SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 30
Download to read offline
RESEARCH METHODS FOR
MANAGEMENT – ARM1611
M. JOSEPHIN REMITHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPT. OF BBA, PSGRKCW
Syllabus
 UNIT – I
Meaning and Importance of Research – Methods of research – Defining research problem –
Research process.
 UNIT – II
Research Design - Formulation –Sampling and Sampling Design - Sampling Method:
Probability Sampling and Non- probability Sampling.
 UNIT – III
Data Collection – Primary and Secondary Data – Designing of Questionnaire – Interview –
Observation – Pilot Study and Case Study. Measurement and Scaling Techniques. Data
Processing: Editing, Coding, Classification and Tabulation.
Cont…
 UNIT – IV
Statistical Measures for Data Analysis: Types of Hypothesis - Formulation and testing of
Hypothesis – t-test, Chi- Square Test and one-way Anova ( Simple Problems only).
 UNIT – V
Interpretation and Report Writing – Techniques of Interpretation – Steps in Report Writing –
Layout and Types of Report. Norms for using Index, Tables, Charts, Diagram, Appendix and
Bibliography.
UNIT – I
Topics
 Meaning of Research
 Importance of Research
 Methods of research
 Defining research problem
 Research process.
Introduction and Meaning of Research
 Research is the systematic efforts of gathering, analysing & interpreting the problems confronted by
humanity.
 It is a thinking process and scientific method of studying a problem and finding solution. “A
systematized efforts to gain new knowledge”
 Definitions "To know more and more about less and less"
 According to Redman and Mory research is defined as "Systematized effort to gain new
knowledge"
 According to Clifford Woody research is defined as "Research comprises defining and redefining
problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating
data making deductions and reaching conclusions, and at last carefully testing the conclusions
to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis".
Objectives of Research
 To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.
 To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a
group.
 To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is
associated with something else.
 To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables.
Importance of Research
 It helps in finding the solution to the students who are to write a PHD; it is a
careerism
 To Professionals in research methodology, research means a source of live hood.
 To Philosophers & thinkers research may mean the outlet for new ideas and
insights
 To literary man research means the development of new styles & creative work
 To the intellectuals research mean the generalization of new theories.
Methods of research
Descriptive vs. Analytical
 Applied vs. Fundamental
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
 Conceptual vs. Empirical
1. Descriptive vs. Analytical
 Descriptive Research It includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different
kinds. The major purpose is description of the state of affairs at present. The
researcher has no control over the variables; he or she can only report what has
happened or what is happening.
 Analytical Research In this type of research, the researcher has to use facts or
information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of
the material.
2. Applied vs. Fundamental
 Applied Research It aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing
a society or an industrial/business organization.
 Fundamental Research It is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the
formulation of a theory. Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed
fundamental research.
3. Quantitative vs. Qualitative
 Quantitative Research It is based on the quantitative measurements of some
characteristics. It is applicable to phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of
quantities.
 Qualitative Research It is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e.,
phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind.
4.Conceptual vs. Empirical
 Conceptual Research It is related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is
generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to
reinterpret existing ones.
 Empirical Research It relies on experience or observation alone, often without
due regard for system and theory. It is data-based research, coming up with
conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment.
Defining research problem
Research Problem – It refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in
the context of either theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a
solution for the same.
A research problem can be simply defined as a statement that identifies the
problem or situation to be studied.
Components of research problem
 An individual or a group with some difficulty or problem
 Objectives of research that are to be attained
 The environment in which the problem exists
 Two or more course of action or Alternative means for obtaining the objective
 Two or more possible Outcomes
 Objective of the study
Necessity of defining a problem
 The problem to be investigated must be clearly defined in order to –
 Discriminate relevant data from the irrelevant one
 To keep a track and make a strategy
 Formulate objectives
 Choose an appropriate Research Design
 Lay down boundaries or limits
Technique involved in defining a research problem
A researcher may define a research problem by:-
 Defining the statement of the problem in a general way.
 Understanding the nature of the problem.
 Surveying the available literature.
 Developing ideas through discussions an brain storming
 Rephrasing the research problems
Rules for defining a research problem
There are few rules that must be kept in mind while defining a research
problem. They are –
 Technical terms should be clearly defined.
 Basic assumptions should be stated.
 The criteria for the selection should be provided.
 Suitability of the time period and sources of data available must be considered.
 The scope of the investigation or the limits must be mentioned.
Research process
1. Formulating the research problem
 There are two types of research problems, viz., those which relate to states of nature and those
which relate to relationships between variables.
 At the very outset the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study,
 i.e., he must decide the general area of interest or aspect of a subject-matter that he would like
to inquire into.
 Initially the problem may be stated in a broad general way
 then the ambiguities (without any clarity), if any, relating to the problem be resolved.
2. Extensive literature survey
 Once the problem is formulated, a brief summary of it should be written down.
 It is compulsory for a research worker writing a thesis for a Ph.D. degree to write a synopsis of
the topic and submit it to the necessary Committee or the Research Board for approval.
 At this juncture the researcher should undertake extensive literature survey connected with the
problem.
 For this purpose, the abstracting and indexing journals and published or unpublished
bibliographies are the first place to go to.
 Academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books etc., must be tapped
depending on the nature of the problem.
3. Development of working hypotheses
 After extensive literature survey, researcher should state in clear terms the
working hypothesis or hypotheses.
 Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test
its logical or empirical consequences.
 As such the manner in which research hypotheses are developed is particularly
important since they provide the focal point for research.
4. Preparing the research design
 The research problem having been formulated in clear cut terms, the researcher
will be required to prepare a research design, i.e., he will have to state the
conceptual structure within which research would be conducted.
 The preparation of such a design facilitates research to be as efficient as possible
yielding maximal information.
 In other words, the function of research design is to provide for the collection of
relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money.
5. Determining sample design
 All the items under consideration in any field of inquiry constitute a ‘universe’or ‘population’.
 A complete enumeration of all the items in the ‘population’is known as a census inquiry.
 It can be presumed that in such an inquiry when all the items are covered no element of chance is
left and highest accuracy is obtained. But in practice this may not be true.
 Even the slightest element of bias in such an inquiry will get larger and larger as the number of
observations increases.
 Moreover, there is no way of checking the element of bias or its extent except through a resurvey
or use of sample checks.
6. Collecting the data
 In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data at hand are
inadequate, and hence,
 it becomes necessary to collect data that are appropriate.
 There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differ
considerably in context of money costs, time and other resources at the disposal
of the researcher.
 Primary data
 Secondary data
7. Execution of the project
 Execution of the project is a very important step in the research process.
 If the execution of the project proceeds on correct lines, the data to be collected would be
adequate and dependable.
 The researcher should see that the project is executed in a systematic manner and in time.
 If the survey is to be conducted by means of structured questionnaires, data can be readily
machine-processed.
 In such a situation, questions as well as the possible answers may be coded.
 If the data are to be collected through interviewers, arrangements should be made for proper
selection and training of the interviewers.
8. Analysis of data
 After the data have been collected, the researcher turns to the task of analysing them.
 The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as
establishment of categories,
 the application of these categories to raw data through coding, tabulation and then
drawing statistical inferences.
 Coding operation is usually done at this stage through which the categories of data
are transformed into symbols that may be tabulated and counted.
 Editing is the procedure that improves the quality of the data for coding.
9. Hypothesis-testing
 After analysing the data as stated above, the researcher is in a position to test the
hypotheses, if any, he had formulated earlier.
 Do the facts support the hypotheses or they happen to be contrary? This is the
usual question which should be answered while testing hypotheses.
 Various tests, such as Chi square test, t-test, F-test, have been developed by
statisticians for the purpose.
 The hypotheses may be tested through the use of one or more of such tests,
depending upon the nature and object of research inquiry.
10. Generalisations and interpretation
 If a hypothesis is tested and upheld several times, it may be possible for the
researcher to arrive at generalisation, i.e., to build a theory.
 As a matter of fact, the real value of research lies in its ability to arrive at
certain generalisation.
 If the researcher had no hypothesis to start with, he might seek to explain his
findings on the basis of some theory.
 It is known as interpretation.
11. Preparation of the report or the thesis
Finally, the researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him. Writing of
report must be done with great care keeping in view the following:
 1. The layout of the report should be as follows: (i) the preliminary pages; (ii) the main text, and
(iii) the end matter.
 2. Report should be written in a concise and objective style in simple language avoiding vague
expressions such as ‘it seems,’‘there may be’, and the like.
 3. Charts and illustrations in the main report should be used only if they present the information
more clearly and forcibly.
 4. Calculated ‘confidence limits’ must be mentioned and the various constraints experienced in
conducting research operations may as well be stated.
Thank You

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Research Methodology.ppt
Research Methodology.pptResearch Methodology.ppt
Research Methodology.ppt
 
Research problem
Research problemResearch problem
Research problem
 
The scientific research process
The scientific research processThe scientific research process
The scientific research process
 
Research design
Research design Research design
Research design
 
Types of Research Designs RS Mehta
Types of Research Designs RS MehtaTypes of Research Designs RS Mehta
Types of Research Designs RS Mehta
 
Research design
Research designResearch design
Research design
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
Research process
Research processResearch process
Research process
 
Lecture-2 Scientific Research and Research Methods
Lecture-2 Scientific Research and Research MethodsLecture-2 Scientific Research and Research Methods
Lecture-2 Scientific Research and Research Methods
 
Research Gaps Lecture 2.pdf
Research Gaps Lecture 2.pdfResearch Gaps Lecture 2.pdf
Research Gaps Lecture 2.pdf
 
Literature review - Research Methodology
Literature review - Research MethodologyLiterature review - Research Methodology
Literature review - Research Methodology
 
Introduction of research
Introduction of researchIntroduction of research
Introduction of research
 
basic research versus applied research
basic research versus applied researchbasic research versus applied research
basic research versus applied research
 
The Objective Of Research .
The Objective Of Research .The Objective Of Research .
The Objective Of Research .
 
Research process
Research processResearch process
Research process
 
research problem.pdf
research problem.pdfresearch problem.pdf
research problem.pdf
 
Developing a research proposal
Developing a research proposalDeveloping a research proposal
Developing a research proposal
 
Topic Selection
Topic SelectionTopic Selection
Topic Selection
 
Research methodology
Research methodologyResearch methodology
Research methodology
 
Writing a research proposal
Writing a research proposalWriting a research proposal
Writing a research proposal
 

Similar to Introduction to Research Methodology

Research Formulation by Dr. Ved Nath Jha.pptx
Research Formulation by Dr. Ved Nath Jha.pptxResearch Formulation by Dr. Ved Nath Jha.pptx
Research Formulation by Dr. Ved Nath Jha.pptxDrVednathJha1
 
Research methodology an introduction
Research methodology an introductionResearch methodology an introduction
Research methodology an introductionMaryam Bibi
 
What is a Research design and its types
What is a Research design and its typesWhat is a Research design and its types
What is a Research design and its typesShivangiVerma51
 
Research/thesis for post graduate students in dentistry.
Research/thesis for post graduate students in dentistry.Research/thesis for post graduate students in dentistry.
Research/thesis for post graduate students in dentistry.Shivangi Shreya
 
QUEENS COLLEGE BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS.pptx
QUEENS COLLEGE  BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS.pptxQUEENS COLLEGE  BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS.pptx
QUEENS COLLEGE BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS.pptxAsegidHmeskel
 
Rm 1 Intro Types Research Process
Rm   1   Intro Types   Research ProcessRm   1   Intro Types   Research Process
Rm 1 Intro Types Research Processitsvineeth209
 
Organizing scientific research
Organizing scientific researchOrganizing scientific research
Organizing scientific researchDeep parmar
 
Research Methodologyfull and complete.pptx
Research Methodologyfull and complete.pptxResearch Methodologyfull and complete.pptx
Research Methodologyfull and complete.pptxahamedaslambasha1
 
Research process description details.pptx
Research process description details.pptxResearch process description details.pptx
Research process description details.pptxSuganthiLoganathan2
 
Research methodology ch-1 presentation.pptx
Research methodology ch-1 presentation.pptxResearch methodology ch-1 presentation.pptx
Research methodology ch-1 presentation.pptxJabir Hussain
 
Research Projec & Research Designt.pptx
Research Projec & Research Designt.pptxResearch Projec & Research Designt.pptx
Research Projec & Research Designt.pptxSaiPrasad247616
 
An overview of research methodology
An overview of research methodologyAn overview of research methodology
An overview of research methodologyYuga Priya Satheesh
 
Research paper writing
Research paper writingResearch paper writing
Research paper writingmaullikarai
 
Research, an indispensable tool in patient care
Research, an indispensable tool in patient careResearch, an indispensable tool in patient care
Research, an indispensable tool in patient careAbdulrahman salihu kombo
 
research process in nursing nursing process.ppsx
research process in nursing  nursing process.ppsxresearch process in nursing  nursing process.ppsx
research process in nursing nursing process.ppsxlovedhaliwal1
 
UNIT II RESEARCH PROBLEM.docx
UNIT II RESEARCH PROBLEM.docxUNIT II RESEARCH PROBLEM.docx
UNIT II RESEARCH PROBLEM.docxDGayathiry
 
Dr. Balamurugan_Research Process_Bala.pdf
Dr. Balamurugan_Research Process_Bala.pdfDr. Balamurugan_Research Process_Bala.pdf
Dr. Balamurugan_Research Process_Bala.pdfBalamurugan M
 

Similar to Introduction to Research Methodology (20)

Research Formulation by Dr. Ved Nath Jha.pptx
Research Formulation by Dr. Ved Nath Jha.pptxResearch Formulation by Dr. Ved Nath Jha.pptx
Research Formulation by Dr. Ved Nath Jha.pptx
 
Research methodology an introduction
Research methodology an introductionResearch methodology an introduction
Research methodology an introduction
 
RM_Ch_1.pdf
RM_Ch_1.pdfRM_Ch_1.pdf
RM_Ch_1.pdf
 
What is a Research design and its types
What is a Research design and its typesWhat is a Research design and its types
What is a Research design and its types
 
Research/thesis for post graduate students in dentistry.
Research/thesis for post graduate students in dentistry.Research/thesis for post graduate students in dentistry.
Research/thesis for post graduate students in dentistry.
 
QUEENS COLLEGE BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS.pptx
QUEENS COLLEGE  BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS.pptxQUEENS COLLEGE  BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS.pptx
QUEENS COLLEGE BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS.pptx
 
Research process
Research process Research process
Research process
 
Brm unit i - cheet sheet
Brm   unit i - cheet sheetBrm   unit i - cheet sheet
Brm unit i - cheet sheet
 
Rm 1 Intro Types Research Process
Rm   1   Intro Types   Research ProcessRm   1   Intro Types   Research Process
Rm 1 Intro Types Research Process
 
Organizing scientific research
Organizing scientific researchOrganizing scientific research
Organizing scientific research
 
Research Methodologyfull and complete.pptx
Research Methodologyfull and complete.pptxResearch Methodologyfull and complete.pptx
Research Methodologyfull and complete.pptx
 
Research process description details.pptx
Research process description details.pptxResearch process description details.pptx
Research process description details.pptx
 
Research methodology ch-1 presentation.pptx
Research methodology ch-1 presentation.pptxResearch methodology ch-1 presentation.pptx
Research methodology ch-1 presentation.pptx
 
Research Projec & Research Designt.pptx
Research Projec & Research Designt.pptxResearch Projec & Research Designt.pptx
Research Projec & Research Designt.pptx
 
An overview of research methodology
An overview of research methodologyAn overview of research methodology
An overview of research methodology
 
Research paper writing
Research paper writingResearch paper writing
Research paper writing
 
Research, an indispensable tool in patient care
Research, an indispensable tool in patient careResearch, an indispensable tool in patient care
Research, an indispensable tool in patient care
 
research process in nursing nursing process.ppsx
research process in nursing  nursing process.ppsxresearch process in nursing  nursing process.ppsx
research process in nursing nursing process.ppsx
 
UNIT II RESEARCH PROBLEM.docx
UNIT II RESEARCH PROBLEM.docxUNIT II RESEARCH PROBLEM.docx
UNIT II RESEARCH PROBLEM.docx
 
Dr. Balamurugan_Research Process_Bala.pdf
Dr. Balamurugan_Research Process_Bala.pdfDr. Balamurugan_Research Process_Bala.pdf
Dr. Balamurugan_Research Process_Bala.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...
HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...
HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...kumarpriyanshu81
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of Cybersecurity
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of CybersecurityDORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of Cybersecurity
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of CybersecurityPECB
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media ComponentJordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17Celine George
 
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptxmary850239
 
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdfMJDuyan
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...DrVipulVKapoor
 
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...EduSkills OECD
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLSelf directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLspmdoc
 
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressMaria Paula Aroca
 
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdfMJDuyan
 
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdfExecutive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdfTechSoup
 

Recently uploaded (20)

HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...
HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...
HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of Cybersecurity
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of CybersecurityDORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of Cybersecurity
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of Cybersecurity
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database ReleaseIsrael Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
 
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media ComponentJordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
 
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
 
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
 
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
 
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLSelf directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
 
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
 
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
 
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdfExecutive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
 

Introduction to Research Methodology

  • 1. RESEARCH METHODS FOR MANAGEMENT – ARM1611 M. JOSEPHIN REMITHA ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPT. OF BBA, PSGRKCW
  • 2. Syllabus  UNIT – I Meaning and Importance of Research – Methods of research – Defining research problem – Research process.  UNIT – II Research Design - Formulation –Sampling and Sampling Design - Sampling Method: Probability Sampling and Non- probability Sampling.  UNIT – III Data Collection – Primary and Secondary Data – Designing of Questionnaire – Interview – Observation – Pilot Study and Case Study. Measurement and Scaling Techniques. Data Processing: Editing, Coding, Classification and Tabulation.
  • 3. Cont…  UNIT – IV Statistical Measures for Data Analysis: Types of Hypothesis - Formulation and testing of Hypothesis – t-test, Chi- Square Test and one-way Anova ( Simple Problems only).  UNIT – V Interpretation and Report Writing – Techniques of Interpretation – Steps in Report Writing – Layout and Types of Report. Norms for using Index, Tables, Charts, Diagram, Appendix and Bibliography.
  • 4. UNIT – I Topics  Meaning of Research  Importance of Research  Methods of research  Defining research problem  Research process.
  • 5. Introduction and Meaning of Research  Research is the systematic efforts of gathering, analysing & interpreting the problems confronted by humanity.  It is a thinking process and scientific method of studying a problem and finding solution. “A systematized efforts to gain new knowledge”  Definitions "To know more and more about less and less"  According to Redman and Mory research is defined as "Systematized effort to gain new knowledge"  According to Clifford Woody research is defined as "Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data making deductions and reaching conclusions, and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis".
  • 6. Objectives of Research  To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.  To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group.  To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else.  To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables.
  • 7. Importance of Research  It helps in finding the solution to the students who are to write a PHD; it is a careerism  To Professionals in research methodology, research means a source of live hood.  To Philosophers & thinkers research may mean the outlet for new ideas and insights  To literary man research means the development of new styles & creative work  To the intellectuals research mean the generalization of new theories.
  • 8. Methods of research Descriptive vs. Analytical  Applied vs. Fundamental Quantitative vs. Qualitative  Conceptual vs. Empirical
  • 9. 1. Descriptive vs. Analytical  Descriptive Research It includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose is description of the state of affairs at present. The researcher has no control over the variables; he or she can only report what has happened or what is happening.  Analytical Research In this type of research, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
  • 10. 2. Applied vs. Fundamental  Applied Research It aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization.  Fundamental Research It is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed fundamental research.
  • 11. 3. Quantitative vs. Qualitative  Quantitative Research It is based on the quantitative measurements of some characteristics. It is applicable to phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of quantities.  Qualitative Research It is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind.
  • 12. 4.Conceptual vs. Empirical  Conceptual Research It is related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.  Empirical Research It relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. It is data-based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment.
  • 13. Defining research problem Research Problem – It refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same. A research problem can be simply defined as a statement that identifies the problem or situation to be studied.
  • 14. Components of research problem  An individual or a group with some difficulty or problem  Objectives of research that are to be attained  The environment in which the problem exists  Two or more course of action or Alternative means for obtaining the objective  Two or more possible Outcomes  Objective of the study
  • 15. Necessity of defining a problem  The problem to be investigated must be clearly defined in order to –  Discriminate relevant data from the irrelevant one  To keep a track and make a strategy  Formulate objectives  Choose an appropriate Research Design  Lay down boundaries or limits
  • 16. Technique involved in defining a research problem A researcher may define a research problem by:-  Defining the statement of the problem in a general way.  Understanding the nature of the problem.  Surveying the available literature.  Developing ideas through discussions an brain storming  Rephrasing the research problems
  • 17. Rules for defining a research problem There are few rules that must be kept in mind while defining a research problem. They are –  Technical terms should be clearly defined.  Basic assumptions should be stated.  The criteria for the selection should be provided.  Suitability of the time period and sources of data available must be considered.  The scope of the investigation or the limits must be mentioned.
  • 19. 1. Formulating the research problem  There are two types of research problems, viz., those which relate to states of nature and those which relate to relationships between variables.  At the very outset the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study,  i.e., he must decide the general area of interest or aspect of a subject-matter that he would like to inquire into.  Initially the problem may be stated in a broad general way  then the ambiguities (without any clarity), if any, relating to the problem be resolved.
  • 20. 2. Extensive literature survey  Once the problem is formulated, a brief summary of it should be written down.  It is compulsory for a research worker writing a thesis for a Ph.D. degree to write a synopsis of the topic and submit it to the necessary Committee or the Research Board for approval.  At this juncture the researcher should undertake extensive literature survey connected with the problem.  For this purpose, the abstracting and indexing journals and published or unpublished bibliographies are the first place to go to.  Academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books etc., must be tapped depending on the nature of the problem.
  • 21. 3. Development of working hypotheses  After extensive literature survey, researcher should state in clear terms the working hypothesis or hypotheses.  Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences.  As such the manner in which research hypotheses are developed is particularly important since they provide the focal point for research.
  • 22. 4. Preparing the research design  The research problem having been formulated in clear cut terms, the researcher will be required to prepare a research design, i.e., he will have to state the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted.  The preparation of such a design facilitates research to be as efficient as possible yielding maximal information.  In other words, the function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money.
  • 23. 5. Determining sample design  All the items under consideration in any field of inquiry constitute a ‘universe’or ‘population’.  A complete enumeration of all the items in the ‘population’is known as a census inquiry.  It can be presumed that in such an inquiry when all the items are covered no element of chance is left and highest accuracy is obtained. But in practice this may not be true.  Even the slightest element of bias in such an inquiry will get larger and larger as the number of observations increases.  Moreover, there is no way of checking the element of bias or its extent except through a resurvey or use of sample checks.
  • 24. 6. Collecting the data  In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data at hand are inadequate, and hence,  it becomes necessary to collect data that are appropriate.  There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differ considerably in context of money costs, time and other resources at the disposal of the researcher.  Primary data  Secondary data
  • 25. 7. Execution of the project  Execution of the project is a very important step in the research process.  If the execution of the project proceeds on correct lines, the data to be collected would be adequate and dependable.  The researcher should see that the project is executed in a systematic manner and in time.  If the survey is to be conducted by means of structured questionnaires, data can be readily machine-processed.  In such a situation, questions as well as the possible answers may be coded.  If the data are to be collected through interviewers, arrangements should be made for proper selection and training of the interviewers.
  • 26. 8. Analysis of data  After the data have been collected, the researcher turns to the task of analysing them.  The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories,  the application of these categories to raw data through coding, tabulation and then drawing statistical inferences.  Coding operation is usually done at this stage through which the categories of data are transformed into symbols that may be tabulated and counted.  Editing is the procedure that improves the quality of the data for coding.
  • 27. 9. Hypothesis-testing  After analysing the data as stated above, the researcher is in a position to test the hypotheses, if any, he had formulated earlier.  Do the facts support the hypotheses or they happen to be contrary? This is the usual question which should be answered while testing hypotheses.  Various tests, such as Chi square test, t-test, F-test, have been developed by statisticians for the purpose.  The hypotheses may be tested through the use of one or more of such tests, depending upon the nature and object of research inquiry.
  • 28. 10. Generalisations and interpretation  If a hypothesis is tested and upheld several times, it may be possible for the researcher to arrive at generalisation, i.e., to build a theory.  As a matter of fact, the real value of research lies in its ability to arrive at certain generalisation.  If the researcher had no hypothesis to start with, he might seek to explain his findings on the basis of some theory.  It is known as interpretation.
  • 29. 11. Preparation of the report or the thesis Finally, the researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him. Writing of report must be done with great care keeping in view the following:  1. The layout of the report should be as follows: (i) the preliminary pages; (ii) the main text, and (iii) the end matter.  2. Report should be written in a concise and objective style in simple language avoiding vague expressions such as ‘it seems,’‘there may be’, and the like.  3. Charts and illustrations in the main report should be used only if they present the information more clearly and forcibly.  4. Calculated ‘confidence limits’ must be mentioned and the various constraints experienced in conducting research operations may as well be stated.