Facts <ul><li>Risks and Prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>Hip Fractures occur most in people over the age of 70. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist Fractures occur most in those under the age of 70. </li></ul><ul><li>Fractures to the extremities prevalent in </li></ul><ul><li>men under the age of 45 </li></ul><ul><li>women over the age of 45.. </li></ul>
Types of Fractures Colles Fracture: a common wrist fracture Comminuted Fracture: affected bone(s) are shattered/fragmented into pieces. Compression Fracture: causes loss of height due to vertebrae compression. Greenstick Fracture: an incomplete break where one side of the bone is bent. Impacted Fracture: bone fragments are pushed into each other. Oblique Fracture: fracture at an angle to the bone. Pathological Fracture: a fracture caused by weak or diseased bone. Spinal Fracture: fracture that spirals around the shaft of the bone. slow healing. Stress Fracture: a small fracture caused by repeated stressful impacts. Transverse Fracture: a fracture that is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone.
Stress Fractures What is it? According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), stress fractures are caused by the transfer of impact stress from fatigued, overused muscles directly to the bone. With no shock absorption, cracks appear on the bone. Where do they occur? Over 50% of all stress fractures occur in the lower leg and foot region. Who is at risk? Participants in activities that can place undue stress on the legs or feet. Examples are track and field, tennis, basketball, and gymnastics. All levels of experience and age are at risk. Females have a higher incidence due to lower bone mass, some of it due to social pressure in order to maintain a positive body image.
<ul><li>Stress Fractures, cont'd. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Treatments </li></ul><ul><li>Stress fractures take 6-8 weeks to heal properly. During this time, a routine of rest must be followed or else the fracture will not heal properly. Sometimes pain in the affected area will occur before the fracture appears on an x-ray. In extreme cases, MRI or CT scans are needed to detect the fractures. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients that fail to maintain a routine of rest risk a relapse as the fractures reform. At worse, the injury turns chronic as the bone never gets a chance to properly heal. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>No matter what skill or age level, participants of high impact sports should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start a gradual routine and set realistic goals regarding their activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross train to strengthen the entire body region. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a healthy diet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use properly fitted footwear. </li></ul></ul>
Comminuted Fracture What is it? A fracture that splits the effected bone into three or more fragments. Can also be involved in an open or closed fracture. How is it treated? In almost every case, surgery will be needed to realign the bone fragments back to their normal positions. Screws or plates may be attached to the outer part of the bone to keep the fragments from moving around. In extreme cases, rods and pins may need to be inserted into the marrow part of the bone to stabilize it. However the long-term risk of infection is extremely high, so this is often avoided unless absolutely necessary.
Open/Compound Fracture What is it? A fracture that causes the bone to puncture the skin. Loss of limb or life is a possibility due to infection and blood loss. How is it treated? Treating an open fracture combines procedures for open wound treatment and bone fracture treatments. Because the bone punctures the skin, the risk of bacterial infection is high, and the wound should be cleaned before any attempts to reset the bone. Even after the bone is reset, the patient should be monitored for signs of bacterial infection.
Sources American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons www.aaos.org Medline Plus www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/