THE ROLE OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION IN INDIANELECTRICITY PARADIGMJitendra Singh Bhadoriya ( School of instrumentation davv ,indore)Abstract—this paper is an overview of some of the main issues in distributed generation(DG). It discusses various aspects of DG such as definitions, technologies, distributed powerapplication, economics, environmental performance, reliability issues, the role of DG in thenew electricity paradigm of India, and the comparative study of DG in India with respect tosome developed country. It also presents some of the challenges that DG systems areconfronting today. In this article, some benefits and potential problems of DG systems arebrought out, and the current status of DG systems operation is presented.I. INTRODUCTION-The concept of distributed generation, which is now gaining worldwide acceptance, wasstarted in the USA almost a decade ago. The earliest electric power systems were distributedgeneration (DG) systems intended to cater to the requirements of local areas. Subsequenttechnology developments driven by economies of scale resulted in the development of largecentralized grids connecting up entire regions and countries. The design and operatingphilosophies of power systems have emerged with a focus on centralized generation. Duringthe last decade, there has been renewed interest in DG. The relevance of these options for adeveloping country context is examined using data for India.New concerns are emerging in the power industry today. For example, although hydro powerplants are recognized to be environmentally friendly, it is difficult to find new sites for hydropower plant installations in developed countries. Furthermore, some countries such asGermany and Sweden have enacted laws to decommission nuclear power plants, and underpublic pressure, retired nuclear power plants would not be replaced . Additionally, in the
deregulated power sector of today, it is not easy to convince market players to invest inmultibillion dollar power generation and transmission projects where the payback period maybe very long .These issues, and the decentralization of power systems and liberalization ofthe electricity sector, along with dramatically growing demand for electricity in developedcountries has made DG an attractive option that has been reconsidered by various entities inthe new electricity market such as customers, power distributors, power producers, regulatorsand researchers.II. DG DefinitionsAs per Wikipedia collections Distributed Generation (DG) is also known as on-sitegeneration, dispersed generation, embedded generation, decentralized generation, etc. Itvaries from country to country. Over the last century, be it developed nation or developingnation, on account of rapid industrialization causing high rate of growth in the demand forelectricity, everyone resorted to establishment of large scale centralized generation facility.IEEE defines the generation of electricity by facilities sufficiently smaller than central plants,usually 10 MW or less, so as to allow interconnection at nearly any point in the powersystem, as Distributed Resources  The plants concerned were based on use of fossil-fuel(solid, liquid as well as gas), hydro, nuclear elements. Due to the economy of scale with largeunit size, it became possible to have big centralized power stations near the sources to deliverpower to load centers through the medium of high voltage transmission lines over a longdistance. From environment point of view as well due to limitation of natural resources, it isin fact advantageous too to have the plants away from populated areas. Of course like powergrid, gas grid has also been constructed that allows use of less polluting natural gas-basedplants right at the load center, where it may not be uncommon to have waste heat recoveryand use combined cycle plant to achieve higher efficiency and at the same time for heating inwinter days, if the need be. On the other hand Distributed Generation too is a method to
reckon with, particularly when unbundling of power sector has come up with generation,transmission, and distribution recognized as distinct entities. Low capital investment, localuse of generated power by the load, absence of any high voltage transmission system, etc.lead to flourishing of this type of decentralized generation. Advancement of technology withrenewable energy sources, gradual reduction in cost, ease of operation and maintainability,etc., all go in favor of Distributed Generation as source of green power. Also if it is not asreplacement to centralized large generation, it is at least to supplement the entire effort ofgenerating capacity addition to a great extent. Further in the context of absence of right-ofway for drawing new high voltage lines, it is a boon as it envisages connectivity through lowvoltage networks only and that too over short distance. In UK Distributed Generation isdefined  as a generation plant that is connected to a distribution network and not to atransmission network. The US Department of Energy (DOE) defines DG as follows:“Distributed power is modular electric generation or storage located near the point of use.Distributed systems include biomass-based generators, combustion turbines, thermal solarpower and photovoltaic systems, fuel cells, wind turbines, micro turbines, engines/generatorsets, and storage and control technologies. Distributed resources can either be grid connectedor independent of the grid. Those connected to the grid are typically interfaced at thedistribution system” .In a similar tone in USA it is referred to as small scale generation ofelectric power by a unit sited close to the load being served. Both of these justify termingDistributed Generation as embedded to distribution system. However, as per AmericanCouncil for an Energy Efficient Economy for Distribution Power Generation, its is alsoknown as any technology that produces power outside of the utility, which is in fact the casefor this type of generation. Furthermore, in the literature, terms such as embedded generation,dispersed generation, distributed energy resources or DER and decentralized generation, havealso been used in the context of DG. The term dispersed generation is usually referred to a
distributed power generation unit regardless of the technology, and whether it is connected to the grid or completely independent of the grid  In India too effectively it means decentralized small scale generation directly supplying load and having interconnection at low voltage with distribution network. Moreover it is very often in the context of electrification of rural areas including remote villages / hamlets. The above definitions do not specify any criterion or classification of DG based on their capacity. Although, there is no generally accepted rule or standard, the following ratings are used in different countries and situations: 1) The DOE considers distributed power systems to typically range from less than a kilowatt (kW) to tens of megawatts (MW) in size as DG unit . 2) The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) considers small generation units from a few kW up to 50 MW and/or energy storage devices typically sited near customer loads or distribution and sub-transmission substations as distributed energy resources . 3) According to the Gas Research Institute, typically between 25 kW to 25 MW generation units are considered as DG . 4) Swedish legislation treats generating units under 1500 kW differently from those unit capacities higher than 1500 kW. Then, it can be considered that DG capacity in Sweden is defined as those units under 1500 kW . From the above discussion, it is evident that capacity specification for DG units is not universally defined. Various generating schemes under completely diverse rating, behavior, regulation, purpose and locations are currently being considered as DG in the power industry.III. Indian power sectorIndia had an installed capacity of 2, 10,951.72 MW (Ministry of Power,) in the centralizedpower utilities on 31st March2012. Of this 140976.18 MW is accounted for by thermal power
plants, 39,339.40MW of large hydro plants and 4,780.00 MW of nuclear, 25,856.14 MW ofrenewable energy resources (Shown in Table 1). The focus of power planning has been toextend the centralized grid throughout the country. However the capacity addition has notbeen able to keep pace with the increasing demand for electricity. This is reflected by thepersistent energy and peak shortages in the country. This requires an average capacity additionof more than 10,000MW per year. Centralized generation alone is unlikely to meet this target.In this context DG is likely to be important. DG also has the advantage of improving tail-endvoltages, reducing distribution losses and improving system reliability. The present installedcapacity of DG is about 13,000MW (10,000MW diesel, 3000MW renewable). The majority ofthis is accounted for by diesel engines that are used for back-up power (in the event of gridfailure) and operate at very low load factors. The share of the energy generation from DG ismarginal (about2–3% of the total generation). Apart from the diesel engines, the DG optionsthat have been promoted in India are modern renewable. India is probably the only countrywith a separate Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES). The renewable energyinstalled capacity was 205.5MW in 1993 (104.6MW small hydro, 39.9MW Wind). Thisincreased to 2978 MW in 2001 (as on 31st March2001) and accounted for almost 3% ofIndia’s installed power capacity (MNES, 2001; Annual Reports MNES, 2000, 2001, 2002).The growth rate of installed renewable power capacity during the period 1993–2001 was 39%per year. During the period January 2000–April 2001the installed capacity increased from1600MW to 2978MW (an annual growth rate of 49%).. The major contributors are smallhydro 25MW which accounts for 1341MW (45%) and wind which accounts for 1267MW(42%). The installed capacity in Biomass based power generation is 308MW (10.3%), withmost of it coming from biogases based cogeneration. Most of the installed capacity availablefrom renewable is accounted for by grid connected systems (wind, small hydro and biomasscogeneration). These accounts for about 3% of India’s installed capacity contribute to about
1–2% of the total generation (due to low capacity factors on renewable). The growth rate hasbeen significant (above 30% per year). This has been facilitated by an enabling policyenvironment and a supportive government. Despite the emphasis on extending the centralizedgrid to the rural areas, 78 million rural households (Ministry of Power, 2003b) or 56.5% ofrural households are still un electrified. The recently passed Electricity Act (2003) has made ita statutory obligation to supply electricity to all areas including villages and hamlets. The actsuggests a two pronged approach encompassing grid extension and through standalonesystems. The act provides for enabling mechanisms for service providers in rural areas andexempts them from licensing obligations. MNES has been given the responsibility ofelectrification of 18,000 remote villages through renewable. The ministry has set up anambitious target of meeting 10% of the power requirements of India from renewable by 2012.In most cases, the areas to be electrified do not have sufficient paying capacity.. The mainrecommendations of the Committee are as under :- 1. The concept of Distributed Generation (D.G.) has been taken as decentralized generation and distribution of power especially in the rural areas. In India, the deregulation of the power sector has not made much headway but the problem of T&D losses, the unreliability of the grid and the problem of remote and inaccessible regions have provoked the debate on the subject. 2. The D.G. technologies in India relate to turbines, micro turbines, wind turbines, biomass, and gasification of biomass, solar photovoltaics and hybrid systems. However, most of the decentralized plants are based on wind power, hydra power and biomass and biomass gasification. The technology of solar photovoltaic is costly and fuel cells are yet to be commercialized. 3. In so far as the 18,000 villages in remote and inaccessible areas are concerned, the
extension of grid power is not going to be economical. Decentralized plants based on biomass, gasification of biomass, hydro power and solar thermal power and solar photovoltaic are the appropriate solution for these areas. A decision with regard to the available options will have to be taken depending on the feature of each site/village. 4. As regards the remaining un electrified villages, the responsibility should rest primarily with the State Governments. The Govt. of India would, however, act as the facilitator to them. 5. As people in many of the electrified villages are very much dissatisfied with the quality of grid power, such villages also encouraged to go ahead with the Distributed Generation Schemes. These should also be the responsibility of the State Governments. 6. Though India has made considerable progress in adopting technologies based on renewable sources of energy these are not yet capable of commercial application on a large scale. Most systems are subsidized by the Government or the utility. The power sector has significant losses and needs to ensure that the DG systems selected are likely to be cost-effective. For a large and dispersed rural country, decentralized power generation systems, where in electricity is generated at consumer end and thereby avoiding transmission and distribution costs, offers a better solution. Gokak Committee had gone into details about the concept of decentralized generation to meet the needs of rural massesIV. DG TECHNOLOGIES & CHALLENGES IN INDIAN SCENERIODG technologies are usually categorized as renewable or non-renewable technologies (shown
in table 2). Renewable technologies comprise solar either thermal or photovoltaic, wind,geothermal or ocean. Usually the location and size of wind power generators is suitable forconnecting to the distribution network; therefore it can be considered as DG. However,electricity generation from wind usually takes place in wind farms, owned by large powergeneration companies; hence these types of generation are usually excluded from DG in theliterature and for the same reasons are also not considered here. The internal combustionengines (ICE), combined cycles,combustion turbines, micro turbines and fuel cells are all examples of non-renewable DGtechnologies. Among all available technologies, combustion engines and turbines, microturbines,fuel cells and photovoltaic play an important role in DG applications . The Government ofIndia set up a Commission for Additional Sources of Energy in the Department of Science andTechnology on the lines of the Space Commission and the Atomic Energy Commission topromote R & D activities in the area. In 1982, a separate department of Non ConventionalEnergy Sources was created in the Smalls try of Energy. After a decade, the department waselevated and converted into a full-fledged Smalls try. The mounting burden of subsidy hasalso lead to the introduction of the new legislation referred to above. There are a number oftechnologies for distributed generation, the detailsof which are given below:i. The Internal Combustion Engine.ii. Biomassiii. Turbinesiv. Micro-turbinesv. Wind Turbines
vi. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)vii. Photovoltaicsviii. Fuel Cellsix. Small-Hydel.The Internal Combustion Engine: The most important instrument of the D. G systemsaround the world has been the Internal Combustion Engine. Hotels, tall buildings, hospitals,all over the world use diesels as a backup. Though the diesel engine is efficient, starts uprelatively quickly, it is not environment friendly and has high O & M costs. Consequently itsuse in the developed world is limited. In India, the diesel engine is used very widely onaccount of the immediate need for power, especially in rural areas, without much concerneither for long-term economics or for environment. i. Biomass: Biomass refers to renewable energy resources derived from organic matter, such as forest residues, agricultural crops and wastes, wood, wood wastes that are capable of being converted to energy. This was the only form of energy that was usefully exploited till recently. The extraction of energy from biomass is split into three distinct categories, solid biomass, biogas, and liquid bio fuels. Solid biomass includes the use of trees, crop residues, household or industrial residues for direct combustion to provide heat. Animal and human waste is also included in the definition for the sakes of convenience. It undergoes physical processing such as cutting and chipping, but retains its solid form. Biogas is obtained by an aerobically digesting organic material to produce the combustible gas methane There are two common technologies, one of fermentation of human and animal waste in specially designed digesters, the other of capturing methane from municipal waste landfill sites. Liquid bio fuels, which are used in place of
petroleum derived liquid fuels, are obtained by processing plants seeds or fruits of different types like sugarcane, oilseeds or nuts using various chemical or physical processes to produce a combustible liquid fuel. Pressing or fermentation is used to produce oils or ethanol from industrial or commercial residues such as biogases or from energy crops grown specifically for this purpose. ii. Turbines: Turbines are a commercialized power technology with sizes ranging between hundreds of kilowatts to several hundred megawatts. These are designed to burn a wide range of liquid and gaseous fuels and are capable of duel fuel operation. Turbines used in distributed generationVary in size between 1-30 MW and their operating efficiency is in the range of 24-35%. Theirability to adjust output to demand and produce high quality waste heat makes them a popularchoice in combined heat and power applications. iii. Micro-turbines: Micro turbines are installed commercially in many applications, especially in landfills where the quality of natural gas is low. These are rugged and long lasting and hold promise for Distributed Generation in India. iv. Wind-turbines: Wind turbines extract energy from moving air and enable an electric generator to produce electricity. These comprise the rotor (blade), the electrical generator, a speed control system and a tower. These can be used in a distributed generation in a hybrid mode with solar or other technologies. Research on adaptation of wind turbines for remote and stand-alone applications is receiving increasingly greater attention and hybrid power systems using 1-50-kilowatt (kW) wind turbines are being developed for generating electricity off the grid system. Wind turbines are also being used as grid connected distributed resources. Wind turbines are commercially available in a variety of sizes and power ratings ranging from one kW to over one MW. These typically require a Smallmum 9-mph average
wind speed sites.v. Concentrating Solar Power: Various mirror configurations are used to concentrate the heat of the sun to generate electricity for a variety of market applications that range from remote power applications of up to 1- 2kW to grid connected applications of 200MW or more. R & D efforts in the area of distributed generation applications are focused on small,modular, and dish/ design systems.vi. Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic power cells are solid state semi conductor devices that convert sunlight into direct current electrical power and the amount of power generated is directly related to the intensity of the light PV systems are most commonly used for standalone applications and are commercially available with capacities ranging between one kW to one MW. The systems are commonly used in India and can contribute a great deal for rural areas, especially remote and inaccessible areas. It can be of great help in grid connected applications where the quality of power provided by the grid is low. This is yet to be proved. High initial cost is a major constraint to large-scale application of SPV systems. R&D work has been undertaken for cost reduction in SPV cells, modules, and systems besides improvements in operational efficiency.vii. Fuel Cells: Fuel cells produce direct current electricity using an electromechanical process similar to battery as a result of which combustion and the associated environmental side effects are avoided. Natural gas or coal gas is cleaned in a fuel cell and converted to a hydrogen rich fuel by a processor or internal catalyst. The gas and the air then flow over an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte and thereby produces a constant supply of DC electricity, which is converted to high quality AC power by a power conditioner. Fuel cells are combined into stacks whose sizes can be varied (from one kW for mobile applications to 100MW plants
to add to base load capacity to utility plants) to meet customer needs.viii. Biomass Based Schemes: This can be considered under three distinct heads, National Project on Biogas Development, National Programmed on Bio-Mass Power/Cogeneration and Bio-Mass Gasified Programmer. The gas is piped for use as cooking and lighting fuel in especially designed stoves and lamps respectively and can also be used for replacing diesel oil in fuel engines for generation of motive power and electricity. The Floating Gas Holder Type, that is India or KVIC model and Fixed Dome Type which is made of brick masonry structure i.e. Deenabandhu model are among the indigenous designs of biogas plants. A Bag Type Portable Digester made of rubberized nylon fabric, suitable for remote and hilly areas, is being promoted. The recently developed methodology of on sight construction of Deenabandhu model with Ferro cement, which costs about 10 to 15% less as compared to the model constructed with bricks and cement, is getting popular in the Southern States.The National Project on Biogas Development was started in 1981-82.About 33.68 lacfamilies have been benefited upto March 2002. The Community and Institutional BiogasPlants Programme was initiated in 1992-93. In order to achieve recycling the cattle dungavailable in the villages and institutions for the benefit of the weaker sections as well.Biogas is generally used for motive power and generation of electricity under theprogramme in addition to meet the cooking fuel requirement. A total of 3,901 plants,including 600 night soil based Biogas plants had been installed up to March 2002.National Programme on Biomass Power/Cogeneration: The Government of India hasinitiated a National Programme on Biomass Power/Cogeneration. It aims at optimumutilization of a variety of biomass materials such as agro-residues, agro-industrial residues,and forestry based residues and dedicated energy plantations for power generation through
the adoption of latest conversion technologies. These include combustion, incineration, pyrolysis, gasification etc. using gas turbine, steam turbine, dual fuel engine, gas engine or a combination there of either for power generation alone or cogeneration of more than one energyNational Biomass Gasifier Programme: Biomass gasification is the process by which solidbiomass materials are broken down using heat to produce a combustible gas, known as theproducer gas. Common feedstocks for combustion include wood, charcoal, rice husks andcoconut shells. The producer gas can be used directly in a burner to provide process heat or itcan be used in IC engines, but it requires cleaning and cooling for the latter application. It canalso be used as a substitute for diesel oil in duel fuel engines for mechanical and electricalapplicationsEncouragement to technologies such as biomass briquetting and gasification for variousapplications in rural and urban areas, and R and D on Biomass Production and Gasification,are the important objectives of the programme. Biomass gasifier systems of up to 500 kWcapacity based on fuel wood have been indigenously developed and being manufactured in thecountry. Technology for producing biomass briquettes from agricultural residues and forestlitter at both household and industry levels has been developed. A total capacity of 51.3 MWhas so far been installed, mainl for stand-alone applications. ix. Wind Energy: The programme was initiated in the year 1983-84. A market- oriented strategy has been adopted right from the beginning and hence commercial development of the technology has been successfully achieved. Scientific assessment of wind resources throughout the country and a series of other systematic steps have facilitated the emergence of a cost effective technology. The wind power potential of the country was initially assessed at 20000 MW and
reassessed at 45000 MW subsequently assuming 1% of land availability for wind power generation in potential areas. The technical potential has been assessed at 13000MW assuming 20% grid penetration, which will go up with the augmentation of grid capacity in potential States. The Centre for wind energy technology (C- WET) is coordinating the Wind Resource Assessment Programme with the States and Nodal Agencies. Wind diesel projects are being taken up in Island regions and remote areas which are dependent on costly diesel for power generation .Two machines of 50 kW capacity each have been installed in the first phase of the project at Sagar Islands in West Bengal. Similar projects are being considered for Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.Solar Power Programme: The solar power programme comprises Solar Photovoltaic PowerProgramme and Solar Thermal Power Programmes.Under the Solar Photovoltaic Programme:, 27 grid interactive SPV projects have beeninstalled, with an aggregate capacity of 2.0 MW in Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Karnataka,Punjab, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, andUttar Pradesh. These are meant for voltage support applications in remote sections of weakgrids, peak shaving applications in public buildings in urban centers and for saving diesel usein islands. These are expected to generate and feed over 2.6 million units of electricityannually to the respective grids. In addition, ten projects of 900 kW capacity, are underdifferent stages of implementation. The solar photovoltaic systems can be used for a variety ofapplications, such as rural telecommunications, battery charging, road and railway signalingwhich are non subsidized. Only 3 MW out of the total aggregate capacity of 96 MW (9,80,000systems) is used by the power plants. In so far as rural areas are concerned.However, the technology is not yet ripe for being considered for DG application in India, as itis very expensive, and has not yet been commercially tried on a large scale even in the U. S.A.
The technologies referred to above are applied under various schemes for generation ofelectricity from renewable sources of energy in the country. A bird’s eye view of the schemeswould give a good insight into the status of Distributed Generation based on renewablesources of energy.V. Benefits of distributed generationUse of distributed generation is one of the many strategies electric utilities are considering tooperate their systems in the deregulated environment. Several DG technologies are showingpromise for this application. Inclusion of DG at the distribution level results in severalbenefits, among which are congestion relief, loss reduction, voltage support, peak shaving, andan overall improvement of energy efficiency, reliability, and power quality. The benefitsobtained by the introduction of DG should be weighed against the costs involved beforedeciding on the useof DG(shown in Table 3). As DG technologies improve and cost decrease, their use isexpected to riseInstalling small-scale distributed DGs instead of an aggregated large-scale DG can improvethe system reliability indices, depending on the locations of DGs, the number of customersand the sizes of the loads. The index improves if the DGs are located closer to the end of line.However, the reliability indices improve the most when the aggregated DG is placed at theend of the line .• Most of the beneﬁts of employing DG in existing distribution networks have both economicand technical implications and they are interrelated.The major technical beneﬁts are:• reduced line losses.
• Voltage proﬁle improvement.• reduced emissions of pollutants.• increased overall energy efficiency.• enhanced system reliability and security.• improved power quality.• relieved T&D congestion. The major economic beneﬁts are:• deferred investments for upgrades of facilities.• reduced O&M costs of some DG technologies.• enhanced productivity.• reduced health care costs due to improved environment.• reduced fuel costs due to increased overall efficiency.• reduced reserve requirements and the associated costs.• lower operating costs due to peak shaving.• increased security for critical loads. . Compared to traditional centralized generation, DG possesses advantages as follows .• Reducing the transmission and distribution costs, thus reducing energy loss.• Providing black start capability and spinning reserves, thus improving power reliability.• Providing improved security of supply.•Enabling development of sustainable and green electricity thus reducing environmentalresources used by central generation Easy and quicker installation on account of prefabricatedstandardized components.• Lowering of cost by avoiding long distance high voltage transmission• Environment friendly where renewable sources are used .
• Running cost more or less constant over the period of time with the use of renewable sources.• Possibility of user-operator participation due to lesser complexity more dependability withsimple construction, and consequent easy operation and maintenance .VI. Distributed Power ApplicationDistributed power technologies are typically installed for one or more of the followingpurposes:(i)Overall load reduction – Use of energy efficiency and other energy saving measures forreducing total consumption of electricity, sometimes with supplemental power generation.(ii) Independence from the grid – Power is generated locally to meet all local energy needs byensuring reliable and quality power under two different models.a. Grid Connected – Grid power is used only as a back up during failure of maintenance of theonsite generator.b. Off grid – This is in the nature of stand-alone power generation. In order to attain self-sufficiency it usually includes energy saving approaches and an energy storage device forback-up power. This includes most village power applications in developing countries.(iii) Supplemental Power- Under this model, power generated by the grid is augmented withdistributed generation for the following reasons: -a. Standby Power- Under this arrangement power availability is assured during grid outages.b. Peak shaving – Under this model the power that is locally generated is used fro reducing thedemand for grid electricity during the peak periods to avoid the peak demand charges imposedon big electricity users.(iv) Net energy sales – Individual homeowners and entrepreneurs can generate moreelectricity than they need and sell their surplus to the grid. Co-generation could fall into thiscategory.
(v) Combined heat and power - Under this model waste heat from a power generator iscaptured and used in manufacturing process for space heating, water heating etc. in order toenhance the efficiency of fuel utilization.(vi) Grid support – Power companies resort to distributed generation for a wide variety ofreasons. The emphasis is on meeting higher peak loads without having to invest ininfrastructure (line and sub-station upgrades).Most of the early adopters of distributed power wanted to stay connected to the grid, whichthey used either as a backup or for selling their surplus power to the power companies[ 17 ]VII. CONCLUSIONIndia is on right track to pursue development of Distributed Generation with the unbundling ofpower sector utilizing captive and co-generation, besides putting all out effort in harnessingvarious forms of new and renewable energy. Collective participation of industries, privateentrepreneurs, giant Corporations hitherto engaged in conventional power development is theessence of such venture. Liberalization of Government policy vis-à-vis support as well asregulatory mechanism in place is helping to create conducive atmosphere to achieve target setin this direction.VIII.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFor the accomplishment of this thesis work, expression and words run short to convey mygratitude to many individuals. This research work is an outcome of moral support andpersuasive interest dedicated from many individuals directly or indirectly involved. Thoughthe idea of the thesis started from characterizing a curricular obligation, never the less it has
taken the interest of learning to ever-new heights for us. I am indebted to MANIT, Bhopal.I would like to take this opportunity in expressing immense gratitude to my guide Dr. GangaAgnihotri, Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, MANIT, Bhopal, for her constantinspiration, useful criticism and immense support throughout the work. I am indebted for thehard work she has put in to produce this report in the best possible form.I would like to extend my honour to Dr. Appu Kuttan K.K. Director, MANIT, Bhopal,Dr. R.K. Nema Head of Electrical Department, MANIT, Bhopal, for their blessings andencouragement.I am thankful to the Staff Members of Department of Electrical Engineering, MANIT, Bhopal,for their co-operation in my work. Last but not least I would like to express my sincere thanksto all of my friends for their valuable support.Finally, my special thanks to my parents for their moral support and encouragement.IX. REFERENCES : A. M. Borbely and J. F. Kreider, Distributed Generation The Power Paradigm for the NewMillennium. CRC Press, 2001. “P1547 standard series for interconnecting distributed resources with electric powersystems,” IEEE, 1547 Work Group, Tech. Rep., 2003. Suresh Agrawal, “Distributed Generation using Renewable Sources of Energy – an IdealOption for Remote Village Electrification”, Proc. International Himalayan Small HydropowerSummit, Dehradun, India, Oct 12-13, 2006, pp. 114-121. The US Department of Energy, Office of Distributed Energy Resources, onlinepublications available at: http://www.eere.energy.gov/der/, 2003 T. Ackerman, G. Anderson, and L. Soder, “Distributed generation: a definition,” ElectricPower System Research, vol. 57, pp. 195–204, 2001. The Electric Power Research Institute, online publications available at:
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