US History Chapter 15

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  • 36”30’ no slavery north of this line (Missouri).
  • Wilmot Proviso forbids any slavery in land acquired from Mexico (during Mexico-American War 1846-1848). Calhoun Proposal would not allow Congress or territorial authority to rule on issue of slavery. Neither was accepted.In 1849, there were 15 slave states and 15 free states.
  • Compromise of 1850 did not resolve the North/South debate despite its attention to do so.
  • Proslavery writings in the South tried to trump antislavery publications. Often the argument was that slaves in the South lived better than free factory workers in the North.
  • This bill, in some ways, anticipated that Kansas would be settled mostly by slave owners from Missouri. This meant that Southerners supported this bill and would not fear losing slave state control in the area – but also would gain possible expansion where they were previously locked out. Territories become states. In 1850, Minnesota Territory and Oregon Territory were split by “unorganized territory”. This would be the proposed area for Kansas (south) and Nebraska (north) territories. Since Missouri bordered Kansas Territory, slave owners were more likely to settle in 1854.
  • The city of Lawrence was sacked – a hotel and the home of the governor was burned to the ground by 800 proslavery forces. John Brown, with his six sons, believed he was sent by God to end slavery. He pushed for violent reaction against slavery.Meanwhile, debates rage in the political arena. Charles Sumner lashes out against proslavery forces in Kansas but Preston Brooks, a distant relative, beats Sumner with a cane in the Senate chamber until he was unconscious.
  • Republican Party was formed to end slavery. It was comprised of antislavery supporters from Whig and Democratic parties as well as the Free Soil party. In 1856, the party was strong enough to push a presidential candidate into the limelight, but the Democrats witnessed their nominee, Buchanan, win the election. Originally, Franklin Pierce was slated as the Democratic candidate, but his involvement in Kansas would have hurt.
  • Crucial ruling that may have been the final straw over the issue of slavery. Ruling was that Constitution could not remove property – and that slavery was an institution of property. Slaves were assets, and the government had no right to take property. What problems could result if the ruling was made that the government could remove property? Has that been the decision?
  • The Freeport Doctrine was named so because Douglas establishes at Freeport, during a debate, that voters of a state could exclude slavery by refusing to pass laws protecting slave holders’ rights.This is important in showing how the issue of slavery is affecting politics and how the Republican party, by opposing slavery openly, is gaining ground and showing popular support for antislavery movement.
  • Very controversial figure. What was behind his intentions? Is his use of violence appropriate? He was denounced by some Republicans for using force. His trial and execution created an uproar in the North. Connections to abolitionists confirmed Southern fear of a Northern conspiracy.
  • US History Chapter 15

    1. 1. Chapter 15 – Road to Civil War<br />Magister Ricard<br />US History<br />
    2. 2. Questions to Consider<br />How was the admission of new states and the issue of slavery related?<br />What were some of the effects of the John Brown Raid on the nation?<br />How did the election of 1860 lead to the breakup of the Union?<br />Was the Civil War necessary?<br />
    3. 3. Slavery and the West<br />Chapter 15.1 <br />
    4. 4. The Missouri Compromise<br />Missouri Territory was seeking statehood in 1819<br />Settlers had brought slaves<br />11 states permitted slavery, 11 prohibited<br />Sectionalism grew as North and South competed for western lands<br />Henry Clay proposes compromise (1820)<br />Prohibited slavery in Great Plains territories north of Missouri<br />
    5. 5. New Western Lands<br />Texas (1845), New Mexico, and California (1848) looking to become states<br />Should they be allowed slaves?<br />Wilmot Proviso vs. Calhoun Proposal<br />Free Soil Party supports antislavery<br />President Zachary Taylor urges CA and NM<br />Their citizens would decide on slavery<br />Southerners feared CA entering as free state; talks of secession begins<br />
    6. 6. Henry Clay’s Proposal<br />
    7. 7. A New Compromise<br />Clay’s proposal launched debate<br />John Calhoun (SC) opposed<br />Daniel Webster (MA) supported<br />Taylor dies; Millard Fillmore takes over<br />Stephen A. Douglas divides plan into parts to be voted on<br />Clay’s plan became Compromise of 1850 <br />
    8. 8. A Nation Dividing<br />Chapter 15.2<br />
    9. 9. The Fugitive Slave Act<br />Passed in 1850<br />Anyone who aided a fugitive could be fined or imprisoned<br />Enforcement of the law turned more people away from slavery<br />Underground Railroad appears<br />Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) by Harriet Beecher Stowe<br />
    10. 10. The Kansas-Nebraska Act<br />Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas, reopens slavery debate<br />Called for repeal of Missouri Compromise<br />Popular sovereignty – states would decide on slavery<br />Passed in 1854<br />
    11. 11. Conflict in Kansas<br />Proslavery and Antislavery groups rushed to settle Kansas<br />Proslavery legislature was elected in 1855<br />Border ruffians assured proslavery support<br />Violence escalates<br />Lawrence sacked by proslavery forces (1856)<br />John Brown kills five slavery supporters<br />Sumner beating by Brooks – violence in Senate<br />
    12. 12. Challenges to Slavery<br />Chapter 15.3 <br />
    13. 13. The Republican Party<br />In 1854, antislavery Whigs and Democrats join Free-Soilers to create Republican Party<br />Mission to end slavery<br />Win control of House of Representatives<br />Strong support in North, virtually none in South<br />James Buchanan, Democrat, wins presidential election<br />
    14. 14. The Dred Scott Decision<br />Slave from Missouri<br />Moved to Illinois (free state) and Wisconsin Territory (NW Ordinance 1787)<br />Returns to Missouri, master dies (1846) and sues for freedom<br />Supreme Court rules as a slave, cannot sue<br />Enslaved person is property, 5th Amendment prohibits Congress taking away property<br />Any prohibition of slavery is unconstitutional<br />
    15. 15. Lincoln and Douglas Debate<br />Stephen A. Douglas – felt that slavery would interfere with nation’s growth<br />Abraham Lincoln – slavery was wrong, but no easy answer<br />Publicly debate issue of slavery <br />Douglas angers southern voters with Freeport Doctrine<br />Lincoln loses Senate race, but becomes Republican leader<br />
    16. 16. Raid on Harpers Ferry<br />October 16, 1859, John Brown leads raid <br />Target was an arsenal to lead an armed insurrection<br />Financed by abolitionists<br />Plan failed; no slaves rebelled and Brown and his rebels were captured<br />Captured by Colonel Robert E. Lee<br />Killed 6 civilians, 1 marine, and 2 slaves<br />Brown was tried for treason and hung; becomes martyr<br />
    17. 17. Secession and War<br />Chapter 15.4 <br />
    18. 18. The Election of 1860<br />Southerners feared a Republican victory would yield more John Browns<br />Douglas pushed for moderation<br />Lincoln wins, victory is short-lived as nation divides<br />
    19. 19. The South Secedes<br />Lincoln promised not to disturb slavery, but to keep it from spreading<br />December 1860 SC votes to secede<br />Attempts at compromise fail<br />Confederacy – Florida, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia join South Carolina in 1861<br />
    20. 20. The South Secedes<br />Confederate States of America<br />Choose Jefferson Davis as President<br />Argued based on states’ rights<br />Mixed reactions<br />Lincoln warned no state can legally secede <br />Inaugural speech calls for reconciliation<br />
    21. 21. Fort Sumter<br />Southerners objected to Lincoln’s claim of federal property in the South<br />Fort Sumter was low on supplies<br />Lincoln sends unarmed men to resupply<br />Confederates attack before supplies arrive<br />April 14th, 1861 fort is surrendered<br />
    22. 22. Questions to Consider<br />How was the admission of new states and the issue of slavery related?<br />What were some of the effects of the John Brown Raid on the nation?<br />How did the election of 1860 lead to the breakup of the Union?<br />Was the Civil War necessary?<br />

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