budget
  • Chapter 3 Notes

    1. 1. Motion in the Ocean Currents, Waves, Winds, and Tides
    2. 2. <ul><li>Answer the following questions at the top of your notes. </li></ul><ul><li>The following movements are caused by what? </li></ul><ul><li>Currents in the water </li></ul><ul><li>Wind and Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Tides </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Currents </li></ul><ul><li>Current Flow Activity </li></ul><ul><li>When warm water meets cold water what happens? Sketch and explain the results of the demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>When salt water meets fresh water what happens? Sketch and explain the results of the demonstration </li></ul>
    4. 4. Figure 3.16a
    5. 5. Figure 3.16b
    6. 6. Figure 3.16c
    7. 7. Figure 3.17
    8. 8. Figure 3.15b
    9. 9. Uneven heating of Earth’s surface causes atmospheric circulation 60% of heat transport is carried by atmosphere through storms that Move along pressure gradients 40% is carried by ocean currents (conveyor belt) surface (warm) currents move poleward deep (cold) currents move equatorward
    10. 10. Ocean currents move 40% of “excess heat” from equator to poles Driven by circulation of deep ocean waters Deepwater formation occurs near Greenland and in Antarctic
    11. 11. Movement of the ocean currents and winds are also caused by the movement of the earth!
    12. 12. Coriolis Effect Earth is round and rotating east so water and wind are deflected to the right in N. Hemisphere and left in S. Hemisphere
    13. 13. Figure 3.18c
    14. 14. Figure 3.23
    15. 15. <ul><li>The Pacific Ocean strongly influences the climate system because it is the largest ocean basin. </li></ul>
    16. 17. Wind and Weather
    17. 18. Figure 3.19
    18. 19. Figure 3.20
    19. 20. WINDS vertical circulation Air rises at equator and subsides at poles Circulation cells explain global distribution of rainfall horizontal circulation Earth’s rotation determines wind direction (Coriolis force) tropical easterlies temperate westerlies
    20. 21. El Niño creates warm winters in California
    21. 22. Why are there 4 Seasons?
    22. 23. Seasonal variation in climate results from tilt in Earth’s axis Changes sun angle and day length
    23. 25. Waves
    24. 26. Figure 3.24
    25. 27. The wind not only drives currents but it causes waves Waves are caused by the strength of the wind and the fetch Fetch= amount of distance the wind blows across
    26. 28. Figure 3.27
    27. 29. Pg. 59
    28. 30. Tides
    29. 31. Tides <ul><li>Tides are huge shallow water waves. </li></ul><ul><li>They are caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Gravitational force of moon and sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion of the earth </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. Tides <ul><li>Tides are periodic, short-term changes in the height of the ocean surface at a particular place, due to gravitational attraction of the moon and sun and the motion of the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength can be one half of the circumference of the earth. </li></ul>
    31. 33. Tides <ul><li>Moon has greatest effect on tides </li></ul><ul><li>Sun has about one half the effect </li></ul>
    32. 34. <ul><li>Lunar cycle - explanation of what we see </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium theory of tides - idealized view (attraction of earth, moon and sun and their motion) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic theory of tides - more realistic view (water depth, continents in the way, tide rocks back and forth in ocean basins) </li></ul>
    33. 35. Moon is closer to the earth so has a bigger effect than the sun, even though the sun is much larger (more massive). Sun has about 1/2 effect on ocean surface as does the moon.
    34. 36. <ul><li>Ocean currents and upwelling </li></ul><ul><li>- Sun drives wind </li></ul><ul><li>Wind drives currents </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s rotation to the east causes wind and water to: </li></ul><ul><li>-Deflect to the right in the Northern hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>- Deflect to the left in the Southern hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>- Leads to gyres (huge circular currents) in the ocean basins </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to Trade Winds at Equator (Easterlies) </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to Westerlies in the Temperate regions </li></ul>
    35. 37. Figure 3.29
    36. 38. Figure 3.30
    37. 39. -Lunar cycle- tidal day is 24 hrs, 50 min long
    38. 40. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
    39. 41. <ul><li>Some points about the earth/moon system: </li></ul><ul><li>Lunar day is 27 days, 7 hours, 43.2 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Moon rises 50 minutes later each day </li></ul><ul><li>High tide is 50 minutes later each day </li></ul><ul><li>Moon does not stay over the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Each month it moves 28.5 degrees above and below the equator </li></ul>
    40. 42. Spring tides (springen - “to move quickly”) During full and new moons Most extreme tides Neap tide (naepa - “hardly disturbed”) During quarter moons Least extreme tides
    41. 43. Figure 3.31
    42. 44. Types of tides Diurnal (one low, one high per day) Semidiurnal (two lows, two highs per day) Mixed (lows and highs are unequal)
    43. 45. Figure 3.32a
    44. 46. Figure 3.32b
    45. 47. Figure 3.32c
    46. 48. Figure 3.33