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  1. 1. Chapter 3 Climates of Earth
  2. 2. Weather and climate Weather and Climate <ul><li>Weather - changes in air that take place over a short period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - the usual, predictable pattern of weather in an area over a long period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate is affected by the sun, wind, water, landforms, and even people. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand an area’s climate, scientists look at extremes of temperature and precipitation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Climograph
  4. 4. Sun and climate The Sun and Climate <ul><li>The MAIN source of climate is the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate is affected by latitude, which affects the angle of the sun’s rays. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas near the Equator are called the tropics. They lie between the Tropic of Cancer (23½°N latitude) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23½°S latitude). </li></ul><ul><li>The sun’s rays are more direct here, so it is hotter. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Latitude Zones Latitude Zones
  6. 6. Wind and climate 1 The Wind’s Effect on Climate <ul><li>Moving air is called wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind is caused by the rising of warm air. </li></ul><ul><li>Winds follow typical patterns, which affect climate. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Prevailing winds map Prevailing Winds
  8. 8. Monsoon winds The Wind’s Effect on Climate <ul><li>Monsoons are seasonal winds that blow over regions for months at a time. They are found mainly in Asia and some areas in Africa. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Monsoon map The Wind’s Effect on Climate
  10. 10. Local winds <ul><li>Local winds are patterns of wind caused by landforms in a particular area. Some local winds occur because land warms and cools more quickly than water. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, cool sea breezes keep coastal areas cool during the day. After the sun sets, land cools down, and land breezes blow out to sea. </li></ul>The Wind’s Effect on Climate
  11. 11. Land breeze The Wind’s Effect on Climate
  12. 12. Sea breeze The Wind’s Effect on Climate
  13. 13. Tornadoes The Wind’s Effect on Climate <ul><li>Thunderstorms sometimes produce tornadoes, or funnel-shaped windstorms. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States experiences more tornadoes than any other country. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tornado picture The Wind’s Effect on Climate
  15. 15. Tornado Alley TORNADO ALLEY
  16. 16. Campbelltown, PA Campbelltown, PA – July, 2004
  17. 17. Hurricanes The Wind’s Effect on Climate (cont.) <ul><li>Violent tropical storms, hurricanes, form over the warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean in summer and early fall. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes often strike the Caribbean Sea and North America. The same type of storm in Asia is called a typhoon. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Katrina satellite photo The Wind’s Effect on Climate (cont.) (pages 56–57)
  19. 19. El Niño - La Niña The Wind’s Effect on Climate (cont.) <ul><li>A long period of extended dryness is called a drought. Droughts are caused by unusual weather patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>A unique combination of temperature, wind, and water effects in the Pacific Ocean is called El Niño. </li></ul><ul><li>El Niños occur about every three years when cold winds from the east are weak and the Pacific Ocean gets warmer than usual. </li></ul><ul><li>When those winds are unusually strong, it is known as La Niña. </li></ul>
  20. 20. El Niño picture The Wind’s Effect on Climate (cont.)
  21. 21. El Niño jet streams
  22. 22. Oceans and currents Ocean and Currents <ul><li>Oceans affect temperatures and rainfall. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving streams of water called currents carry warm or cool water around the world’s oceans. </li></ul><ul><li>Currents affect the climate of nearby land areas. Winds that blow over currents carry their temperatures to the land. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ocean currents map Ocean and Currents
  24. 24. California current San Francisco - 1989
  25. 25. Elevation and rain shadows Climate and Landforms <ul><li>The higher the elevation a place has, the cooler it will be. </li></ul><ul><li>As air moves over mountain peaks, it can create a rain shadow. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Snowcapped mountain Climate and Landforms
  27. 27. Rain shadow diagram Climate and Landforms
  28. 28. People and climate The Impact of People on Climate <ul><li>People’s actions affect climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities are warmer than rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Streets and buildings absorb more heat than plants and trees do. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation from plants has cooling effect. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Urban heat island The Impact of People on Climate
  30. 30. Greenhouse effect The Impact of People on Climate (cont.) <ul><li>The buildup of greenhouse gases prevents heat from rising and escaping into space. </li></ul><ul><li>People burn fuels, which causes global warming due to the greenhouse effect . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Sun’s heat The Impact of People on Climate (cont.)
  32. 32. Greenhouse diagram The Impact of People on Climate (cont.)
  33. 33. Global warming graph The Impact of People on Climate (cont.)
  34. 34. Rain forest destruction The Impact of People on Climate (cont.) <ul><li>Dense forests that receive high amounts of rain each year are known as rain forests. </li></ul><ul><li>People burn trees to clear rain forests, which releases greenhouse gases. Also, less water evaporates if there are fewer trees, decreasing rainfall and preventing growth. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Burning rain forest (pages 56–57) The Impact of People on Climate (cont.)
  36. 36. Climate zones Climate Zones <ul><li>Geographers divide the world into 12 different climate zones. </li></ul><ul><li>They are divided into 5 major categories. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-Latitude </li></ul><ul><li>High Latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul><ul><li>Highland </li></ul>
  37. 37. Tropical rain forest Tropical Climates <ul><li>There are two tropical climates – tropical rain forest and tropical savanna. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical rain forest - year-round rains that produce thick rain forests. Tall hardwood trees such as mahogany, teak, and ebony form a canopy, or top layer of the forest. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Rain forest canopy Canopy (page 64)
  39. 39. Rain forest climograph Tropical Climates Tropical Rain forest Hot and Wet all year
  40. 40. Tropical savanna Tropical Climates <ul><li>Tropical savanna - hot, wet season and hot, dry season. Broad grasslands with few trees, called savannas, are found here. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Savanna picture Tropical savanna (page 64)
  42. 42. Tropical savanna climograph Tropical Climates Tropical savanna Hot all year – wet and dry seasons
  43. 43. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  44. 44. Marine west coast Mid-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Created by a mix of air masses: warm air from the tropics and cool air from the polar regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Marine west coast climate - along coastal areas that receive winds from the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Winters - mild and rainy Summers - wet and warm Deciduous trees and temperate rain forests grow here. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Temperate rain forest Temperate rain forest
  46. 46. Marine west coast climograph Mid-Latitude Climates Marine west coast wet with moderate temperatures
  47. 47. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  48. 48. Mediterranean and humid continental Mid-Latitude Climates (cont.) <ul><li>Mediterranean climate also has rainy, mild winters but hot, dry summers. Shrubs and short trees grow in this climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Humid continental climate - inland areas of North America, Europe, and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Winters - long, cold, and snowy Summers - short and very hot. Deciduous trees and grasslands grow here. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Mediterranean climograph Mid-Latitude Climates (cont.) Mediterranean Hot dry summer, mild wet winter
  50. 50. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  51. 51. Humid continental climograph Mid-Latitude Climates (cont.) Humid continental wet – hot summer, cold winter
  52. 52. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  53. 53. Humid subtropical <ul><li>Mid-latitude regions close to the tropics experience a humid subtropical climate - hot, wet summers and mild winters. Oak, magnolia, and palm trees grow here. </li></ul>Mid-Latitude Climates (cont.)
  54. 54. Humid subtropical climograph Mid-Latitude Climates (cont.) Humid subtropical Moist – hot summer, mild winter
  55. 55. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  56. 56. Subarctic climate High Latitude Climates <ul><li>In the high latitudes nearest the mid-latitude zones, you will find the subarctic climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Winters are severely cold and bitter. Huge evergreen forests called taiga grow here. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Taiga picture Taiga
  58. 58. Taiga map High Latitude Climates
  59. 59. Subarctic climograph High Latitude Climates Subarctic Long winter, short mild summer
  60. 60. Tundra High Latitude Climates <ul><li>Closer to the Poles lie areas of vast rolling plains without trees. </li></ul><ul><li>This region is known as the tundra and is harsh and dry. </li></ul><ul><li>In tundras, much of the lower layers of soil stay permanently frozen and are known as permafrost. </li></ul><ul><li>Only sturdy grasses and low bushes grow here. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Tundra vegetation Tundra Vegetation
  62. 62. Tundra picture Tundra
  63. 63. Tundra mosquitoes
  64. 64. Tundra climograph High Latitude Climates Tundra – cold, dry, permafrost
  65. 65. Ice cap High Latitude Climates (cont.) <ul><li>Ice cap climate is found at the Poles and on the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland. </li></ul><ul><li>No vegetation grows here; only lichens can live on the rocks. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Ice cap climograph High Latitude Climates (cont.) Ice cap – always frozen
  67. 67. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  68. 68. Desert Dry Climates <ul><li>Desert climates - the driest climates - get less than 10 inches of rainfall a year. Only scattered plants like cacti can live here. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Tropical desert Tropical Desert
  70. 70. Tropical desert climograph Tropical Desert Desert – less than 10 inches a year
  71. 71. Mid-latitude desert Mid-latitude Desert
  72. 72. Mid-latitude desert climograph Mid-latitude Desert Desert Less than 10 inches rain a year
  73. 73. Steppe Dry Climates <ul><li>Many deserts are surrounded by partly dry grasslands known as steppes. The Great Plains of the United States has a steppe climate, which averages 10 to 20 inches of rain a year. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Steppe vegetation Steppe Vegetation
  75. 75. Steppe climograph Dry Climates Steppe 10-20 inches per year
  76. 76. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)
  77. 77. Highland climates Highland Climates <ul><li>Mountains tend to have cool climates - even near the Equator. </li></ul><ul><li>A highland, or mountain, climate has cool or cold temperatures throughout the year. No trees grow above the timberline. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Snowcapped mountain Highland Climates
  79. 79. Alpine tundra and timberline Alpine Tundra - Timberline
  80. 80. Climate map Tropical Climates (cont.)