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Geography Chapter 2 PowerPoint

  1. 1. The Physical World Chapter 2 Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  2. 2. Planet Earth <ul><li>Our Solar System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity is a physical force that keeps the Earth and other objects revolving around the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The center of the solar system is the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A star or ball of burning gasses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Our Solar System <ul><li>Planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least eight planets orbit the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury (closest to the sun) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth (93 million miles from the sun) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter (the largest) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Our Solar System <ul><li>Planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluto recently got bumped from the list of planets and became a dwarf planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial planets- solid rocky crusts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas Giant planets- more gaseous and less solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Smaller objects that revolve around the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Asteroids- irregularly planet like objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually found between Mars and Jupiter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comets- made of icy dust particles and frozen gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can approach the earth in any direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meteoroids- pieces of space junk (rock and iron) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Siberia 1908 <ul><li>Possible meteor strike that was flattened in burned </li></ul><ul><li>A huge life of wildlife was lost </li></ul><ul><li>A huge fireball was reported </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists conclude it was either a meteor or a comet </li></ul><ul><li>Could a meteor or comet cause the dinosaurs to become extinct?? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Water <ul><li>Hydrosphere- made up of oceans, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water </li></ul><ul><li>Lithosphere- land, also includes the ocean floor </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere- layer of gases extending above the surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>78% Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21% Oxygen </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Water <ul><li>Biosphere- part of the earth that supports life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life outside of the biosphere exists only with the assistance of life support machines </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Landforms <ul><li>Natural features on the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Contain rivers, lakes, and streams </li></ul><ul><li>Isthmus of Panama </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Continental shelf- underwater extension of the coastal plain </li></ul>
  10. 10. Earth’s Heights and Depths <ul><li>Mount Everest- located in South Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>29, 035 feet above sea level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dead Sea- Southwest Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest dry land point at 1,349 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mariana Trench- Pacific Ocean southwest of Guam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35,857 feet deep </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Section 2 Forces of Change
  12. 12. Earth’s Structure <ul><li>Earth is a layered planet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core- the center of earth very hot and solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner core made of iron and nickel under extreme pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantle- located next to the outer core, thick layer of hot, dense rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crust- outer layer; rocky shell forming the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Plate Movement <ul><li>The planet is not the same as it was thousands of years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Pangaea- giant continent (over the years) the continents have broken up creating 7 small continents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental drift- continents were once joined, but drifted apart </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Plate Movement <ul><li>Plate tectonics- physical processes that create many of the Earth’s physical features </li></ul><ul><li>Plate movement can be drastic or gradual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magma- molten rock, is pushed up from the mantle, and ridges are formed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientists have not determined what causes plate tectonics </li></ul>
  15. 15. Internal Forces of Change <ul><li>Colliding and Spreading plates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Himalayan mountain range was created when the subcontinent of India collided with Eurasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains are also created when a sea plate collides with a continental plate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subduction- heavier sea plate dives under the lighter continental plate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andes Mountain range in South America </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Internal Forces of Change <ul><li>Accretion- pieces of the Earth’s crust come together slowly as the sea plate slides under the continental plate </li></ul><ul><li>New land can form if two sea plates come together </li></ul><ul><li>Spreading- sea plates pull apart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs on the Atlantic Ocean’s floor; pushing Europe further away from North America </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Internal Forces of Change <ul><li>Folds- bends in layers of rock </li></ul><ul><li>Faults- plates may grind or slide past each other, creating cracks in the earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>San Andreas Fault- near San Francisco, California </li></ul><ul><li>Faulting- occurs when the folded land cannot be bent any further </li></ul>
  18. 18. Earthquakes <ul><li>Violent movements of tectonic plates </li></ul><ul><li>Occur where two plates meet </li></ul><ul><li>Tension builds up along fault lines until they snap </li></ul><ul><li>Ring of Fire- one of the most earthquake-prone areas in the world </li></ul>
  19. 19. Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>Mountains formed by lava or by magma that breaks through the Earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>The rocky plate melts as it dives toward the hot mantle, if the rock is too thick its flow is blocked and pressure builds </li></ul>
  20. 20. External Forces of Change <ul><li>Weathering- breaks down rocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical- occurs when large masses of rock are physically broken down into smaller pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical- changes the chemical makeup of rocks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many of the worlds caves have been or continue to be formed this way </li></ul>
  21. 21. External Forces of Change <ul><li>Wind Erosion- the movement of dust, sand, and soil from one place to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants help protect against this type of erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glacial Erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glaciers- large bodies of ice that move on the surface of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moraines- large piles of rock and debris. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. External Forces of Change <ul><li>Two types of glaciers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet- flat, broad sheets of ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greenland and Antarctica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain glaciers- high mountain valleys, gouge out round, U-shaped valleys as they move downhill </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. External Forces of Change <ul><li>Water Erosion-begins when spring water and rain water flow downhill in streams </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, the eroding action forms a gully and then a V-shaped valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Canyon was formed this way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pounding Ocean Ways also create beach erosion </li></ul>
  24. 24. Section 3 Earth’s Water
  25. 25. The Water Cycle <ul><li>70% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. </li></ul><ul><li>There is water all around us in the form of water vapor, water in the atmosphere in the form of gas. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Water Cycle <ul><li>Sun’s heat turns water into water vapor, or humidity. This is known as evaporation. </li></ul><ul><li>As water vapor rises and cools, it changes back into liquid in a process called condensation. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny droplets of water form clouds and fall back to the earth as precipitation – rain, snow, sleet, or hail. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection is when water soaks into the ground or collects in streams and lakes where people use it. Water goes back to the ocean and the cycle begins again. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Water Resources <ul><li>The earth’s oceans, seas, etc. contain salt water, which is not fit for human consumption. (more than 97% of all water is salt water) </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 3% of the water found on the earth is freshwater. Of that 3%, over 3/4 is frozen into giant sheets of ice, or glaciers. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, less than 1% of the earth’s water is USEABLE freshwater. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Water Resources <ul><li>Groundwater fills tiny cracks and holes in the rock layers below the earth’s surface. There is 10 times more groundwater than there is water in rivers and lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>This water flows through deep underground rock layers called aquifers. </li></ul><ul><li>In regions with little rainfall, farmers and city dwellers sometimes have to depend on aquifers and groundwater for their fresh-water supply. </li></ul>
  29. 30. The Water Cycle <ul><li>In the water cycle, the total amount of water on earth does not change , only its form does. Water can be liquid, gas, or solid. </li></ul><ul><li>Can the earth run out of water? </li></ul>
  30. 31. Chapter 3 Climates of Earth
  31. 32. Weather and climate Weather and Climate <ul><li>Weather - changes in air that take place over a short period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - the usual, predictable pattern of weather in an area over a long period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate is affected by the sun, wind, water, landforms, and even people. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand an area’s climate, scientists look at extremes of temperature and precipitation. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Climograph
  33. 34. Sun and climate The Sun and Climate <ul><li>The MAIN source of climate is the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate is affected by latitude, which affects the angle of the sun’s rays. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas near the Equator are called the tropics. They lie between the Tropic of Cancer (23½°N latitude) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23½°S latitude). </li></ul><ul><li>The sun’s rays are more direct here, so it is hotter. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Latitude Zones Latitude Zones
  35. 36. Wind and climate 1 The Wind’s Effect on Climate <ul><li>Moving air is called wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind is caused by the rising of warm air. </li></ul><ul><li>Winds follow typical patterns, which affect climate. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Prevailing winds map Prevailing Winds
  37. 38. Monsoon winds The Wind’s Effect on Climate <ul><li>Monsoons are seasonal winds that blow over regions for months at a time. They are found mainly in Asia and some areas in Africa. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Monsoon map The Wind’s Effect on Climate
  39. 40. Local winds <ul><li>Local winds are patterns of wind caused by landforms in a particular area. Some local winds occur because land warms and cools more quickly than water. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, cool sea breezes keep coastal areas cool during the day. After the sun sets, land cools down, and land breezes blow out to sea. </li></ul>The Wind’s Effect on Climate
  40. 41. Land breeze The Wind’s Effect on Climate
  41. 42. Sea breeze The Wind’s Effect on Climate
  42. 43. Tornadoes The Wind’s Effect on Climate <ul><li>Thunderstorms sometimes produce tornadoes, or funnel-shaped windstorms. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States experiences more tornadoes than any other country. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Tornado picture The Wind’s Effect on Climate
  44. 45. Tornado Alley TORNADO ALLEY
  45. 46. Campbelltown, PA Campbelltown, PA – July, 2004
  46. 47. Hurricanes The Wind’s Effect on Climate (cont.) <ul><li>Violent tropical storms, hurricanes, form over the warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean in summer and early fall. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes often strike the Caribbean Sea and North America. The same type of storm in Asia is called a typhoon. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Katrina satellite photo The Wind’s Effect on Climate (cont.) (pages 56–57)
  48. 49. El Niño - La Niña The Wind’s Effect on Climate (cont.) <ul><li>A long period of extended dryness is called a drought. Droughts are caused by unusual weather patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>A unique combination of temperature, wind, and water effects in the Pacific Ocean is called El Niño. </li></ul><ul><li>El Niños occur about every three years when cold winds from the east are weak and the Pacific Ocean gets warmer than usual. </li></ul><ul><li>When those winds are unusually strong, it is known as La Niña. </li></ul>
  49. 50. El Niño picture The Wind’s Effect on Climate (cont.)
  50. 51. El Niño jet streams
  51. 52. Oceans and currents Ocean and Currents <ul><li>Oceans affect temperatures and rainfall. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving streams of water called currents carry warm or cool water around the world’s oceans. </li></ul><ul><li>Currents affect the climate of nearby land areas. Winds that blow over currents carry their temperatures to the land. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Ocean currents map Ocean and Currents
  53. 54. California current San Francisco - 1989
  54. 55. Elevation and rain shadows Climate and Landforms <ul><li>The higher the elevation a place has, the cooler it will be. </li></ul><ul><li>As air moves over mountain peaks, it can create a rain shadow. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Snowcapped mountain Climate and Landforms
  56. 57. Rain shadow diagram Climate and Landforms
  57. 58. People and climate The Impact of People on Climate <ul><li>People’s actions affect climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities are warmer than rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Streets and buildings absorb more heat than plants and trees do. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation from plants has cooling effect. </li></ul>
  58. 59. Urban heat island The Impact of People on Climate
  59. 60. Greenhouse effect The Impact of People on Climate (cont.) <ul><li>The buildup of greenhouse gases prevents heat from rising and escaping into space. </li></ul><ul><li>People burn fuels, which causes global warming due to the greenhouse effect . </li></ul>
  60. 61. Sun’s heat The Impact of People on Climate (cont.)
  61. 62. Greenhouse diagram The Impact of People on Climate (cont.)
  62. 63. Global warming graph The Impact of People on Climate (cont.)
  63. 64. Rain forest destruction The Impact of People on Climate (cont.) <ul><li>Dense forests that receive high amounts of rain each year are known as rain forests. </li></ul><ul><li>People burn trees to clear rain forests, which releases greenhouse gases. Also, less water evaporates if there are fewer trees, decreasing rainfall and preventing growth. </li></ul>
  64. 65. Burning rain forest (pages 56–57) The Impact of People on Climate (cont.)
  65. 66. Climate zones Climate Zones <ul><li>Geographers divide the world into 12 different climate zones. </li></ul><ul><li>They are divided into 5 major categories. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-Latitude </li></ul><ul><li>High Latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul><ul><li>Highland </li></ul>
  66. 67. Tropical rain forest Tropical Climates <ul><li>There are two tropical climates – tropical rain forest and tropical savanna. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical rain forest - year-round rains that produce thick rain forests. Tall hardwood trees such as mahogany, teak, and ebony form a canopy, or top layer of the forest. </li></ul>
  67. 68. Rain forest canopy Canopy (page 64)
  68. 69. Rain forest climograph Tropical Climates Tropical Rain forest Hot and Wet all year
  69. 70. Tropical savanna Tropical Climates <ul><li>Tropical savanna - hot, wet season and hot, dry season. Broad grasslands with few trees, called savannas, are found here. </li></ul>
  70. 71. Savanna picture Tropical savanna (page 64)
  71. 72. Tropical savanna climograph Tropical Climates Tropical savanna Hot all year – wet and dry seasons
  72. 73. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  73. 74. Marine west coast Mid-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Created by a mix of air masses: warm air from the tropics and cool air from the polar regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Marine west coast climate - along coastal areas that receive winds from the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Winters - mild and rainy Summers - wet and warm Deciduous trees and temperate rain forests grow here. </li></ul>
  74. 75. Temperate rain forest Temperate rain forest
  75. 76. Marine west coast climograph Mid-Latitude Climates Marine west coast wet with moderate temperatures
  76. 77. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  77. 78. Mediterranean and humid continental Mid-Latitude Climates (cont.) <ul><li>Mediterranean climate also has rainy, mild winters but hot, dry summers. Shrubs and short trees grow in this climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Humid continental climate - inland areas of North America, Europe, and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Winters - long, cold, and snowy Summers - short and very hot. Deciduous trees and grasslands grow here. </li></ul>
  78. 79. Mediterranean climograph Mid-Latitude Climates (cont.) Mediterranean Hot dry summer, mild wet winter
  79. 80. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  80. 81. Humid continental climograph Mid-Latitude Climates (cont.) Humid continental wet – hot summer, cold winter
  81. 82. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  82. 83. Humid subtropical <ul><li>Mid-latitude regions close to the tropics experience a humid subtropical climate - hot, wet summers and mild winters. Oak, magnolia, and palm trees grow here. </li></ul>Mid-Latitude Climates (cont.)
  83. 84. Humid subtropical climograph Mid-Latitude Climates (cont.) Humid subtropical Moist – hot summer, mild winter
  84. 85. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  85. 86. Subarctic climate High Latitude Climates <ul><li>In the high latitudes nearest the mid-latitude zones, you will find the subarctic climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Winters are severely cold and bitter. Huge evergreen forests called taiga grow here. </li></ul>
  86. 87. Taiga picture Taiga
  87. 88. Taiga map High Latitude Climates
  88. 89. Subarctic climograph High Latitude Climates Subarctic Long winter, short mild summer
  89. 90. Tundra High Latitude Climates <ul><li>Closer to the Poles lie areas of vast rolling plains without trees. </li></ul><ul><li>This region is known as the tundra and is harsh and dry. </li></ul><ul><li>In tundras, much of the lower layers of soil stay permanently frozen and are known as permafrost. </li></ul><ul><li>Only sturdy grasses and low bushes grow here. </li></ul>
  90. 91. Tundra vegetation Tundra Vegetation
  91. 92. Tundra picture Tundra
  92. 93. Tundra mosquitoes
  93. 94. Tundra climograph High Latitude Climates Tundra – cold, dry, permafrost
  94. 95. Ice cap High Latitude Climates (cont.) <ul><li>Ice cap climate is found at the Poles and on the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland. </li></ul><ul><li>No vegetation grows here; only lichens can live on the rocks. </li></ul>
  95. 96. Ice cap climograph High Latitude Climates (cont.) Ice cap – always frozen
  96. 97. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  97. 98. Desert Dry Climates <ul><li>Desert climates - the driest climates - get less than 10 inches of rainfall a year. Only scattered plants like cacti can live here. </li></ul>
  98. 99. Tropical desert Tropical Desert
  99. 100. Tropical desert climograph Tropical Desert Desert – less than 10 inches a year
  100. 101. Mid-latitude desert Mid-latitude Desert
  101. 102. Mid-latitude desert climograph Mid-latitude Desert Desert Less than 10 inches rain a year
  102. 103. Steppe Dry Climates <ul><li>Many deserts are surrounded by partly dry grasslands known as steppes. The Great Plains of the United States has a steppe climate, which averages 10 to 20 inches of rain a year. </li></ul>
  103. 104. Steppe vegetation Steppe Vegetation
  104. 105. Steppe climograph Dry Climates Steppe 10-20 inches per year
  105. 106. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  106. 107. Highland climates Highland Climates <ul><li>Mountains tend to have cool climates - even near the Equator. </li></ul><ul><li>A highland, or mountain, climate has cool or cold temperatures throughout the year. No trees grow above the timberline. </li></ul>
  107. 108. Snowcapped mountain Highland Climates
  108. 109. Alpine tundra and timberline Alpine Tundra - Timberline
  109. 110. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)