Present Time Frame• Present Simple vs. Present Progressive ▫ Present Simple Recurring habits and skills I drink coffee in the morning. Facts Flowers need water to live. Permanent situations We live in Saint Louis. States and Conditions Doctors have a lot of responsibility
Present Time Frame• Present Simple vs. Present Progressive ▫ Present Progressive Action in progress at time of speaking/writing I am drinking coffee right now. Action that is happening around time of speaking/writing The cold weather is killing my plants. Temporary situations We are living in Saint Louis (until I finish my job here). Actions The doctors are having a lot of fun at the party
Present Time FrameDynamic vs Nondynamic verbsDynamic: Nondynamic:Verbs that describe actions Verbs that describe states The dog is running. Dogs like to run. I am eating. I want to eat She drinks coffee. She needs coffee.
Present Time FrameDynamic vs Nondynamic verbsDynamic can be progressive: Nondynamic can not be progressive: The dog is running. Dogs like to run. I am eating. I want to eat She is drinking coffee. She needs coffee.
Present Perfect• Something that continues from past until present: ▫ I have lived in Saint Louis for 8 years. ▫ I lived in New York for 8 years.• Something that is still true now: ▫ I have learned how to adapt to American culture. ▫ I learned how to adapt to Japanese culture when I lived there (2 years ago).• Some connection to the present situation (experiences): ▫ I have been to Hawaii. ▫ I have eaten grasshoppers.
Present Perfect• Something that happened very recently: ▫ I have just met Barack Obama! ▫ We have just arrived here.• When using ‘ever’, ‘never’, or ‘since’: ▫ I have never learned how to play piano. ▫ Have you ever learned how to paint? ▫ She has studied at SLU since 2009.
Future Forms• Will Future ▫ You will have 16 children. (prediction) ▫ Don’t worry! I will pick up that glass. (decision) ▫ Plants will die if you don’t give them water (general truth)• Going to Future ▫ I’m going to play football with my friends this weekend. (plan/intention)• Present Progressive Future ▫ I’m playing football with my friends this weekend. (plan/intention – similar to going to future)
Future Forms• Present Simple Future ▫ Our plane leaves at 4:10. (schedule/timetable) ▫ My birthday is Friday. (schedule/event) ▫ Tomorrow is another day. (absolute certainty)• Modal to Future ▫ I should go to the zoo this weekend. (uncertainty) ▫ He might play baseball this weekend. (uncertainty)
Noun ModifiersDeterminer Intensifier Adjectives Noun Noun Modifying and modifier Phrases Participlesthe/a/an Really Old/new Stone Wall •Next to theSome/no Very Interesting University Campus riverMy/your Slightly Red/green •DescribedThese/those in the book
Noun Modifiers – adjectives orderOpinion Appearance Age Color OriginGood Big Old Red WoodenBad Heavy New Black MetalUgly Round Young Green FrenchInteresting Chipped JapaneseNice Broken
PassivesHow to make passives: The Egyptians constructed the Pyramids. The Pyramids were constructed by the Egyptians.
PassivesHow to make passives:The cookie is eaten by Steve. Past? Present Perfect? Present Progressive? Future?
Transitive vs. Intransitive VerbsTransitive Verbs: Verbs that have receivers (objects) for example: *Transitive Verbs can be Passive I was punished by my mother for being late.Intransitive Verbs: Verbs that do not have receivers (objects) for example: *Intransitive Verbs can not be Passive I arrived home at 11:00 PM. See page 56 for list of some intransitive verbs