Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Both sides of the story:
Assessing audience participation in journalism through the concepts of
inclusion level and inclus...
Source: Loosen & Schmidt 2012: 874
Audience participation in journalism
Audience
Inclusion performance
Inclusion expectati...
Study design: four case studies
• Focus here: Comparison between 1st and 2nd case study: Tagesschau (newscast) and politic...
Operationalization of inclusion expectations (surveys)
Audience
Inclusion performanceInclusion performance
(Expected) incl...
Comparative logic in the research project
Case study 1: newscast
Casestudy2:talkshow
Audience
expectations
Inclusion dista...
Example
Journalistic role conception: self-image and external image (Newscast)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1...
Comparative logic in the research project
Case study 1: newscast
Casestudy2:talkshow
Audience
expectations
Inclusion dista...
Example
Motivation for participation via mail to the editors (Newscast & talk show)
Means based on a 5-point-Likert-scale ...
Comparative logic in the research project
Case study 1: newscast
Casestudy2:talkshow
Audience
expectations
Inclusion dista...
Example
Differences in inclusion distance regarding self-image and external image
12
3
4
56 7
8
9
10
1112
1314
1516
17
18
...
Summary, challenges, and further steps
• Example “inclusion distance within case study”: Small inclusion distance = high c...
(Re-)discovering the audience.
Journalism under social media conditions.
Project funded by the German Research Foundation ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Assessing audience participation in journalism through the concepts of inclusion level and inclusion distance

3,278 views

Published on

Presentation at the Future of Journalism 2013 Conference, Cardiff, UK, September 13th 2013

Published in: Education, News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

Assessing audience participation in journalism through the concepts of inclusion level and inclusion distance

  1. 1. Both sides of the story: Assessing audience participation in journalism through the concepts of inclusion level and inclusion distance Wiebke Loosen & Jan-Hinrik Schmidt @jpub20team Future of Journalism Conference | Cardiff| September 13th, 2013
  2. 2. Source: Loosen & Schmidt 2012: 874 Audience participation in journalism Audience Inclusion performance Inclusion expectations Inclusion performance Features f. audience participation Work process/routines Journalistic output/products Inclusion expectations Journalistic role conception Images of the audience Strategic rationales Journalists Participatory practices Degree of community orientation Motivations for participation Expectations concerning impact/influence of audience participation on journalism Inclusion distance Inclusion level 2 of 12
  3. 3. Study design: four case studies • Focus here: Comparison between 1st and 2nd case study: Tagesschau (newscast) and political talk show based on the survey data TV Print Information oriented daily newscast daily newspaper Debate oriented weekly political talk show weekly newspaper • Multi method design: in-depth interviews (newsroom staff, audience members), surveys (newsroom staff, users of the website), content analysis of user-generated content/comments Case Study Respondents Sample size Field time survey Daily TV Newscast Editorial department members 63 (of 130) 06/07 2012 Online users 4.686 08/09 2012 Weekly TV Talk Show Editorial department members 10 (of 20) 07/08 2012 Online users 354 11 2012 - 01 2013 3 of 12
  4. 4. Operationalization of inclusion expectations (surveys) Audience Inclusion performanceInclusion performance (Expected) inclusion expectations Journalists Inclusion level Inclusion distance Inclusion level (Expected) inclusion expectations Assumed importance of participatory functions Importance of participatory functions Self image of journalistic role External image of journalistic role Assumed motivations Motivations for participation General assessment of part.: • Strategic rationales • Impact on journalism General assessment of part.: • Strategic rationales • Impact on journalism Source: Loosen & Schmidt 2012: 874 4 of 12
  5. 5. Comparative logic in the research project Case study 1: newscast Casestudy2:talkshow Audience expectations Inclusion distance Journalists expectations Audience expectations Inclusion distance Journalists expectations 5 of 12
  6. 6. Example Journalistic role conception: self-image and external image (Newscast) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Audience(n=4.570-4.636) Journalists (n= 60-63) 1. show new trends and highlight new ideas 2. inform objectively and precisely as possible 3. provide entertainment and relaxation 4. give the audience topics to talk about 5. explain and convey complex issues * 6. provide audience with opportunity to maintain ties among themselves * 7. point to interesting topics and further information ** 8. provide useful information for the audience and act as advisor / guidance 9. encourage/moderate discussion among audience * 10. build/maintain relationship to audience * 11. share positive ideals * 12. control politics, business and society * 13. criticize problems and grievances *** 14. inform the audience as fast as possible *** 15. give audience opportunity to express opinion on topics of public interest ** 16. concentrate on news that is interesting to an audience as wide as possible *** 17. provide people with opportunity to publish their own content *** 18. get into conversation about current events *** 19. present my/their own opinion(s) to the audience/to the public *** Means based on a 5-point-Likert-scale with 1=”disagree completely” to 5=”agree completely”; 6=”don’t know/can’t say” (excluded for calculation of mean) // *** p < .001 ** p < .01 * p < .05 (T-Tests; Levene- Test for homogeneity of variance). 6 of 12
  7. 7. Comparative logic in the research project Case study 1: newscast Casestudy2:talkshow Audience expectations Inclusion distance Journalists expectations Audience expectations Comparing Audiences Inclusion distance Journalists expectations Comparing Journalists 7 of 12
  8. 8. Example Motivation for participation via mail to the editors (Newscast & talk show) Means based on a 5-point-Likert-scale with 1=”disagree completely” to 5=”agree completely”; 6=”don’t know/can’t say” (excluded for calculation of mean) // *** p < .001 ** p < .01 * p < .05 (T-Tests; Levene- Test for homogeneity of variance). 1. To expand my own knowledge by interacting with journalists and other viewers/users 2. To feel included in a community 3. Out of boredom 4. To propose a topic that is important to me 5. To share my knowledge and experiences 6. To support and advocate a certain concern, event or group 7. To find help with a problem 8. To leave the passive viewer’s role 9. For self-expression and self-display 10. To fulfill my civic obligations 11. To build a relationship with the editors * 12. To assist the journalists in their work 13. To vent anger and frustration 14. To state my opinion publicly * 15. To point out errors in news stories ** 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 TalkshowUser(n=68-73) Newscast User (n= 35-38) 8 of 12
  9. 9. Comparative logic in the research project Case study 1: newscast Casestudy2:talkshow Audience expectations Inclusion distance Journalists expectations Audience expectations Inclusion distance Differences in Inclusion Distance Journalists expectations 9 of 12
  10. 10. Example Differences in inclusion distance regarding self-image and external image 12 3 4 56 7 8 9 10 1112 1314 1516 17 18 19 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Distancetalkshow Distance newscast 1. inform as objectively and precisely as possible 2. show new trends and highlight new ideas 3. encourage/moderate discussion among audience 4. build/maintain relationship to audience 5. get into conversation about current events 6. provide people with opportunity to publish their own content 7. convey positive ideals 8. give audience opportunity to express opinion on topics of public interest 9. criticize problems and grievances 10. present my/their own opinion(s) to the audience/to the public 11. provide useful information for the audience and act as advisor / guidance 12. point to interesting topics and further information 13. explain and convey complex issues 14. give the audience topics to talk about 15. concentrate on news that is interesting to an audience as wide as possible 16. provide entertainment and relaxation 17. provide audience with opportunity to maintain ties among themselves 18. inform the audience as fast as possible 19. control politics, business and society Difference in distance = difference between mean differences of the two case studies 10 of 12 Journalists find it less important in both case studies Users find it less important in both case studies
  11. 11. Summary, challenges, and further steps • Example “inclusion distance within case study”: Small inclusion distance = high congruency between journalists and audience members regarding journalistic role conceptions at the newscast • Example “comparing case studies”: Motivations to send mails to the editors are very congruent between the audiences groups of the newscast and the talk show • Example “comparing inclusion distances”: True for both case studies: journalists tend to regard many items as being less part of their journalistic profession than audience members consider them as part of journalism; a lot of these items refer to more participation oriented tasks beyond classical journalistic goals • Challenges of comparing: groups of different homogeneity and size (editorial staff vs. disperse audience) online- and TV-journalists and online-only audience individual self-assessment with assessment of groups of others • More case studies needed to compare inclusion distances at different journalistic media • Aggregated/representative data needed to compare inclusion distance between journalism and audiences in different countries/media systems 11 of 12
  12. 12. (Re-)discovering the audience. Journalism under social media conditions. Project funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) Team: Nele Heise, Wiebke Loosen, Julius Reimer, Jan-Hinrik Schmidt Blog: http://jpub20.hans-bredow-institut.de/ Twitter: @jpub20team

×