Spanish Empire in the Americas<br />Jose Rizo<br />
Struggle & Survival In Colonial AmericaDiego Vasicuio<br />Native Priest, Male <br />Peru, 1600’s <br />Quiet, cautious man. Surviced to an advanced age by avoiding direct contact with Spanish imperial system <br />He was denouced for worshiping a old god called Sorimana. <br />Spanish intented to convert the Indians of Peru into Catholics<br />Diego Vasicuio went against that conversion and praised a stone image of another god Soromina<br />He protected the stone object form inspections <br />For most of his adult life he had been the chief priest and custodian of the god Sorimana<br />He was well acquainted with sorcerers. The immediate surrender of the Sorimina was demanded by a Catholic priest. Diego reluctantly complied <br />Diego was repeatedly threatened to Jail<br />Diego may have not surrendered the real stone of Sorimina. Diego may have been punished with whips and paraged through town carrying a cross of his repentence. But he may have just behaved accordingly to lay low and then repeat his praises to the Sorimina idol. He adapted to survive with his beliefs. <br />
Struggle & Survival In Colonial America Martin Ocelotl<br />Clandestine Cult Leader<br />Male, around 1500’s<br />Mexico, Tenochtitlan<br />Strange signs, indications of impending doom. Ocelotl predicted coming of bearded white men who would control the land. <br />Imprisonment of 9 years for reporting unfriendly results <br />1521 Tenochtitlan fell & Moctezuma was killed. <br />Ocelotl was released from jail, he survived the smallpox epidemic, survived massive starvation, and escaped the murder & plunder that Spaniards took upon the lands of pre-Mexican societies. <br />He was a adaptable and astute priest. He was baptized and christened with the Spanish name Martin. But he was to set in ancient beliefs to be truly converted, he continued with as much of the old ways.<br />He made a small fortune by charging fees for his talents in folk healing, shamanism, divining, & ministering. He became a rich man. He worked hard along his laborers. <br />He was seen as the Indian Robin Hood, a generous person. <br />He was denouced as a wizard and idolater. Spoke of him as an evil person who transformed into a lion or tiger. He also was accused of keeping Indians away from the Catholic faith. <br />He was seized & brought to the president and high court in New Spain. <br />He admited to have done evil deeds but after his baptism he was a good man. They made him vow to the dictates of the Holy Mother Church. <br />He had predicted the end of the rule of the Spaniards with symbols of demons. <br />The Bishop saw Ocelotl as a threat to evengelization. <br />Ocelotl advised the one was only born to die, after death there was no pleasures, people should amuse themselves while they lived, eating, drinking, & making love, even with a neighbors wive. <br />Perez demanded Ocelotl be burned at the stake. Judges agreed to banish Martin Oclotl from New Spain but were unable to sentence him to death. <br />
Struggle & Survival In Colonial America Juan de Morga/Gertrudis de Escobar <br />Juan de morga- Male<br />Gertrudis de Escobar- Female<br />Young mullatto rebellious slaves<br />New Spain mid 17th century <br /><ul><li>They say Juan de Morgamade a pact with the devil, didn’t attend mass, and did not believe in God. He threatened to renouce faith if they returned him to his cruel master </li></ul>He was born a slave. Arratia offered to buy him because he was attractively handsome. Arratia tormented Juan de Morga for insulting him. Juan attempted to flee but was caught & brutally beat. His face was disfigured. <br />He tried to commit suicide. Juan grew desperate to denounce God in his heart & turn to the Devil for help. He called upon the Devil again and was given herb if he served the Devil permanently, he accepted the pact. He ceased attending mass and invoked assistance on Satan. <br />Morga repented the pact with the Devil, he threw away his herbed amulet that keps his master from treating him bad. Morga had no time to go back to the Church and reconcile himself with God. <br />He was resold to another owner but its not known if it was for best or worse. <br /><ul><li>Gertudris de Escobar. </li></ul>Free young mullata woman. She was a daughter of slaves who became free. <br />Found guilty of blasphemy and condemned to being paraded in the streets in public humiliation <br />Gertrudis refused to serve in a sugar plantation, her prefence was to go to Mexico City. <br />She was eventually sent out to cutting cane in the fields. She as punished with 50 lashes because she failed to complete her quota. <br />Gerturdris refused to take the arranged marriages for her. If she married a slave, she would become one too. They threatened her to marry because otherwise she would be chained all her life.<br />Juan and Gertrudis overcame difficult circumstances in a short period of their lives for being extraordinary vital, having a strong character, intelligence, and familiarity with the norms of the life in the colony. <br />
Struggle & Survival In Colonial America Isabel Moctezuma<br />Pioneer of Mestizaje<br />Female, first knows a Tecuichpotzin<br />Aztec empire, early 1500<br />Consulted in a horoscope in the Aztec book of fate, she would have many husbands. <br />Moctezuma asked Cortes to assume custody of his daughter including Isabel. <br />She married her uncle, Cuitlahuac who died with small pox. Soon after at around age 11, she married her cousin Cuauhtemoc, the last Aztec emperor. Cuauhtemoc was seperated from Isabel by the Spaniards. <br />Cortes, awarded Isabel as a bride in 1526 with Alonso de Grado. The marriage lasted less than two years because Alonso died. She was then the mistress of Cortes and ended up pregnant from Cortes. <br />She married another man named Pedro Gallego de Andrade. He died too. She was 21 now. <br />Her 5th husband was with Juan Cano. This marriage was prosper for about two decades. She bore 5 children within 10 years of marriage and she had a sixth kid in the houshold. <br />
Struggle & Survival In Colonial America Beatriz de Padilla <br />Female <br />Mistress and Mother <br />Around mid 1600’s<br />Accused of having caused dreadful and mysterious things to two of her lovers. Poisoned the first of them and driven the mayor of Juchipila crazy through magic. <br />She did not marry and brought two sons and two daughters into the world. <br />She began her life as a slave. <br />She was mean and harsh with another female slave around her. <br />Some say her attraction from important men were because of magical procedures she practiced. <br />She may have made types of love potions or other magic to make their owners their sex slaves. <br />Woman like Beatriz helped make life a little less harsh on the European immigrants <br />They seemed to be very intelligent, determined and thought “outside the box”<br />
Struggle & Survival In Colonial America Miguel Hernandez<br />Male, Mexican<br />Master of Mule trains<br />Sixteen century <br />He was a free mulatto who lived a good life<br />He had an education and achieved local economic influence but had difficulty because he was mixed blood. <br />He had knowledge of Spanish legal ways<br />He developed trade deals with rich people and grew to become a master of his position and own valuable property.<br />Mulattoes were seen as living a outlaw life in some sort. They were accused of assault, rape, drunkenness, and theft. <br />Miguel’s business expanded. He was an aggressive and enterprising man. <br />He gained a position as a master of mule trains from a simple muleteer. <br />
Struggle & Survival In Colonial America Enrico Martinez <br />Male<br />Printer and Engineer<br />From Seville, came too Veracruz Mexico<br />He was scientist but his major public effort was serving as a chief engineer of the drainage works in flooding Mexico City<br />He was interested in astronomy and astrology <br />He wrote a book of current cosmology comprehendible to an untrained reader. <br />He tried to uncover the truth about the natural world through Astrology. They made theories of possible behaviors and explanations that were later disqualified by Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, and Newton. <br />Enrico’s foreign origins, his poor record with the desague project, his background as a printer and scientist rather than an architect made it hard for him to build up political support. <br />He tried to make a fortune in Mexico. He coped with change. As a printer he was cautious. As a writer he tried new ideas but drew back with fear. As a an engineer he was innovative and accurate in analysis but bad at execution. He had good ideas of politician but had a hard time acting on them. <br />
The Aztecs<br />Tula, The Mythical Beginning<br /><ul><li>Toltec society worshiped multiple deities, one was the god Quetzalcoat, the Plumed Serpent priest who governed Tula.
They believed ceremonies brought them rain, food, and pleased the gods.
12th Century, Toltecs migrated and began to take over lands.
For twenty years, small wars arose between towns claiming to be descended form the Toltecs
Aztecs and the Mexitin groups appeared and well populated
Mexica or Mexitin found thecity Tenochtitlan, modern Mexico city
Their power developed largely, the resisted pressures from nearby Azcapotzalco
Another city grew in the north east knows as Texoco, the became a refined civilization
The Triple alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tacuba formed in 1428.
The triple alliance was to become the Aztec Empire </li></li></ul><li>The Empire Builders <br />1440 Moctezuma I, 40 years old is known as the father of the Aztec empire <br />They developed a belief that if they fire was no re-lit at the Hill of Star on a specific time, the world would end. <br />Moctezuma started a war with Puebla & Tlaxcala <br />Not to conqer enemy but find offering for the gods<br />Moctezuma I conquered the tropics down south<br />They set up a society image, defined their social classes, from the commoners, warriors, to the royalty classes. <br />Mexica and their allies had no central large army, their military elite was too small in number. <br />Aztec control could not be developed completely because of large distances between their controlled lands and difficult communication. <br />The Aztec power taxed items and established laborer’s to build.<br />Moctezuma died in 1469, he was the architect of the Aztec power.<br />
The Aztecs, Conquering Heroes<br />Ahuitzol came to power in 1486<br />Lead several campaingsagains provinces in revolt <br />The temple to Tenochtitlan was almost complete.<br />Large ceremonies that sacrificed many people<br />Aztecs did not invent human sacrifice, it was already practiced at Teotihuacan <br />Mexica expansion stopped when the triple alliance armies where fighting on several fronts at once. <br />Tenochtitlan, the capital took a new look with great new landscapes. <br />Nezahaulapilli retained a strong role in the triple alliance, he was the one who is said to prophesized the coming of the Spaniards. <br />In 1503 Moctezuma II succeeded Ahuitzotl, and power became more absolute. <br />The Aztec system was changed form a crude democracy to one where class privileges dominated.<br />He conquered more land, including Metztitlan and Tututepec. <br />Aztecs abandondedthe ideal of war of flowers. <br />
The Clash Of Two Worlds<br />Ancient Mexicans were extremely preoccupied with the day-to-day emergence of malevolent nonhuman forces. <br />Other strange symbols like one goddess’ sanctuary caught fire, lakes water formed gigantic waves with no wind. Women’s voices in the night announced death and destruction. <br />In 1517 the 1rst Spanish expedition touched the eastern coasts of Mexico, in the Yucatan regions. <br />1519, Hernan Cortes left Cuba to explore the coasts of mexico<br />Emperor did not know whether he should receive Cortes as a god or as his worst enemy.<br />Cortez left to Tlaxcala, they were first attacked but then supported them and grew unions with enemies of the Triple alliance<br />Cortez met with the emperor Moctezuma and told him he came in the name of a power lord, Jesus Christ. <br />The Spaniards gathered their army and attacked the Aztecs at one event. <br />The Aztecs fought back and did not succeed <br />The Spaniards also attacked their own allies <br />The Aztec fell the 13th of august 1521<br />1522, Cortez became governor and captain of New Spain. <br />
From Resistance to Collaboration<br />Some resisted and believed In the return of the old order. <br />Cortez demanded that the Indians converted to Christianity <br />Ordered to end human sacrifices and they destroyed their idol’s seen as gods. They were replaced with the Virgin Mary, Christ, and the saints. <br />Idolatry, defined as everything that opposes Christianity, was the enemy of Christianity. <br />They took away the hallucinogenic plants. Christianity spread. <br />Aztec aristocracy was shocked to hear the In Christian religion all people were equal before God and entrusted the powerful with the spiritual and general well-being of the humble. <br />The “idolaters” tried to resist Spanish invaders<br />Intermarriage occurred in the Spanish and the Indians of Moctezuma<br />Indians joined the Spaniards and won military ranks for some of the bravest fighters. <br />Epidemics struck and many died <br />
The Aftermath of the Conquest <br />Spaniards attempted to educate the Indians<br />After 17th century, the Virgin of Guadalupe became more well known <br />In the 19th century the Native Mexicans Faces the First onslaught of the modern world. <br />They grew the interest to educate the natives with the teaching of Spanish language<br />The City of Mexico and its fauna and flora was removed with the New Spain development of a new city. <br />
Spain<br /><ul><li>The native peoples whom the Romans met at the time of their invasion in what is now known as Spain were the Iberians, inhabiting from the southwest part of the Peninsula through the northeast part
The Celts, mostly inhabiting the north and northwest part of the Peninsula
In the inner part of the Peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed culture knows as Celtiberian
Celtiberian Wars or Spanish Wars fought against legions of the Roman Replubic and Celtiberian tribes from 181-133 BC
Spain's present languages, its religion, and the basis of its laws originate from Hispania period
Germanic Occupation of Hispania (5th–8th centuries)
period of rule by the Visigothic Kingdom saw the spread of Arianism briefly in Spain
As the Reconquista continued, Christian kingdoms and principalities developed
The final step was taken by the Catholic Monarchs, who, in 1492, ordered the remaining Jews to convert or face expulsion from Spain
Over the following decades, Muslims faced the same fate and about 60 years after the Jews, they were also compelled to convert or be expelled.</li></li></ul><li>One of first modern global empires <br />16th century, Spain and Portugal were in process of global exploration and colonial expansion with many trade routes from land to sea to land. <br />Conquistadors took over the Aztec, Inca, and Maya civilizations.<br />Before Spain lost the American colonies, it had the largest empire in the world. <br />Spanish Kingdoms under the Habsburgs <br />16th and 17th centuries, Spanish Empire reached its highest point under Charles V<br />Habsburg dynasty became extinct in Spain and War of the Spanish succesion<br />control of Spain passed to the Bourbon dynasty <br />Imperial Spain<br />
Spain<br />Spanish Golden Age <br />Period of flourishing Literature and art <br />Spain under the Bourbons- 18th century<br />Spain allied themselves to France <br />Spain had made substantial progress since its steady decline in the latter part of the 17th century<br />Napoleonic Wars: War of Spanish Independence (1808–1814)<br />Spanish people vigorously resisted Napoleon's move<br />French were decisively defeated at the Battle of Victoria in 1813, and the following year, Ferdinand VII was restored as King of Spain<br />Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)<br />Republicans lost, destruction of the Republic and the accession of Francisco Franco as dictator of Spain<br />Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state<br />usually said to have begun with Franco’s death on 20 November 1975, while its completion is marked by the electoral victory of the socialist PSOE on 28 October 1982.<br />