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  1. 1. Chapter 9 The Andean Countries
  2. 2. Colombia
  3. 3. The Land <ul><li>Only S.A. country to border the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal ports handle the nation’s trade </li></ul><ul><li>Thick forests spread over the Pacific lowlands </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Land <ul><li>Central Colombia- The Andes Mountains form a cordillera (group of mountain chains that run side by side </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast- made up of tropical rainforests </li></ul><ul><li>Northeast- hot grasslands (llanos) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Climate <ul><li>Lies completely in the tropics </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature varies with elevation </li></ul><ul><li>In Bogota, in the Andes Mountains high temperatures are around 67 degrees with lows down to 50 degrees </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Economy <ul><li>Second largest Latin American supplier of fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Most people earn a living as farmers, factor workers, or miners </li></ul><ul><li>Produces 90% of the world’s emeralds </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee is the major cash crop (a crop that is usually sold for export </li></ul>
  7. 7. The People <ul><li>Most live in the valleys of the Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Speak Spanish, but are of mixed European, African, and Native American ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Became independent in 1819 due to Simon Bolivar’s efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Has a rapidly growing urban population </li></ul>
  8. 8. Colombia Today <ul><li>One of the world’s largest suppliers of illegal narcotics </li></ul><ul><li>Leads the world in production of cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>Home to the Medellin and Cali drug cartels </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Cartels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have bought political influence with huge “contributions” to national elections, important people, the army, and the media </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Colombia Today <ul><li>Civil War has continued since the 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Two groups have been fighting for social and economic reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FARC- Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ELN- National Liberation Army </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Plan Colombia <ul><li>Launched in 2000 with the assistance of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to destroy the coca plantations that provide the raw materials for narcotics </li></ul><ul><li>$7.5 million plan to have airplanes spray chemicals to kill the coca plants </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. pledged $1.3 million in aid mostly in military to furnish combat helicopters and train Colombian soldiers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Peru
  12. 12. Peru (Land) <ul><li>Rich in mineral resources </li></ul><ul><li>Andes cut through the center of Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Southern- large plateau (altiplano) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Titicaca- highest navigable lake in the world (deep enough for the passage of ships) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>East- low foot hills and plains </li></ul><ul><li>Thick rainforests cover the plains area </li></ul>
  13. 13. Peru (Economy) <ul><li>Farming is a major economic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee, cotton, and sugarcane are major exports </li></ul><ul><li>Leading producer of copper, lead, silver, and zinc </li></ul>
  14. 14. Peru (The People) <ul><li>1400s- Incas had a powerful civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire (group of lands under one ruler) stretched more than 2,500 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1503- Spaniards defeated the Incas and made Peru Spanish territory </li></ul><ul><li>1821- Peru gained independence </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Native American population in the Western Hemisphere </li></ul>
  15. 15. Machu Picchu <ul><li>Lost City of the Incas </li></ul>
  16. 16. Peru Today <ul><li>Large supplier of coca plants for illegal drugs </li></ul><ul><li>President Fujimori’s antiterrorism policy was criticized </li></ul><ul><li>2000 election Alejandro Toledo faced Fujimori and quit just before the election </li></ul><ul><li>Toledo claimed Fujimori was stealing the election </li></ul>
  17. 17. Peru Today <ul><li>May 2001- Toledo was elected President </li></ul><ul><li>Toledo had very little political experience </li></ul><ul><li>Pledged to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut the military budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the poor and middle class families </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ecuador
  19. 19. Ecuador (Land) <ul><li>Equator runs right through the country </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific coast- swamps, deserts, fertile plains </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern- thick rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Climate is hot and humid </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ecuador (Economy & People) <ul><li>Agriculture is the most important activity </li></ul><ul><li>Guayaquil- port city </li></ul><ul><li>Major mineral export- petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>61% live in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Most are of Native American or mestizo ancestry </li></ul>
  21. 21. Bolivia
  22. 22. Bolivia <ul><li>Landlocked near the center of S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Andes dominate the landscape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes living difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land is too dry to farm near the altiplano </li></ul>
  23. 23. Bolivia <ul><li>South central- farms are more common due to broad valleys and sloping hills </li></ul><ul><li>North eastern- lowland plain and tropical rainforest (very hot and humid) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Bolivia (The Economy) <ul><li>Relies partly on farming </li></ul><ul><li>One of the world leading producers of tin </li></ul><ul><li>Very mineral rich country </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern lowlands produce gold, petroleum, and natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed with Peru to build a road to the Pacific (this is expected to benefit the economy </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bolivia (The People) <ul><li>Most live in the Andean highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Most people observe European or North American customs </li></ul><ul><li>In the rural areas, men carry on subsistence farming, women make pottery or weave textiles for money </li></ul>
  26. 26. Chile
  27. 27. Chile (Land and Climate) <ul><li>Stretches 2,650 miles down the west coast of South America </li></ul><ul><li>North- Atacama Desert- very dry </li></ul><ul><li>East- Andes run along the border </li></ul><ul><li>Central- Central Valley- contains fertile soil and mild climate </li></ul><ul><li>Southern- stormy (snow-capped volcanoes) windy, thick forests, and glaciers </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chile (Economy) <ul><li>Fastest growing economy in Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on mining and export of valuable materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s leading copper producer </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Chile (Economy) <ul><li>Agriculture and manufacturing also are important factors </li></ul><ul><li>Service industries and tourism are thriving in the cities </li></ul>
  30. 30. Chile (The People) <ul><li>75% are mestizos </li></ul><ul><li>20% pure European ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>85% live in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly speak Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly Roman Catholic </li></ul>
  31. 31. Argentina
  32. 32. Argentina (Land) <ul><li>Land area 1,056,640 square miles </li></ul><ul><li>The North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iguacu Falls- waterfalls on border with Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowland areas </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Argentina (Land) <ul><li>West- great forests (Gran Chaco) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardwood trees source of tannin (substance used to make leather) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>East- humid grasslands between the Parana and Paraguay rivers </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Andes <ul><li>Tower over western Argentina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Aconcagua- tallest mountain in W.H. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>East of Andes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling hills and desert valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streams flow through this area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers use the water to grow grapes, sugarcane, corn, and cotton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oldest Spanish settlements found in this region </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Pampas <ul><li>Treeless plains in the center of Argentina </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of the population live in this region </li></ul><ul><li>Economy depends on the mild climate and the fertile soil in this region </li></ul><ul><li>Patagonia- windswept plateau south of the pampas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gets very little rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheep raising is very important to this region </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. The Economy <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estancias (ranches) cover the pampas which is home to farm ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gauchos (cowhands) raise cattle in this area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most industrialized country in South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce food products, leather goods, electrical equipment, and textiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum is the most valuable mineral </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. The People <ul><li>1/3 live near Buenos Aires </li></ul><ul><li>¼ live on the Pampas </li></ul><ul><li>Influences of the Past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few Native Americans lived in this region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1500s- Spanish arrived and founded a city around Buenos Aires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military leaders have ruled Argentina most of their history </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. The People <ul><li>Argentina Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly of European ancestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Official language is Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major religion is Roman Catholic </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Argentina Today <ul><li>Facing recession and economic collapse </li></ul><ul><li>February 2002- the peso was so low in Argentina it was no longer tied in value to the American dollar </li></ul><ul><li>One in four workers do not have a job </li></ul><ul><li>The streets are a “social time bomb” waiting to explode </li></ul>
  40. 40. Paraguay
  41. 41. Paraguay <ul><li>Paraguay is landlocked and criss-crossed by many rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Paranena, </li></ul><ul><li>The Chaco </li></ul>
  42. 42. Paraguay <ul><li>Two different climate regions </li></ul><ul><li>The Paranena region is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>warm, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very humid and rainy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is a fertile, cultivated landscape, with rolling hills, low mountains and subtropical forests. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Chaco region, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>daily high temperatures exceed 100° F (38° C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall is light and concentrated primarily in the summer.. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note that seasons in Paraguay are just the opposite of those in the northern hemisphere. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Uraguay
  44. 44. Uraguay <ul><li>A somewhat short-lived productive era began in the early 20th century, as governmental reforms included a long list of social services, including free health care and education, pensions for workers, and a real concentrated effort to improve the economy. In short-order this proved problematic, as Uruguay, with few natural resources, soon experienced financial pressures on its new welfare state that grew to unmanageable levels; this brought political unrest, another dictatorship, and then, a disastrous guerrilla movement, one that took Uruguay's military many years to finally control. Civilian rule was finally restored in 1985, and in 2004, a new and progressive coalition won national elections, which in essence ended 175 years of political instability in the country. Today, along its sunny beaches, and in the restaurants and shops of Montevideo, tourism is again on the rise and it's very easy to imagine a bright future for Uruguay. Just imagine! </li></ul>
  45. 45. Uraguay <ul><li>Uruguay is the only Latin American country not situated within the tropics, and its location provides a sunny and warm temperate climate, with rain ( mostly brief showers ) distributed evenly throughout the year. Temperatures rarely reach below 40° F (4° C) and daily high averages in winter approach 60° F (16° C). In summer, daily high averages reach into the mid 70s. Note that seasons in Uruguay are just the opposite of those in the northern hemisphere. </li></ul>