Career Development for Individuals with Criminal Records
Career Development for Individuals with Criminal RecordsBret AndersonFrancina CarterJohn RakisCatherine Rose
National Institute of Corrections• U.S. Department of Justice• Federal Bureau of Prisons • NIC is a federal agency created in 1974 as a center of correctional knowledge to provide leadership and assistance to the field of corrections.
1 in 100• In 2008, 1 in every 99.1 adults was behind bars in America• More than 1.5 million were in state or federal prisons• More than 700,00 were in local jailshttp://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/topic_category.aspx?category=528
1 in 31• In addition, over 4.2 million were on probation• Over 800,000 were on parole• In total, over 7.3 million adults were under some form of correctional control, a ratio of 1 in 31http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/topic_category.aspx?category=528
The Criminal Justice System TodayAfter sharpincreases in the1980s and 1990s,the incarcerationrate has recentlygrown at a slowerpace.
Offender Reentry• Annually, approximately 750,000 are released from state and federal prisons• Over 9 million are released from local jails• 95% of all offenders will return to their communities
Barriers to Reentry and Employment• Definition-any problem or obstacle, real or perceived, to reaching a goal
Internal Barriers Those thought patterns that evoke negative perceptions of self, society and the workplace• Low self concept • Negative beliefs• Impulsiveness • Resentment and defiance• Poor planning and • Negative attitude toward decision making skills others and the law• Low level of satisfaction • Little self knowledge• No internal locus of • Rationalization for criminal control behavior
External Barriers Environmental and reality factors that limit goal attainment and increase risk related to job placement and career development• Lack of education • Employer attitudes• Poor work history • Lack of documents• Gender, age or race • Lack of transportation• • Little family support Addiction • Lack of child care,• Type of offense housing, money• Lack of soft skills required • Little knowledge of the by employers world of work
Strategies to Reduce BarriersAssessments – Risks and Needs: Identify static and dynamic criminogenic factors and likelihood of recidivism and what types of supervision and services would be most successful – Academic: Determine educational levels and special learning needs, focused on employment – Career Exploration: Instruments used to help determine occupational priorities and career ladder
Strategies to Reduce BarriersProgramming and interventions – Tailored directly to dynamic risk and need factors of each individual – Emphasis on evidence based practices – Cognitive behavioral programming – Career Pathways focused educational and vocational training – Partnerships with state and community resources to deliver services
Collateral Consequences • The Legal Action Center (LAC) provides a state-by-state and issue-by- issue overview of legal barriers facing ex-offenders. A “report card” using criteria developed by the LAC grades each state for its performance on key principles related to successful reentry of offenders. • www.lac.org
What are Myth Busters?• First product of the Federal Interagency Reentry Council• They are fact sheets, designed to clarify existing federal policies that affect formerly incarcerated individuals and their families in areas such as public housing, access to benefits, parental rights, employer incentives, and more.
What are Myth Busters?Each sheet addresses a common‘myth’ about reentry, rangingfrom financial aid toemployment opportunities.
EEOC’s New Criminal Record Guidance - April 25, 2012• Issued updated enforcement guidance on employers’ use of arrest and conviction records when making hiring decisions• Call for employers to assess applicants on an individual basis rather than excluding everyone with a criminal record through a blanket policy
EEOC’s New Criminal Record Guidance - April 25, 2012• Guidance provides significantly more detail and direction for employers.• Provides specific recommendations for how employer criminal record policies should be designed to comply with Title VII• Can be found at: http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/guidance/arrest_convi ction.cfm
So what does an Employment RetentionBehavioral-Based curriculum consist of?The Big Four employer based non-verbal skills – Getting to work on time – Being at work everyday when scheduled – Following the supervisor’s instructions – Getting along with co-workers These factors are how employers evaluate work ethic within the first month of employment.
What is Work Ethic?Employer Expectations Employee TranslationI expect you to show up to work every I will be there every day I don’t have aday you are scheduled no matter problem.what.I expect you to be at your workstation I am on time if I am in the vicinity ofwhen the work day starts. work.I expect you to follow the instructions I will follow the instructions of myyour supervisor gives you. supervisor unless I don’t agree with them or know better.I expect you to be a team player and I just need to do my job. I don’t need toget along with the people who already make friends with my coworkers.work here.
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Left early - ScheduledWeek home doctor’s emergency appointmentOne ScheduledWeek meeting with childsTwo teacher Court Called in sickWeek date scheduledThree Funeral for Late - carWeek friend troubleFour
Additional exercises• Personal schedule activity – this exercise helps to improve decision-making skills regarding personal schedule versus work schedule dynamics.• Temperament assessment – this exercise helps individuals determine their prevailing state of mind and plays a considerable role in determining how they view others and their reactions to others, ultimately helping to build or increase empathy.
Additional exercises• Evaluating dimensions of unemployment attribution style questionnaire. – Global or specific – External/internal – Stable or unstable – Combinations• Emotional intelligence (EQ) awareness – this exercise introduces concepts such as “Hot Buttons” and “Stress Management,” as a way to develop a personal awareness plan for normal workplace conflict scenarios.
Additional exercises• Financial relevancy – this exercise helps individuals develop a realistic financial spending plan to avoid poor decision-making habits leading to potential relapse or recidivism.
Why a behavioral-based employment retention curriculum?The purpose for recommending the implementation of abehavioral-based employment retention curriculum is three-fold:2.The implementation of this concept will place greater emphasis onthe importance of new hire behavior during the critical first month ofemployment.3.The implementation of this concept will act as the thread that weavesthe tapestry of Job Retention Training (JRT) elements.4.The implementation of this concept will encourage and instill thecooperation of the employers who hire offenders as a stakeholders incommunity reentry.
Websites• National Institute of Corrections• www.nicic.gov/owd• National HIRE Network• www.hirenetwork.org/resource.html• National Reentry Resource Center• www.nationalreentryresourcecenter.org