As mentioned in the objectives, the pedagogical framework I am working from is the curriculum designed by volunteers who organized and ran the Freedom Schools in Mississippi in 1964. There are multiple parts to the curriculum and each encompasses a series of questions that instructors need to ask of themselves, questions to ask students, and questions students need to ask of themselves and the world around them. Most importantly: What is your place in your community and are you satisfied with how the spaces you inhabit, live, work, and learn in are organized?Post-colonial challenges in education: By drawing upon perspectives typically marginalized by hegemonic narratives and systems, post-colonialism seeks to provide space to discuss ways of transforming systems of oppression and exploitation (Rizvi, 2004, p. 161). A post-colonial approach to education: troubles how educational knowledge is produced; challenges “narrow interpretations of diversity”; and argues that students embody multiple identities (Subedi & Daza, 2008, p. 4). Applying the principles of post-colonialism means interrogating power structures and the dominant discourses by giving voice to the silences that too often persist in schools and curricula in relation to gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexuality, equity, social justice, and class (p. 5-7). (2A) Critical perspectives of space: According to Lefebvre, “space, as a social product, is a tool for exerting control and has, over time, been manipulated by the State into a reality that is difficult to separate from a mental space regarding what is “natural” (p. 26, 27). Consequently, citizens have a “right to the city” as a public space defined by their experiences rather than institutions that name and control. For Soja, however, the ways in which power, knowledge, and space combine to form a hegemonic order in society often leads to a privileging of one voice of resistance over another, consequently denying a “flexible and cooperative alliance” among the oppressed (p. 91; see also hooks, 1990). It is in this space that we see a hemorrhage, but not total division between OTH and OWS.(3) Finally, in an age of neo-liberalism, schools remain sites of resistance and classrooms spaces for educating the very students targeted by an unfair system. The classroom that provides opportunity for students to question the spaces beyond the school that have been constructed to appear as natural are classrooms aimed at better preparing students to develop a more critical, active approach of applied learning for change.An argument is posed and supported that the Occupy the Hood movement, based on the goals and objectives laid out by the multiple OTH groups that formed over the past two years, aligns closely with contemporary and historical decolonization movements in Cairo, Tunis, Soweto, Oakland, Mexico City, and Detroit
In 1962 only 6.7 per cent of African Americans in the state of Mississippi were registered to vote, the lowest percentage in the country. People in the community, both children and adults, needed to be empowered to exercise their civil and voting rights. Drawing upon the efforts of Bob Moses in 1961, Charles Cobb, a student at Howard University, proposed the idea of a Freedom School in 1963. His vision: ”to create an educational experience for students which will make it possible for them to challenge the myths of our society, to perceive more clearly its realities, and to find alternatives -- ultimately new directions for action.”Staughton Lynd became the director and coordinator of 41 freedom schools in 20 communities across Mississippi. The Freedom Schools had hoped to draw at least 1000 students that first summer, and ended up with 3,000.
Each of these questions is taken from the Freedom Schools curriculum and each, I believe, can be used to ask necessary questions of the OWS movement and its goals. Come back to power structure a little later in this presentation.
Civil Rights movement does not spontaneously begin following WWII. As I will address later with specific ideas for lessons/curriculum, providing a longer version of resistance movements related to civil rights within the context of education provides students with a better sense of the long road to civil rights and the history of what it means to assemble and occupy that occurred long before people began gathering in Zuccotti Park in NYC on September 17, 2011.Photo from 1967 Occupy Wall Street movement.Native Americans occupy Alcatraz, resisting colonization of indigenous land.
Rhetoric of naming and organizing space.
Disrupting the binary of 99% vs. 1%--the 99% is quite diverse and polyvocal. A Fast Company survey taken in fall 2011 found that African Americans, who are 13 percent of the U.S. population, made up only 1.6 percent of Occupy Wall Street.As one Occupy organizer put it: “Black America’s fight for income equality is not on Wall Street, but is a matter of day-to-day survival. The more pressing battles are against tenant evictions, police brutality, institutional racism, and street crime.”Uhuru: Single mother, hairstylist from Detroit; Rhasaan: drug counselor in NYC.OTH seeks to present solutions to our collective problems and effect changes in policy that will improve our condition.OTH is relying on methods of organization that have been going on prior to the origin of the Occupy Movement in the realization that we must craft a movement that uniquely and directly speaks to the issues of People of Color. Occupy The Hood looks forward to see what develops from the Occupy Movement. Occupy The Hood will work to re-establish a goal based National Black Agenda combining new energy with pre-existing efforts.Occupy The Hood will work to address many critical issues affecting our communities:un/under employment, poverty, mass incarceration, political prisoners, school to prison pipeline, police brutality, racial profiling, violence/murders/illegal guns, housing/foreclosures/homelessness/gentrification, health care disparities, educational disparities, food deserts, community development, reparations, economic development, entrepreneurship, gender-specific programs, youth programs, environmental justice, civic engagement, discrimination/racism
Created by taking the manifestos/goals provided at the websites of each movement and entered into a word cloud generator. Removed common words such as and, the, that, for, etc.What OWS offered that OTH has not yet included is a separate page and document pertinent to LGBT members of the occupy movement.
Facebook and Twitter accounts started the movement and helped it spread to 15 cities.Most recent: Hood Week at the end of October in NYC.Claims that OWS is dead in national press ignore the continued efforts of OTH chapters around the country demanding changes regarding issues pertinent to neighborhoods and communities not occupying Zuccotti Park and other OWS gatherings. OWS was mentioned during Hurricane Sandy, but those types of activities have been central to OTH since 2011.
Developing consciousness through social media. Providing opportunities for students to connect, but also utilize perspectives not found in the main stream, majority, white culture to discuss issues of economic inequity.
In late October, 2011 Occupy the Hood members helped to get heat and electricity restored to a Harlem, New York, apartment building. Several protesters occupied the building’s boiler room and refused to leave until the building’s owners agreed to make repairs.There is an ongoing food and clothing drive in Detroit, led by Uhuru and a core group is discussing what sort of activism might push area schools to reduce class sizes and force changes inside the child welfare system. More on Detroit’s schools in a bit.
Connections of youth experiences and citizenship; citizenship as a process should not deny the place of teenagers as they take on multiple experiences to help understand citizenship is not a fixed, static status but changes and is always becoming. Scaffolding students to point of view analysis in order to read media sources not just for content or as passive consumers but as informed citizens who question vague claims (Giroux, 2010, 2012).Are we creating a 21st century canon by emphasizing .com, .edu, .org sites rather than engaging students in multiple ideas from which to formulate opinions and critique? (i.e. blogs, on-line news sources, on-line journals that are on-line for financial reasons but still seen as reputable).When we connect students to people in places outside of their community, who are they connecting to? What ideas and perspectives are being represented? Why is it important to engage students in a critical self-reflection about access on both ends?
To bring awareness to the improper homogenization of the 99%, Occupy the Hood (OTH) began as an effort to ensure voices and issues pertinent to those who did not feel represented in the 99% were not lost within the Occupy Wall Street movement. Students will learn that there are many voices within movements for change and while on the surface many movements appear progressive and inclusive, when one moves deeper into the crowd, so to speak, you will find voices who are not being heard but who have concerns about the direction of the movement. As all educators are involved in working to develop informed citizens, this unit addresses issues that help build a more informed citizenry while also building a dialogue that can continue after the unit concludes. As bell hooks argues, we have to look to the margins because there we do not find deprivation, but a site of possibility; a radical sense of resistance.
Procedures: 1. Introduce unit through a history based on African American resistance to unequal education. Draw from James Anderson’s (1988) The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935 and W.E.B. DuBois’ (1907), “Sociology and Industry in Southern Education.” “Throughout the entire South, an effort is being made to by the colored people to educate themselves. In the absence of other teaching, they are determined to be self-taught; and everywhere some elementary text-book, or the fragment of one, may be seen in the hands of negroes” (Anderson, 1988, p. 6).“In 1866, allegedly to reduce the financial costs to the bureau, its officials temporarily closed all black schools under their authorization, and the general tax for freedman’s education was suspended by military order. The effect of this change was catastrophic…Black leaders petitioned Yankee military officers to levy an added tax upon their community to replenish the bureau’s school fund” (Anderson, 1988, p. 9).“Blacks in Wood County, Texas, turned to similar tactics when informed by the public school authorities there was “no money for building purposes.” “Not to be outdone, the negroes of the community met, elected one of their number as their leader and decided to plant a community crop of cotton, the proceeds to go into the building” (Anderson, 1988, p. 171).DuBois expresses a frustration that economic prosperity has not resulted in social and political progress. He writes “But while we are thus certain of industrial thought and education and advance, we are by no means sure of adequate thought and education and advance being made in matters of social organizations and social ideas” (DuBois, 1907, p. 171). This aligns with the problems he addressed in other writings regarding the level of content possessed by many blacks with property ownership as a sign of wealth rather than intellectual wealth and thus political capital. 2. Address Brown v. Board of Education (1954) by having students complete a short web-quest, including video clips from the PBS special Beyond Brown Nelson, S. & Smith, M. (Producers). (2004). Beyond Brown: Pursuing the Promise [DVD]. United States: Firelight Media. http://www.pbs.org/beyondbrown/history/index.html. Closure: Remind students about the project that was introduced previous to the start of the unit. Students are required to construct an e-portfolio related to an issue you are concerned with and want to bring attention to. It can be any issue, provided it meets the following criteria: (1) it is an issue people in your community are affected by; and (2) it is an issue people in another part of the world are affected by. You can use a social media platform, create a website with videos, blogs, and interactive features to inform a larger audience beyond your classmates. Lesson One, Day Two: Rationale: The creation of Freedom Schools in the Southern United States in 1964 was not the start of formal resistance against discriminatory public policies aimed at disenfranchising and under-educating black students. This lesson builds upon the previous lesson by looking at how Brown v. Board of Education (1954) did not eliminate “separate but equal” schooling in the United States. Attention is then given to the curriculum used in Freedom Schools and how the educators in the Freedom Schools engaged in critical pedagogy and students were engaged in critical citizenship education. Essential Question: To what extent is the legacy of the Freedom Schools relevant today? Objectives:(1) Students will complicate the myth of the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision and address problems that remained with regard to African American students and schooling in the United States.(2) Students will work with primary and secondary sources to analyze perspectives using a change over time lens.(3) Students will draw parallels between historical and contemporary events while also taking a critical position as to why these similarities remain.Procedures:1. Students will learn about Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County (also known as Brown II). The key concept for this part of the lesson is for students to understand the meaning of “with all deliberate speed” and how this affected the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). 2. Show a short (perhaps 10 minute) clip from Eyes on the Prize on Freedom Summer 1964 and the purpose of the Freedom Schools, who taught, and what their goals were.3. Use the questions and concepts included in the Freedom Schools curriculum regarding power and power structures (p. 19). Address the role of schools in perpetuating inequity and the role of power in how schools are run and what they produce. This will transition into the video clips on inequities in schools despite the Brown ruling.Introducing the project for the unit previous to beginning the unit is helpful so students do not have to spend time choosing a topic to work on. This is also a good way to do a pre-test to measure students’ background related to the issues addressed in the unit to inform what should be covered on the first day to provide students with foundational knowledge.
19 members: 11 who are elected and eight who are appointed by the governor.Students need to learn more than structures and function of government (state & local) in favor of who, how, and why. How does this change the nature of a students’ thinking in a Government course?Giroux, in an article on the student protests that made up part of the occupy movement in Quebec in Canada, wrote: “In the process of thinking seriously about structures of power, state formation, militarism, capitalist formations, class and pedagogy, the protesters have refused to substitute moral indignation for the hard work of contributing to critical education and enabling people to expand the horizons of their own sense of agency in order to collectively challenge established structures of financial and cultural power” (Giroux, 2012).
Procedures:1. An overview of why the Occupy Wall Street movement began, using a map to identify the major cities involved.--This will include discussion of the Occupy Wall Street movement that began in 1967 (Image One). 2. Using http://www.officialoccupythehood.org/, students will develop an understanding of why OTH began, its goals, and complete a graphic organizer on how it compares with the OWS movement.--Students will work with newspaper articles and videos to compare perspectives from within each movement. This will help students develop media literacy skills and research skills related to analyzing and evaluating sources.The Freedom Schools Curriculum provides a section on media literacy, asking questions regarding why Native Americans and African Americans are depicted as savages compared to white heroes? This also recognizes the importance of critical media literacy related to youth culture.
Procedures:(1) The lesson will begin by examining the global dynamics of the Great Depression and how global capitalism and the banking systems at that time compare to current issues and how deregulation was a cause of the global recession. --Key terms/concepts: interconnectedness, interdependence, (2) A comparative analysis will then be used to look at movements for independence and decolonization in the 1950s and 1960s, how the American Civil Rights movement fits into this global movement, and how these historical examples frame current issues as trans-national de-colonization rather than separate, national and local movements. -- Key terms/concepts: Independence/Decolonization movements, 1968 summer Olympics, social programs created by the Black Panther organization, South Africa’s ANC, etc.(3) Using an interactive timeline, students will compare the Arab Awakening to the OWS/OTH movements to understand the global interconnectedness of the multiple movements.Essential Question: How do people obtain and maintain power? Objectives:(1) Students will use the curriculum developed by the Freedom Schools to interrogate current leaders of transnational banks and corporations, along with national governing institutions to develop a better understanding of what is meant by power and how people attain and maintain power.(2) Students will be able to articulate their understanding of how their project at the local level connects to what they have learned about national and global movements for change. Procedures:(1) Students will be provided with a list of names and using the questions included in the Freedom Schools curriculum, they will have to investigate: (1) Who these people are; (2) how they got to the positions that they hold; (3) and what is their connection to power and capitalism?Some people students will investigate:Timothy Geithner, Secretary of Treasury, USAHasni Mubarak, former President, EgyptLloyd Blankfein, CEO, Goldman SachsMichelle Courchesne, Education Minister, Quebec, CanadaTohil Delgado, Leader of national Students’ Union, Spain.John S. Watson, CEO of Chevron Oil Company.(2) Following student inquiry, a discussion will be had about what is meant by power, who has power, and the degree to which the multiple movements have successfully challenged and/or changed the way in which power is wielded by these people and the institutions they are a part of. Discussion questions will be taken from the Freedom Schools curriculum and then revealed to students to show relevance of then to now. Closure: What power do you possess to affect change?
Remind students about the project that was introduced previous to the start of the unit. Students are required to construct an e-portfolio related to an issue you are concerned with and want to bring attention to. It can be any issue, provided it meets the following criteria: (1) it is an issue people in your community are affected by; and (2) it is an issue people in another part of the world are affected by. You can use a social media platform, create a website with videos, blogs, and interactive features to inform a larger audience beyond your classmates.Introducing the project for the unit previous to beginning the unit is helpful so students do not have to spend time choosing a topic to work on. This is also a good way to do a pre-test to measure students’ background related to the issues addressed in the unit to inform what should be covered on the first day to provide students with foundational knowledge.Procedures:Students will analyze articles that challenge the role of social media in relation to the movements to provide students with counter perspectives to what they have seen thus far in the unit. Students will have to create a position statement related to the place of social media and technology in the Occupy Movements.2. Students will discuss their position statements and evaluations of social media in relation to organizing protests and affecting lasting change. 3. Students will share their projects, their findings, and explain how successful they were in reaching the goals they identified at the outset of their projects. Closure: How will you continue to use what you have learned about critically minded global citizenship to work towards change?
For helping the kids plan the fundraiser, Harris says that she was suspended, eventually fired, and was told, “you’re a teacher, not an activist.” Berkeley: This afternoon, a group of students barricaded themselves on the sixth floor of Eshelman Hall at UC Berkeley, reclaiming a building that has been designated for demolition and demanding that the Administration abandon plans to cut support for the recruitment and retention of students of color. At this point, a couple hundred supporters have gathered in lower Sproul Plaza, while the police have closed off the building. Those barricading the building are calling on supporters to gather at Eshelman in order to protect those inside and intensify the force of their resistance. The demands: We Demand that the Multicultural Student Development Offices be restored to their former structure by Vice Chancellor GiborBasri. Countless students and the ASUC as an entity have voiced this opinion and received no changes.We demand that the budget allocation of the multicultural student development offices be increased to meet the needs of their work.
Occupy the Curriculum
Occupy the Curriculum:Critical Approaches for Teaching About the Occupy Movements Jason R. Harshman The Ohio State University NAME Conference— Philadelphia, PA November 29, 2012
OverviewA. Objectives and Theoretical FrameworkB. Mississippi Freedom School Curriculum (1964)C. A history of “occupying”D. Occupy the Hood: A Critical Sense of Place/SpaceE. OTH, social media, and citizenship educationF. Curriculum ideas for OTHG.Questions
Objectives: Build upon examples found in the curriculum used by the Freedom Schools in 1964 to examine current issues regarding political and economic power, civil rights, and citizenship education; Examine the Occupy the Hood and Occupy Wall Street movements through a critical lens in order to complicate the way in which the narrative of OWS was presented through domestic media outlets; Review curriculum that brings together the ideals of the Freedom Schools and the OTH movement to learn about and critically examine historical and contemporary issues pertinent to students who are part of a larger decolonization movement for social justice; Extend the conversation beyond the presentation by using an on- line blog forum for attendees to share ideas, reflections, and engage in discussion about these and other related topics.
Theoretical Framework History of resistance regarding students of color in the United States (Anderson, 1988; DuBois, 1903/1994; Scarborough, 1903; Woodson, 1933). Radical Teacher (1990): Mississippi Freedom School Curriculum— 1964 Postcolonial challenges in education (Sinos Coloma, 2009; Subedi & Daza, 2008; Wynter, 2003). Connecting critical perspectives of space to education and citizenship (Gruenewald, 2003; Gulson & Symes, 2007; Harvey, 2012; Kinloch, 2009; Lefebvre, 1974/1991; Schmidt, 2011; Soja, 2010). Critical approaches to curriculum and pedagogy in an era of neoliberalism (Apple, 2001; Cornbleth, 1990; Ellsworth, 1992; Freire, 1970; Giroux, 2011, 2012).
Mississippi Freedom Schools (1964) WANTED: • Willing to teach in a non-academic sort of setting; • Willing to participate in voter registration activity after school; • Willing to work with students scarred by the system. THE BASIC SET OF QUESTIONS:(1) Why are we (teachers and students) in Freedom Schools?(2) What is the Freedom Movement?(3) What alternatives does the Freedom Movement offer us?
Freedom School CurriculumSecondary Questions:(1) What does the majority culture have that we want?(2) What does the majority culture have that we don’t want?(3) What do we have that we want to keep?(4) What do we have that we don’t want to keep? Questions asked throughout the curriculum: -- Where do white children live? -- What is the relationship between housing, schools, and location? --What kind of jobs do white people do in your town or city? Are there black people in similar positions? -- What does Freedom of Assembly mean? Does it mean you have a right to come together? If so, why do demonstrators go to jail? -- What is a power structure?
The Mission of OWS:“#ows is fighting back against the corrosive power of major banks andmultinational corporations over the democratic process, and the role of WallStreet in creating an economic collapse that has caused the greatestrecession in generations. The movement is inspired by popular uprisings inEgypt and Tunisia, and aims to fight back against the richest 1% of peoplethat are writing the rules of an unfair global economy that is foreclosing onour future” (taken from OWS homepage: http://occupywallst.org/).Brookfield confirms: No moresleeping bags or lying down on the ground in Zuccotti (October 13, 2011)
The Mission of OTH:Occupy The Hood is an autonomousnational grassroots movement comprisedof activists, organizers and communitymembers working with like-mindedindividuals and organizations across theUS. Occupy The Hood stands in solidaritywith any progressive organization ormovement who desires and works towardsthe liberation, benefit and improvement ofthe quality of life of disenfranchisedPeople of Color.From Occupation to Liberation, De- Ife Johari Uhuru and MalikColonize, Empower The Hood. Rhasaan (#occupythehood)People of Color, and in particularBlack, Brown and Native/Indigenous “There was a problem with the modelPeople, have been disproportionately of the G.A. [General Assembly]… itaffected by the issues that the Occupy became almost dismissive … If youMovement has recently raised. didnt know the protocol and the handUnemployment rates double signals already, you didnt fit in. Thenationwide, disproportionate incarceration G.A. didnt work. For a lot of people, itrates, wealth gap, subprime was a tourist attraction.” ~Rhasaanmortgages/foreclosures.
The Convergence of Social Networking and Civic Education Civic Networking Civic NetworkingThe use of social media to: Education Access civic information • Providing citizens with and resources. the opportunity and training to Create a civic commons meaningfully, construc whereby citizens can tively, and safely use share, deliberate, and social networking for advocate on important civic purposes. civic issues.
OTH and Youth Citizenship/Action“What are our obligations to each otherand to the world? How inclusive are ourinstitutions, and if they are not, why not?…These are questions that were not onthe agenda for most people until theOccupy movement began.” ~ Grace LeeBoggs, 96, Civil and Workers’ RightsAdvocate in Detroit.
“Youthscapes” (Maira & Soep, 2005)Judging a website by it’s 21st century coverWhose voices are represented in your classroom?
Lesson #1: Freedom Schooling in the U.S (Two days)Rationale: The creation of Freedom Schools in the Southern United States in 1964 was notthe start of resistance against discriminatory public policies aimed at disenfranchising andunder-educating students of color. Since the bringing of slaves from Africa to the Caribbeanand North America, the powerful have denied a quality education to students of color. Thislesson provides a historical overview of resistance efforts taken by African Americans prior toand including the establishment of the Freedom Schools to provide students with a bettersense of efforts over time in order to complicate the myth propagated in classrooms that theCivil Rights movement began after WWII.Essential Question: How have students of color resisted inequities in education and societyover time?Objectives: (1) Students will understand the long history of resistance to unequal schooling from the perspective of African Americans in the United States. (2) Students will work with primary and secondary sources to analyze perspectives using a change over time lens. (3) Students will draw parallels between historical and contemporary events while also taking a critical position as to why these similarities remain.
Applying the Freedom Schools Curriculum in Ohio The Ohio Department of Education School Board members in 2012: 10 White men (2 were teachers), 1 African American man (a teacher), 7 White women (2 were teachers), 1 multi-racial woman (Real Estate). Educational and employment backgrounds are: business, law, postal worker, airline employee, education, and lobbyist (against labor contracts). Two members worked in the George W. Bush Administration. Questions to ask: How did these people secure these positions? Is the process by which they came to these positions transparent and fair? What are their values related to Diagram provided in education? Citizenship Curriculum, What is a power structure? Freedom Schools (1964)
Lesson #2: OWS and OTH (One to two days)Rationale: The goals of the Freedom Schools include critical citizenshipeducation and informed action to challenge and change power structuresin the United States. Societal inequalities that affect schools and viceversa became public protests in 2011 and despite the attention given tothese national protests, the voices of African Americans were not wellrepresented in the Occupy Wall Street movement. This lesson looks at theevolvement of the OWS movement and the Occupy The Hood (OTH)movement that developed to raise awareness around issues important topeople of color in the United States who were marginalized within thelarger OWS movement.Essential Question: Have the Occupy movements been successful inachieving their goals?Objectives:(1) Students will understand why the Occupy Movement began, why theOccupy the Hood Movement began, and the goals of each movement.(2) Students will analyze issues of power related to modern institutionsand organizations using the tools provided in the Freedom Schoolscurriculum.(3) Students will compare the goals of OWS and OTH to evaluate thesuccess of both movements.
Lesson #3: OTH/OWS and Global Decolonization (Two days)Rationale: Building upon the previous lesson during which studentslearned about the long history of the Occupy Wall Street movement andthe relationship between the OTH movement and the Civil RightsMovement, students will now take a global perspective of these and otherevents.Essential Question: To what extent are protests globally interconnected?Objectives:(1) Students will understand historical roots of contemporary movementsagainst corruption and neoliberalism around the world. This is meant toplace the Occupy Movements within a larger context of global anti-colonialism.(2) Students will use the curriculum developed by the Freedom Schools tointerrogate current leaders of transnational banks and corporations, alongwith national governing institutions to develop a better understanding ofwhat is meant by power and how people attain and maintain it.(3) Students will be able to articulate their understanding of how theirproject at the local level connects to what they have learned aboutnational and global movements for change.
Lesson #4: Students as Agents for Change (One to two days)Rationale: The culminating lesson of this unit will be used for students todiscuss the relationship between the projects they created to the themes,goals, and issues of the Occupy Movements. Students will discuss whatthey have learned about the role of technology in the movements and thendiscuss the connection of their projects to the principles and goals of thenational and global movements they studied.Essential Question: What is your place in the global movement(s) forchange?Objectives:(1) Students will evaluate the role of technology and social media in relationto the organization of the Occupy Movements.(2) Students will share the projects they created and articulate how theextent to which their projects have been effective in raising awareness andeffecting change.(3) Students will reflect on their role and responsibility related to socialjustice, power, and critical citizenship.
The students marched outside Frederick Douglass Academy in Detroit, Michigan and chanted, "We want... education! When do we want it? Now!”“Eshelman Hall Barricaded in Defense of Multicultural Student Spaces” (Tuesday, Nov. 27, 2012— UC Berkeley campus).
Blog address:http://occupythecurriculum.wordpress.com/ THANK YOU.