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Psychology Chapter 7


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Altered States of Consciousness

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Psychology Chapter 7

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Altered States of Consciousness
  2. 2. Section 1 Sleep and Dreams
  3. 3. What is Sleep? <ul><li>Is a state of unconsciousness with periods of dreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Altered state of consciousness, characterized by patterns of brain activity and inactivity </li></ul><ul><li>is vital to mental health </li></ul>
  4. 4. Studying Sleep <ul><li>Has been very difficult until recently </li></ul><ul><li>A researcher can not have a sleeping person report without waking them; thus making the study invalid </li></ul><ul><li>EEG or electroencephalography is a device that records the electric activity of the brain </li></ul>
  5. 5. Consciousness <ul><li>Is a state of awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Can range from alertness to nonalertness </li></ul><ul><li>A person who is not aware of what is going on is in an altered state of consciousness </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why do we Sleep? <ul><li>Characterized by lack of mobility or unresponsiveness to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>It is restorative “recharges our batteries” </li></ul><ul><li>Brain recovers from stress and exhaustion </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>Clears our mind of useless information </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stages of Sleep <ul><li>Stage I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse slows and muscles relax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing becomes uneven and brain waves grow irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts for up to 10 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EEG brain waves is marked by the presence of theta waves (lower in amplitude and frequency than alpha waves) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Stages of Sleep <ul><li>Stage II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain waves shift from low-amp, high frequency to high-amp, low frequency waves (this pattern means you have entered this stage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes roll slowly from side to side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually lasts about 30 minutes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Stages of Sleep <ul><li>Stage III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by large-amplitude delta waves begin to sweep your brain almost every second </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Stages of Sleep <ul><li>Stage IV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deepest sleep of all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very difficult to awaken sleeper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large regular delta waves occur 50% of the time when you are in this stage of sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you are awaken during this stage, you often feel disoriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep sleep is important to your physical or psychological well-being </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. REM Sleep <ul><li>Is a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse rate and breathing become irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Called active sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams take place during this stage </li></ul><ul><li>Lasts for 15-45 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>At no point in your sleep, does the brain become totally inactive </li></ul>
  12. 12. How much sleep? <ul><li>Your will spend 1/3 of your life sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>Varies from individual to individual </li></ul><ul><li>Circadian rhythm- is a biological clock that is genetically programmed to regulated physiological responses within a time period of 24-25 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Without any environmental cues, people have still kept their circadian cycle </li></ul>
  13. 13. How Much Sleep? <ul><li>Circadian rhythms do not control our sleep patterns (two things do) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24-hour day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jet lag- usually takes about a day for each hour of time change to “reset” your circadian rhythm (biological clock) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia- is the failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested the next day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people with this disorder rarely get more than and hour or two of uninterrupted sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety, depression, overuse of alcohol or drugs can cause insomnia </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while sleeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific kind of snoring that may occur hundreds of times per night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each episode lasts 10-15 seconds and ends suddenly, usually with a physical movement of the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The sleeping person is actually choking when a passage of the lungs is blocked </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects more than 12 million Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must feel listless, sleepy, or irritable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually caused by a physical problem instead of mental stress </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling very sleepy during the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have sleep attacks during the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims usually have a problem with work, leisure, and interpersonal activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prone to accidents </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Nightmares </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpleasant dreams that occur during REM sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Night terrors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep disruptions that occur during Stage IV of sleep, involving screaming, panic, or confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last from 5-25 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves rapid heart rate, screaming, sweating, and confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually have no memory of them </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Sleepwalking- is walking or carrying out behaviors while asleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most children who have the disorder will outgrow it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually harmless, unless the victim falls or hurts themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has been linked to stress, fatigue and the use of sedative drugs by adults </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Sleep talking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a common sleep disruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can occur in REM and NREM sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sleep talker sometimes pauses as if he or she was having a conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can engage in a conversation with a sleep talker </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Dreams <ul><li>Mental activity that takes place during sleep </li></ul><ul><li>8 in 10 dreams involved negative emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂃􀂃 1 in 10 male dreams are sexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– 1 in 30 female dreams are sexual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorporate everyday events </li></ul><ul><li>Do not occur in a split second, they correspond to a realistic time scale </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why do we dream? <ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal road to the unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wish fulfillment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifest content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Story line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latent content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>􀂃􀂃 Underlying meaning of a dream </li></ul>
  23. 23. Why do we dream? <ul><li>Information Processing </li></ul><ul><li>– Consolidate experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Activation-synthesis Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpret random brain activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiological Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide sleeping brain periodic stimulation </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Dream Interpretation <ul><li>Freud believed that dreams might contain clues to thoughts a dreamer might be afraid to acknowledge in his or her waking hours </li></ul><ul><li>Believe dreams might have hidden meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Many social scientists believe dreaming serves no function other than to stimulate the brain while sleeping </li></ul>
  25. 25. Daydreams <ul><li>Requires low level of awareness and involves fantasizing, or idle but directed thinking, while we are awake </li></ul><ul><li>Reminds us or prepares us for events in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Can improve our creativity by generating thought processes </li></ul><ul><li>Allows us to control our emotions </li></ul>
  26. 26. Section 2 Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation
  27. 27. What is Hypnosis? <ul><li>Is a form of altered consciousness in which people become highly suggestible to changes in behavior and thought </li></ul><ul><li>A hypnotist guides and directs the person into thinking about things he or she is usually unaware of </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnosis shifts our perceptions </li></ul>
  28. 28. Hypnosis <ul><li>Does not put people to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>The person is highly receptive and responsive to certain internal and external stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists stress that a relationship between hypnotist and participant should involve cooperation, not domination. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Theories of Hypnosis <ul><li>Theodore Barber (1965) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States that hypnosis is not a specific state of consciousness but a result of suggestibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ernest Hilgard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believes there is something special about the hypnotic state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neodissociation theory- the consciousness includes many different aspects that may become separated or dissociated during hypnosis </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Theories of Hypnosis <ul><li>Sarbin & Coe (1972 & 1979) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypnotized people behave as they do because they have accepted the role as a hypnotized subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals people have potential abilities they do not use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued study may show where these abilities come from and how to use them better </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Uses of Hypnosis <ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Medical </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posthypnotic suggestion- suggested things for their participants to remember or forget when the trance is over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypnotic analgesia- a reduction in pain reported by patients after they have undergone hypnosis </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Biofeedback <ul><li>Is a technique in which a person learns to control his or her internal physiological processes with the help of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>“Feedback makes learning possible” </li></ul><ul><li>Uses machines to tell people about very subtle moment-to-moment changes in the body </li></ul><ul><li>From this, people can learn to change their physiological processes </li></ul>
  33. 33. Meditation <ul><li>A person focusing on his or her attention on an image or thought with the goal of clearing the mind and producing relaxation or inner peace </li></ul><ul><li>3 approaches of meditation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcendental meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mindfulness meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breath meditation </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Meditation <ul><li>Transcendental meditation- involves mental repetition of a mantra, usually Sanskrit phrase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts for 15 to 20 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness mediation- was developed from a Buddhist tradition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on the present moment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breath meditation- is a concentration on one’s respiration </li></ul>
  35. 35. Meditation <ul><li>Been found to help lower blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate </li></ul><ul><li>Those who succeed with meditation continue to do it </li></ul><ul><li>Bias and self-selected samples provide the research </li></ul>
  36. 36. Section 3 Drugs and Consciousness
  37. 37. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>A type of drug that interacts with the central nervous system to alter a person’s mood, perception, and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Common drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine, depressants, alcohol, marijuana, LSD </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. How Drugs Work <ul><li>Drugs are carried by the blood and taken to target tissues in parts of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Drug molecules act as neurotransmitters and hook to dendrites of neurons and send out their own chemical messages </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol molecules tell nerve cells to slowdown and usually leads to passing out </li></ul><ul><li>LSD molecules cause nerve cells to fire resulting in hallucinations </li></ul>
  39. 39. Marijuana <ul><li>Is dried leaves and flowers of Indian hemp that produce an altered state of consciousness when smoked or ingested </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active ingredient in marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupts memory formation (making it difficult to carry out mental and physical tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term use can lead to dependence </li></ul>
  40. 40. Hallucinations <ul><li>Perceptions that have no direct external cause—seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or feeling things that do not exist </li></ul><ul><li>Occur during or when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdraw from a drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological breakdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal conditions </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Hallucinogens <ul><li>Drugs that often produce hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Also called psychedelics because they create a loss of contact with reality </li></ul><ul><li>LSD- a potent psychedelic drug that produces distortions of perception and thought </li></ul>
  42. 42. Hallucinogens <ul><li>LSD Trips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can last from 6 to 14 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The user may encounter distortions in familiar objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A single stimulus may become the focus of attention for hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impairs thinking even though users feel they are thinking more logically and clearly than before </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Opiates <ul><li>Usually referred to as narcotics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heroin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produce analgesia or pain reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Regular use leads to addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Overdose leads to loss of control of breathing </li></ul>
  44. 44. Alcohol <ul><li>Most widely used and abused mind altering substance in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Is a depressant that serves to inhibit brain function </li></ul><ul><li>The affect of alcohol depends on the frequency of drinking and the drinker’s body weight </li></ul>
  45. 45. Drug abuse and treatment <ul><li>Drug abuse can lead to injury, damage to body, ultimately death </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment for drug abuse usually follows these steps: </li></ul><ul><li>1) the abuser must admit he or she has a problem </li></ul><ul><li>2) the abuser must enter a treatment program or get therapy </li></ul><ul><li>3) the drug abuser must remain drug free </li></ul>
  46. 46. Source: <ul><li>Kasschau, Richard, A. Understanding Psychology . McGraw-Hill, Glencoe, New York, New York, 2008. </li></ul>