87% of all young Americans 12 to 17 are online (Pew Internet and American Life Survey, 2005).Debate: As youth increasingly use the Internet, does this: A. Create an ideal opportunity to foster civic engagement (local and global) by using the tools youth are familiar with: William BennettTraditionalists: Dismissing youth civic efforts in cyberspace (Robert Putnam, 2000/ Neil Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death).Teens are consumers and producers:Over 40% have designed websites.Over 25% have posted videos to YouTube.10% have initiated Cause Campaigns.Over 40% of teens volunteered time and labor to charitable group.Technology: Virtual Volunteering & Search Platform.93% of teens (12-17) use the Internet, and spend over 14 hrs a week online (Pew Research, 2011).
Civic institutions and organizations like the White House, CNN, local governments, and non-governmental organizations are increasingly turning to social networks to inform and push information to citizens. Police Departments blasting Amber AlertsOhio Department of Transportation: Traffic AlertsFederal Emergency Management Agency: Severe weather alters via Facebook, Twitter, YouTube
YouTube Debates: 2008 CNN/YouTube Debates (McCain and Obama)eReports and Citizens Journalist: 2009 Iranian Presidential Elections: mainstream and international journalists banned from streetsArab Spring 2011: video shot by Tunisian shopkeeper setting himself on fire to protest authoritarian rule. -footage swept through North Africa and the Middle East. 2011: Occupy Movement (economist magazine, America’s 1st Social Networking uprising2012 State of the Union: Senators and Representatives turn to Twitter to deliver key talking points following2012: Anti-Muslim video posted to YouTube (YouTube banned in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Saudi Arabia)
Issues/Concerns:SchoolPolicyPersonal comfort levelStudent accessReliability of technologyRepresentation/voices perspectives (who speaks? But also who is not entering consideration by not connecting?)But also: relevancy, literacy, skill, citizenship what is missed by avoiding?
Connections of youth experiences and citizenship; citizenship as a process should not deny the place of teenagers as they take on multiple experiences to help understand citizenship is not a fixed, static status but changes and is always becoming. Scaffolding students to point of view analysis in order to read media sources not just for content or as passive consumers but as informed citizens who question vague claims (Giroux, 2010, 2012).Are we creating a 21st century canon by emphasizing .com, .edu, .org sites rather than engaging students in multiple ideas from which to formulate opinions and critique? (i.e. blogs, on-line news sources, on-line journals that are on-line for financial reasons but still seen as reputable).When we connect students to people in places outside of their community, who are they connecting to? What ideas and perspectives are being represented? Why is it important to engage students in a critical self-reflection about access on both ends?
Research continues to report student disdain and apathetic attitudes for humanities & social sciences (Berson, 1996, Shaughnessy & Haladyana, 1985).Meaningful use of technology in classroom is positively correlated to student motivation (Heafner, 2004). “Glorified Information Gathering (VanFossen, 2005)” & “Digital Consumption versus Digital Production (Maguth, 2010).”Pew Research Center: 66% of American adults use social networking sites. -Only ¼ considering using these sites for discussing political issues or civic causes.
Chief Justice Sandra Day O’Connor: “We need to bring civics into the 21st Century”
Social networking 2012
Jason Harshman Brad MaguthThe Ohio State University University of Akron
Overview• The ways in which social networking platforms have emerged as an important civics space.• The opportunities and challenges of social studies teachers and students using social networking tools for civic education.• Instructional resources and tools, based upon teachers’/students’ levels of comfort and access, to use social networks to foster civic mindedness.
What are social networks? The practice by which individuals, organizations, an d institutions use the Internet to access and post information, build relationships, and connect with other users.
The Convergence of Social Networking and Civic Education Civic Networking Civic NetworkingThe use of social media to: Education• Access civic information Providing citizens with the and resources. opportunity and training to meaningfully, constructivel• Create a civic commons y, and safely use social whereby citizens can networking for civic share, deliberate, and purposes advocate on important civic issues.
Encountering and Crossing the Digital DivideYoung people today have grown • Just-in-Time Learningaccustomed to living portions of their (Collins & Halverson, 2010).life online by • Digital Natives, Digitalshopping, socializing, and learning Immigrants (Prensky, 2002).through technology (Lenhart &Madden, 2005). Digital ExplorerDigital Immigrant Digital Native
Updating our/their “status”• “Youthscapes” (Maira & Soep, 2005)• NCSS statement on media literacy• CORE Curriculum• Judging a website by it’s 21st century cover• Whose voices are represented in your classroom?
Social Networking, the SocialStudies, and the Story of Missed Opportunity
E2Ks:remind 101 --Students text a code that you create to a neutral number. --Students never have your number. --The teacher never has the student’s number. Why use it: --Pre-program HW reminders. --Remind students about an upcoming test. --Let parents know there is a project due in two days.
facebook Wall Photos Flair Boxes John F. Kennedy Logout John F. Kennedy is preparing to sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Wall Info Photos Boxes Fakebook Write something… ShareView photos of JFK (5)Send JFK a message John F. Kennedy is preparing to sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty October 7, 1963Poke message Bobby Kennedy to John F. Kennedy Have you finalized your plans for the TexasInformation trip? October 1, 1963Networks:Washington D.C.Birthday:May 29, 1917 John F. Kennedy I can’t believe I had to actually send the National Guard to AlabamaPolitical: just so some kids could go to college!Democrat June 11, 1963Religion:CatholicHometown: John F. Kennedy is so glad we avoided war with the Russians! That Crisis in Cuba hadBrookline, Mass. my blood boiling! October 28, 1962Friends John F. Kennedy hopes everyone realizes how serious I am about putting a man on the moon!!! September 9, 1962LBJ Frank Marilyn John F. Kennedy wishes the Bay of Pigs invasion had gone better! I think Castro is going to be a major thorn in the side of the U.S. April 17, 1961Bobby Jackie Robert
Facebook: Building Civic Connections • Ohio Arts Council • Ohio Council for the Social Studies • Council on World Affairs (Akron, Cleveland, Columbus) • Cleveland City Club • American Historical Association • World History Association • Ohio Historical Society • New York Times • Washington Post • Huffington Post • Cleveland Plain Dealer • Columbus Dispatch • Toledo Blade • Sandusky Register • Ohio General Assembly Reps: – Ohio House Standing Committee on Education – Ohio Senate Standing Committee on Education
The sky is thelimit when it comes to technology and social studies! “Socrative is a smart student response system that empowers teachers to engage their classrooms through a series of educational exercises and games via smartphones, laptops, and tablets.” Teachers have used it for: Exit tickets, checks for understanding, openi ng class, closure, HW.