Mediterranean Europe

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Mediterranean Europe

  1. 1. Mediterranean Europe Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  2. 2. MAP
  3. 3. Spain <ul><li>Is very isolated and “well-guarded” </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrenees Mountains block access from the rest of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Steep Cliffs are located along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Atlantic </li></ul>
  4. 4. Spain <ul><li>High plateaus from most of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Most rivers in Spain are un-navigable due to very dangerous rapids </li></ul>
  5. 5. Spain (Climate) <ul><li>Mediterranean climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild and rainy winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot and dry summers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moist Atlantic winds provide the area with adequate rainfall for farmers to raise corn and cattle. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Spain (The Economy) <ul><li>18% of exports are agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>Has recently shifted to exporting its natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Spain’s major export in transportation equipment </li></ul>
  7. 7. Spain (Cities) <ul><li>Bilbao </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial center (due to iron ore for steel) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The largest port city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center for manufacture of plastics and textiles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest city and the nation’s capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many problem (immigration, pollution, traffic) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Spain (Regions) <ul><li>Northern- (Basque) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer than 1 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the richest areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughout history have been persecuted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catalonia (region surrounding Barcelona) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushing for using a Spanish/French language </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Portugal <ul><li>Capital: Lisbon </li></ul><ul><li>Is about the size of Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>Population about 10 million </li></ul><ul><li>Has a history due to its world exploration in the 15 th Century </li></ul>
  10. 10. Agriculture and Economy <ul><li>Receives abundant rainfall for farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains (wheat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olive oil (in the South) is a major export </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cork and cork products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are made from oak trees and are also a major export </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. History <ul><li>Portugal became a trading nation </li></ul><ul><li>Lisbon became a very valuable port city </li></ul><ul><li>Signed a treaty with Spain in 1494 dealing with the expansion of colonial regions in Latin America and Africa. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Future <ul><li>Economy was once based on agriculture, but is changing </li></ul><ul><li>Industries and the production of clothing paper, and cork have became important </li></ul><ul><li>Is working to improve the literacy rate (87%) </li></ul><ul><li>Faces many challenges (including industrial pollution) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Italy <ul><li>Looks like a giant boot </li></ul><ul><li>Is formed around the Apennine Mountains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly under 10,000 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very active seismically (volcanoes and earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Sicily’s Mount Etna erupted in 1985 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Climate and Vegetation <ul><li>Alps run east to west on the northern border of the country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its tall peaks block the moisture from the Atlantic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot and dry summer/cold and wet winter </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Climate and Vegetation <ul><li>Trees have been taken off hillsides to overpopulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly scrub vegetation remains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil has eroded due to overgrazing by sheep and goats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1960’s- 1/3 worked on farms </li></ul><ul><li>2008- less than 10% work in agriculture </li></ul>
  16. 16. Overpopulation <ul><li>58 million people </li></ul><ul><li>The populated areas are extremely crowded </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment in rural areas is high, especially in Southern Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Since WWII, the southern populations have moved to the north to seek jobs in factories </li></ul>
  17. 17. A Growing Economy <ul><li>Automobiles, home appliances and metal goods have been the most successful </li></ul><ul><li>Previous to 1950, fairly poor and was largely agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>European Union helped provide a market for Italy’s products </li></ul><ul><li>Italian goods could be sold at a lower price due to lower wages </li></ul>
  18. 18. Northern Italy <ul><li>Known as European Italy </li></ul><ul><li>The Po River Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most productive agricultural area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise wheat and rice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ski resorts in the Alps attract visitors year around (Tourism </li></ul>
  19. 19. Northern Italy <ul><li>Dairy farms are profitable and productive </li></ul><ul><li>Venice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidence (geological phenomena in which a ground in an area sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very popular with tourists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a network of canals that serve as streets </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Central Italy <ul><li>Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chosen as capital due to central location and it was the capital of the Roman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Colosseum and Forum are still standing today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vatican City </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Peter’s Basilica </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Central Italy <ul><li>Florence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main cultural city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made famous by many painters including Michelangelo during the Renaissance </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Southern Italy <ul><li>Includes the islands of Sicily and Sardina </li></ul><ul><li>Poor roads make travel very difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture is not very profitable due to poor soil and outdated farming techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Naples- port city (worst poverty in Europe) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty due to lack of jobs for the population </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Greece <ul><li>Has geographic and historical ties to the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Is a member of the European Union and NATO </li></ul><ul><li>The birthplace of culture that reached “full expression in Western Europe” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Land <ul><li>Includes about 1,450 islands </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Greece is the product of tectonic forces (earthquakes, volcanoes) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Agriculture and Mountains <ul><li>Mount Olympus (9,570 feet) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow coastal plains allow farmers to raise wheat and other grains </li></ul><ul><li>Olive and citrus groves also exist </li></ul><ul><li>On the mountain sides, sheep and goats are raised </li></ul>
  26. 26. Athens <ul><li>The capital of Greece </li></ul><ul><li>One of the youngest capital cities in Europe, although many monuments in the cities have stood for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of the population live in or near the city </li></ul><ul><li>Major traffic issues </li></ul>
  27. 27. Focus on the Sea <ul><li>Piraeus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major harbor for exporting products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relies heavily on the export of products by sea </li></ul><ul><li>Has one of the world’s largest commercial shipping fleets </li></ul><ul><li>Shipbuilding is an important industry </li></ul>
  28. 28. Focus on the Sea <ul><li>The sea enables Greece to maintain contact with its many islands </li></ul><ul><li>Many people make a living fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism has become very popular due to the sparkling clear water and gleaming beaches </li></ul>
  29. 29. Crete <ul><li>Island with a history </li></ul><ul><li>Was once the center of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Some believe tsunamis wiped out this area </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunami- giant waves caused by tectonic activity </li></ul>

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