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Europe Basics


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Europe Basics

  1. 1. Europe
  2. 2. Leading countries according to GDP <ul><li>Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Luxembourg </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul>
  3. 3. Leading countries according to Land Size <ul><li>Ukraine </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul>
  4. 4. Leading countries according to population <ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul>
  5. 5. PHYSICAL CHARATERISTICS <ul><li>Part of a large landmass called EURASIA </li></ul><ul><li>Europe includes four peninsulas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A peninsula is a body of land surrounded by water on three sides </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Europe’s peninsulas are the Iberian, Italian, Scandinavian,and the Jutland </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Europe also has three ISLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>an island is a body of land completely surrounded by water </li></ul><ul><li>Europe’s main three islands are Great Britain, Ireland and Sicily </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Europe is also home to many FJORDS </li></ul><ul><li>A fjord is a narrow valley or inlet from the sea--originally carved out by glaciers </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Two Major mountain ranges exist in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alps- Central Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrenees- border between France and Spain </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The largest physical characteristic in Europe is the North European Plain </li></ul><ul><li>The North European Plain is a large flat fertile stretch of land important for agriculture, especially in Western Europe </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Rivers also play an important role in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>They are or were used for transportation, power, and trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important are the Danube (Germany), Rhine (Germany), Seine (France), and the Thames (United Kingdom) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Seas Oceans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adriatic Atlantic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aegean Arctic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baltic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Landmarks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strait of Gibraltar- separates Europe from Africa at the mouth of the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>varied climate regions--everything from tundra to mediterranean </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Europe’s climate is also affected by the North American Drift and the prevailing westerlies </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>North American Drift is a powerful ocean current that carries tropical water toward the coast of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The winds which blow across the North American Drift are known as the prevailing westerlies. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Combined they help to produce a warm, moist climate in most of Europe </li></ul>
  17. 17. Economic Characteristics <ul><li>The Mountain regions of Europe are famous for tourism, recreation and mineral resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Many areas of Europe are threatened by air and water pollution. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>Forests --Black Forest of Germany (acid rain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities --Venice,Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers --Danube, Rhine, and Seine </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Many of Europe’s largest industrial and transportation centers developed near mineral deposits, especially coal and iron ore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruhr Valley (Germany) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Po Valley (Italy) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Rivers and canals served as the major transportation links </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>There are oil reserves in the North Sea. Great Britain has claimed many of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries of Europe, especially Western Europe, have a well educated workforce. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Most are industrial or technological societies (Switzerland specializes in banking). </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The countries of Western Europe also use advanced farming techniques which gives them high crop yields. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile soils and the chernozem (black earth of Russia) are also found in Europe. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Most of Europe has a well developed infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure is things such as roads, power companies railroads and air carriers </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>France and Great Britain have built the Chunnel to provide a railroad transportation between their countries. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Western Europe and Eastern Europe have different industrial systems and different industrial development because of different economic and political systems since 1945. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Most of western Europe belongs to the Economic Union today. Eastern Europe is slowly catching up after changing their systems in the early 1990s </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>The Economic Union is a economic union used to tie the economies of Europe together for the benefit of all members. It is an ECONOMIC ALLIANCE. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Trade is important in Europe, especially to the island nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden and Denmark allow their governments to play a large role in their economies. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Eastern Europe has begun the switch from communism to capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>the Netherlands grows crops on land reclaimed from the sea (Polders) </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Their demographics are typical of a developed nations. </li></ul><ul><li>High per capita GDP </li></ul><ul><li>High literacy rate </li></ul><ul><li>high life expectancy </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>low infant mortality </li></ul><ul><li>low percentage of the population under the age of 15 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Cultural Characteristics <ul><li>Europe is the birthplace to the Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>The Industrial Revolution was the switch from hand or manual labor to using machines for labor </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><ul><li>England was the center of the Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Europe is the home to many ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>each group brings different languages, religions and customs </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>This has led to sporadic conflict among the groups </li></ul><ul><li>such as war and revolution </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Europe is the birthplace of modern democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Greece is the home of Democracy </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Europe has spread its’ culture to other parts of the world through </li></ul><ul><li>exploration </li></ul><ul><li>colonization </li></ul><ul><li>imperialism </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Europe is highly urbanized </li></ul><ul><li>It is one of the most densely populated areas of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Western Europe is a member in the political/military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>All of the following cities act as centers for culture and trade in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin, Germany Rome, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>London, England Paris, France </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Athens, Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw, Poland </li></ul>
  41. 41. Cultural Landscape <ul><li>In Paris the following cultural icons can be found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notre Dame, Arc de Triomphe, Louvre, Eiffel Tower </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>In Italy the following cultural icons can be found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colosseum, Leaning Tower of Pisa, St. Peter’s Basilica </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>In Greece—the Parthenon </li></ul><ul><li>In England--Westminster Abbey and Big Ben </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe in general--windmills (Netherlands) and castles </li></ul>
  44. 44. Parthenon in Greece
  45. 45. Arc de Triomphe in Paris
  46. 46. Notre Dame
  47. 47. Eiffel Tower -- Paris
  48. 48. Colosseum--Italy
  49. 49. Leaning Tower of Pisa--Italy
  50. 50. Big Ben--England
  51. 51. Westminster Abbey
  52. 52. St. Peter’s Basilica
  53. 53. Windmills and Castles
  54. 54. Louvre
  55. 55. Fjord
  56. 56. Alps