Unit 1 Foundations of American Gov't


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Unit 1 Foundations of American Gov't

  1. 1. UNIT 1:FOUNDATIONS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT Coach East’s Civics & Economics 4th block Jamie Libow Jenna McMains Amy Steigerwalt
  3. 3. PURPOSE OF GOVERNMENTA. Government-the ruling authority for a community/society that has the power to make/enforce lawsB. Functions: 1. keep order 2. provide security 3. provide public servicesC. Levels 1. Federal/National 2. State 3. LocalD. Branches 1. legislative-makes laws 2. executive-enforces laws 3. judicial-interprets laws
  4. 4. PURPOSE OF GOVERNMENT, CTD.E. Types of Democracy (government by the citizens/people) 1. Direct-all citizens have a chance to vote on every law/action 2. Representative (Republic)-citizens elect officials to make decisions on their behalf USAF. Other Types of Governments 1. Monarchy-ruled by a king or queen, usually inherited power 2. Dictatorship/Autocracy/Totalitarian- ruled by one with the force of the military 3. Theocracy-ruled by religious leaders 4. Oligarchy-ruled a few
  5. 5. ENGLISH POLITICAL TRADITIONSSection II British Coat of Arms (current)
  6. 6. ENGLISH POLITICAL TRADITIONSA. England’s government has historically been a monarchy (rule by king or queen)B. King John I was forced to sign the Magna Carta “Great Charter” that established important rights that we still have today: 1. accused are guaranteed a trial by jury 2. accused are presumed innocent until proven guilty 3. all citizens are guaranteed justice Magna Carta 4. regardless of class status, all citizens created: 1215 had to follow the same laws and will be punished the same for breaking those laws
  7. 7. ENGLISH POLITICAL TRADITIONS, CTD.C. Parliament:1. originally they were the king’s advisors2. during the Glorious Revolution, Parliament force the king out of power and named William & Mary as rulers (first time Parliament had more power than the king)3. Parliament passed the English Bill of Rights which required Parliament officials to be elected and that no citizen would be subjected to cruel & unusual punishment British Coat of Arms 1215 -17074. Parliament used the system of common laws (based on customs and precedents) to make decisions
  9. 9. ENLIGHTENMENT PERIODA. This was the time that Europeans began to question traditional ideas about many areas, especially government and how it should be runB.Philosopher John Locke helped pave the way for the American Revolution: 1. purpose of the government was to protect the natural rights (life, liberty, and property) of the citizens 2. believed in a social contract where citizens have to agree to give up some of their freedoms in exchange for the protection of their rights by the government
  10. 10. ENLIGHTENMENT PERIOD, CTD.C. Other Important Philosophers: 1. Baron de Montesquieu-power of government should be divided into 3 branches 2. Jean-Jacques Rousseau-believed “all men are created equal” 3.Voltaire-believed government should not control religion and there should be a “separation of church & state”
  12. 12. ROAD TO AMERICAN INDEPENDENCEA. Early Forms of Government in the Colonies 1. Mayflower Compact: established self government by written law in Plymouth Colony 2. House of Burgesses: first form of representative democracy set up in VA colonyB. the king forced the colonies to trade only with England, allowing England to become richer and more powerful (this was called mercantilism); eventually colonies started to trade with other countries and weren’t punished by the crown
  13. 13. ROAD TO AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, CTD.C. The French & Indian War 1. late 1750s to early 1760s 2. Colonists & England fought France for ownership of land in America 3. Proclamation of 1763 said colonists could not settle land west of the Appalachian Mountains to avoid conflict with the Native Americans (colonists did not like this law)D. The Stamp Act 1. all printed documents had to have a stamp (this was free before Stamp Act) 2. colonists responded by boycotting British goods and eventually it was repealed 3. Boston Massacre resulted as tension grew between the colonies & the crown; 5 colonists killed.
  14. 14. ROAD TO AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, CTD.E. Boston Tea Party (1773) 1. Britain passed the Tea Act, placing tax on British tea 2. Sons of Liberty led revolt, dressing up as Mohawk Indians, boarding the British tea ships and dumping the tea into Boston HarborF. English Response to Tea Party: Intolerable Acts (1774) 1. said there would no trial by jury in the colonies 2. passed the Quartering Act which forced the colonists to feed & house British troops 3. blockaded Boston Harbor, resulting in hardships for Boston residents
  15. 15. ROAD TO AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, CTD.G. 1st Continental Congress (1774) in Philadelphia: 1. all colonies but GA represented 2. colonists met to address Intolerable Acts 3. sent King George III the Declaration of Rights & Grievances asking him to repeal acts, marking the first time colonists acted against the crown 4. King George responded with more violence at the Battles of Lexington & Concord, defeating the colonials at both placesH. 2nd Continental Congress (1776) in Massachusetts: 1. all colonies sent representatives 2. colonists were split 50-50 on the issue of independence 3. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense, calling for independence from England 4. after much debate, delegates decided to send a declaration for King George & England
  16. 16. ROAD TO AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, CTD.I. Declaration of Independence (1776) 1. Thomas Jefferson was the main writer, basing ideas off of Enlightenment Philosophers 2. delegates listed 27 complaints against England 3. Jefferson stated it was not only a right to become independent, but a responsibility to do so 4. led to American Revolutionary War
  18. 18. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONA. Problems Facing the US 1. heavy debt from Revolutionary War 2. federal government had no power to tax, so states placed heavy taxes on citizens, causing many businesses to failB. Articles of Confederation (1st form of Government after Revolutionary War) 1. created loose alliance of states 2. had a unicameral (one house) Congress with each state getting one vote 3. had no executive or judicial branch
  19. 19. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, CTD.C. Problems with the Articles of Confederation: 1. each state had 1 vote regardless of size or population 2. no power to tax 3. cannot regulate foreign or interstate trade 4. no executive branch to enforce rules 5. no judicial branch to settle disputes 6. unanimous vote was need to amend the A of C 7. 9/13 states were required to pass laws
  20. 20. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, CTD.D.Shay’s Rebellion 1. farmer who lost his land and organized an army to prevent other farmers from losing land 2. government had a hard time stopping this rebellion 3. this led the US to realize they needed a stronger centralized government, leading to the Constitutional ConventionE. Constitutional Convention (1787) 1. delegates have decided to amend the Articles of Confederation or scrap it and start over 2. George Washington (Commander of Continental Army) presided over Convention 3. James Madison recorded notes on the proceedings 4. needed to decide if they wanted to make one large state with a central government or set up a federal system (power divided between central government & states)
  21. 21. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, CTD. Great Compromise 1. Virginia Plan + 2. New Jersey Plan = (CT Compromise) Proposed by James  Proposed by William Madison Patterson  Set up a bicameral Supported by states  Supported by smaller legislature with larger populations states  Senate would have equal Thought representation  Thought there should representation in government should be equal  House of Representatives be based on population representation in Congress would have Government should be representation based on made up of 3 branches  Called for the Federal Executive to be made population Federal government up of more than one  Most important should have expanded person powers compromise of convention  Judicial branch should have one court  Have a unicameral legislature F&G
  22. 22. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, CTD.H. Other Compromises: 3/5: slave states wanted to count slaves as part of the population for representation in Congress; decided they could count 3/5 slaves as population as long as they agreed to pay 3/5 more in taxes and the slave trade could not be interfered w/ for 20 years Trade & Commerce: northern states wanted federal government to regulate trade, southern states did not for fear of taxing cash crops and fear of eliminating slavery; decided that federal government could regulate trade, but could not Electoral College: Constitution writers did not trust common citizens to elect the president; decided to create Electoral College where state legislatures chose electors to meet together and select a president
  23. 23. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, CTD.I. Ratification (Approval) of the Constitution: 1. 9/13 states (~3/4) had to ratify Constitution before it went into effect 2. Anti-Federalists-did not support ratification (Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Sam Adams); said federal government will be too strong and took too much power from states (no guarantees of basic liberties of citizens) 3. Federalists-supported ratification (James Madison, Alexander Hamilton); wrote Federalist Papers supporting stronger central government; promised to add a Bill of Rights if Anti-Federalists ratified Constitution 4. Constitution went into effect when New Hampshire became the 9th state to ratify it (June 21, 1788). NC ratified it on November 1, 1789, & Rhode Island was the last state to ratify it. 5. Constitution could only be amended (changed) by a vote of the states