Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Big history


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Big history

  2. 2. Peoples & Empires  Ancient Greece- Knowledge of travel, great travelers and colonizers. Strong warfare (Steel weapons). Advantage over the Aztecs.  Alexander’s, believed to be a descended from the gods, created an empire (336 until 323 B.C.) that was based on his personal rule. He Destroyed great Achaemenid Persian empire but did little to destroy their administrative structure. Alexander’s conquered a lot in a short time, his empire did not last long but he influenced the future that conquering was possible. His ambitions have remained to bring peace, stability, religious and cultural harmony to all, and unite them under one rule.  Rome began around 17th century B.C. as a small city-state of farmers and tradesmen. In the late sixth century it became a republic. Romans were highly skilled military innovators. Macedonia, Asia, & Syria became Roman provinces. The full roman expansion stopped in time of Julius Ceaser. The republic collapsed from civil wars. Julius was stabbed to death in the steps of the Senate by a group of “republicans”.  Around 27 B.C. Julius Ceaser’s successor Octavian or Augustus was a period that Rome was ruled effectively for some time by one man. He ended the civil war, brought peace to the empire, made a central system of government, reformed and extended the rule of law. This was around the time when Jesus Christ coming was to happen. Rome’s greatness in this time was due to their great military power but also the ultimate cause of its downfall. Their was no distinguisment of civil and military power and the large geographically empire made it difficult to govern.
  3. 3. Peoples & Empires  Roman law became the law of entire Europe. Roman law begins with the Twelve Tables. It was civil law. It also created a legal category for national law. They regulated warfare from “just” and “unjust” wars. It would be means of last resort. It could not be over cultural, religious transformation, territory, but for peace and justice.  By end of 2nd century A.D., empire became impossible to hold together, it was hit by a bad trade recession, defeats from the Persians and Goths and a civil war brought it to disintegration. In a last attempt it was divided by a western and eastern half.  Constantine, successor of Diocletian, carried the division further by making the eastern empire and calling it Greek or “Constantine's city”. The division caused “Romans” to speak two different languages and two distinct forms of Christianity, Greek Orthodoxy in east and Catholicism in the west.  The west was overrun by waves of Germanic tribes. Beginning of the thirteen century, Constantinople fell to armies of a Sultan and it became and was rebuilt as a Muslim empire. Their was a Christian emperor in the west and Muslim in the east.
  4. 4. Peoples & Empires  Universal empire- Charles V reasserted the power of the empire and transformed it from a German affair back into a universal imperium. He would rule a vast area, he learned Spanish, French and German languages.  Conquering the Ocean –exploration of new “world” Americas land, resources, and precious metals. Portuguese sea exploration competition.  Spreading the Word – Religion, Jesus Christ word was growing. Las Casas was a Catholic lay priest who was a defender and apostle to the Indians.  The Decline of the Iberian World- By the mid century the Dutch had taken Indonesia.  Empires Liberty, Empires of Trade- First modern treaty, “international Community”. It would no longer be possible for nations to fight among themselves over how to interpret God’s intentions for mankind. It would be the ruler of each state to decide what branch on Christianity was followed.  Slavery- Began around 1444 when the 1rst cargo was brought to Portuguese port for the slave market. Greatest forced migration in human history. The slavery of Africans. Until 1890 the Brazilian abolitionist Rui ordered all papers in ministry related to slavery to be burned.  The Final Frontier- Voyages into islands and most places of the world. Captain James Cook between assisted in most of them. They brought Europe a greater knowledge of the extent and nature of South pacific.  Empire, Race and Nation- Napolean claimed to be a Liberator in Egypt 1798  Racism was an issue  Common ancestry debates  Ending  main issue was to “civilize” the “barbarian”
  5. 5. Guns, Germs & Steel  Why Eurasian civilizations have survived and conquered others  Refute the belief that’s its due to any form of intellectual, moral or inherent genetic superiority.  No inherent superiority among any racial or ethnic groups, and that the often-tragic failure of other races to resist expansion by other peoples was largely a matter of bad luck  Eurasia had 32 of the 56 prize wild grasses that were candidates for cultivation; no other region had more than six. It was home to 13 of the 14 animals most important to humans.  most important domesticated mammals—the cow, goat, pig and sheep
  6. 6. Guns, Germs & Steel  Although agriculture arose in several parts of the world, Eurasia gained an early advantage due to the availability of suitable plant and animal species for domestication  when human hunters arrived in the Americas via the Bering Strait about 13,000 years ago, they apparently killed most of the unwary mammals that would have been suited to domestication.
  7. 7. Guns, Germs & Steel  Disease was even more important than horses or guns in the European subjugation of the Americas and the rest of the world. Diamond estimates that European disease wiped out 95 percent of America's pre-Columbian population. Epidemics spread from tribe to tribe,  Why, instead, didn't Indian epidemic diseases wipe out Europeans?  Epidemic diseases originated in domesticated animals. Measles, smallpox and tuberculosis came to humans from cattle, flu came from pigs and ducks, and pertussis (whooping cough) came from pigs and dogs.  Indians didn't have epidemic diseases or immunities because they didn't have the domesticated animals that gave rise to the diseases.  Early human history, technological advantages were built on the availability of certain plants, animals and geographies.
  8. 8. Origins and Nature of New World Slavery  Slavery  Some of the slaves used to do cannibalism and ritual sacrifices before their role in the market of slavery.  As Slaves they were always affected by sexual exploitation, torture, or death from a troubled owner.  They were defined as “not one of us” or captive alien treated like animals.  Most slaves were from Africa. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam were accepting slavery.
  9. 9. Origins and Nature of New World Slavery  Almost all the world used slaves. Millions of African slaves were in the market. They were shipped to the America’s.  They used them to work in the sugar fields. Sugar became very popular worldwide. The slaves were used for Tobacco labor.  Indian’s were also slaves. Latin Americans and even whites in the Caribbean were far more tolerant or facial intermixture than were the North Americas. Racial slavery helped the societies progress in the trade and economy of their nation.