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  1. 1. Chapter 8 Brazil and its Neighbors
  2. 2. Brazil
  3. 3. Brazil <ul><li>The Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest country in South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers 3,265,060 square miles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rivers and Lowlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Amazon winds 4,000 miles from the Andes Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Amazon passes through a flat basin (a low area surrounded by a higher land </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Brazil <ul><li>Rivers and Lowlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Amazon is covered with thick tropical forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two other low areas (Parana River and Sao Francisco River) flows in different directions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Brazilian Highlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers more than ½ the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located mostly in eastern Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low mountain ranges drop sharply at the Atlantic Ocean (Great Escarpment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escarpment- steep cliff between high & low surfaces </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Brazil <ul><li>The climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon Basin- tropical rain forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steamy temperatures, rain year around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil’s Highlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical savanna, wet and dry seasons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drier climate and moderate temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Brazil’s Economic Regions <ul><li>The North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans discouraged use of land in this area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazilian government has encouraged logging and mining (bauxite and iron ore) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many worry about the overuse of land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Northeast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers and ranchers have cleared coastal rainforests to raise cattle and grow crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overgrazing has ruined much of the land </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Brazil’s Economic Regions <ul><li>The Southeast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich In fertile farm land and mineral resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the largest iron ore deposits in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home of Brazil’s major cities and industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast plains support huge herds of cattle (exported around the world) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Brazil’s Economic Regions <ul><li>West-central </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inland highlands and plateaus cover most of the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very isolated and few settlers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very poor soil </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Brazil <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest and fastest growing population in Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture is more Portuguese than Spanish </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Brazil (Influences of the Past) <ul><li>1500s- Portuguese took control and forced natives to work in the sugar plantations and mines </li></ul><ul><li>Many natives died due to disease and being overworked </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese purchased slaves and shipped them to Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Enslavement ended in 1888 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Brazil (Influences of the Past) <ul><li>6% of the population is of African ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>African customs and traditions have influenced Brazil’s culture </li></ul><ul><li>1822- Brazil became a monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>1892- Brazil became a republic </li></ul>
  12. 12. Brazilian’s Today <ul><li>Most live along the Atlantic Coast </li></ul><ul><li>The government has encouraged people to move inland </li></ul><ul><li>76% of people live in cities (some live in favela’s (slum areas) </li></ul><ul><li>Futbol (soccer) is a way of life in Brazil </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 2 Caribbean South America
  14. 14. Venezuela
  15. 15. Venezuela <ul><li>The Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northwest- Maracaibo basin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowland coastal area surrounds Lake Maracaibo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andean Highlands- home to most of Venezuelan people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guiana Highlands- dense rainforests, low population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grassy plains (llanos) lie between Guiana and Andean Highlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orinoco River flows through the plain and is a great source for hydroelectric power (water generated electricity) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Angel Falls <ul><li>Drops 2,421 feet to the river below, making it the tallest waterfalls on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Is 15 times higher than Niagara Falls </li></ul><ul><li>Very difficult to reach due to the mountainous terrain </li></ul>
  17. 17. Venezuela (The Climate) <ul><li>Mostly tropical rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures vary with altitude (height above sea level) </li></ul><ul><li>Lowland Maracaibo basin and inland river valleys are hot and rainy </li></ul><ul><li>Highland areas are warm during the day and cold at night </li></ul>
  18. 18. Venezuela (Economy) <ul><li>Once depended on coffee and cocao to earn a living </li></ul><ul><li>1920s- oil was discovered and became a world oil producer </li></ul><ul><li>90% work in service or manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture still remains a large part of the economy </li></ul>
  19. 19. Venezuela (The Past) <ul><li>1500s to 1800s- was a Spanish colony </li></ul><ul><li>1821- Simon Bolivar freed the northern part of the continent from Spanish rule </li></ul><ul><li>1800s-1900s- ruled by harsh military leaders or caudillos </li></ul>
  20. 20. Venezuela (The People) <ul><li>Most are a mix of European, African, and Native American background </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish is the major language </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Catholicism is the major religion </li></ul><ul><li>86% of the population live in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy the highest living standards in South America because of oil </li></ul>
  21. 21. Venezuela Today <ul><li>Hugo Chavez was elected in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Chavez is opposite the U.S. on several issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendly with Communist Cuba and Castro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobbied oil-producing nations to raise the price of oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Praised guerilla movements in neighboring countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denounced the U.S. involvement in the Colombian Drug war </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Venezuela Today <ul><li>Chavez is getting close to turning Venezuela into a dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Is being criticized by labor leaders and human rights groups </li></ul><ul><li>The United States is watching Chavez very closely </li></ul>
  23. 23. Guyana
  24. 24. Guyana <ul><ul><li>Lies just north of the equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High plateaus covered by thick rainforests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low flat land near the coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won independence in 1966 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ of population of Asian ancestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of population of African ancestry </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Suriname
  26. 26. Suriname <ul><ul><li>Smallest independent country in South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled by native Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 1600s- became under Dutch rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1975- became independent from Dutch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy depends on agriculture and mining </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. French Guiana
  28. 28. French Guiana <ul><ul><li>Low coastal plain-ocean winds keep areas around 80 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inland rainforests- hot and humid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1600s- French settled area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enslaved Africans to work in mines on sugarcane plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Served as a place for French prisoners from 1790s to 1940s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still considered part of France today </li></ul></ul>