Effect of a GABA Antagonist on Ethanol-Induced Taste Aversions Joseph Tkacz ,  M.S. Stephen H. Hobbs ,  Ph.D. Ralph L. Elk...
Conditioned Taste Aversions (CTA) <ul><li>What is a taste aversion? </li></ul><ul><li>Lab Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Taste-Aversion Prone (TAP) and Taste-Aversion Resistant (TAR) Rats <ul><li>“ Problem” of individual differences </li></ul>...
 
TAP and TAR Lines Cont. <ul><li>TAP and TAR rats do not differ on other types of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Line differenc...
Research with Animal Lines
Research with Animal Lines Cont.
Our interest:  What mechanisms are involved in the aversive response to ethanol by TAP animals?
The GABA Receptor Complex <ul><li>GABA is found in almost every region of brain  </li></ul><ul><li>It is the main inhibito...
Purpose and Hypothesis <ul><li>Determine if the GABA system plays a role in the aversive response to alcohol </li></ul><ul...
Method- Subjects <ul><li>50 TAP Sprague-Dawley derived rats </li></ul><ul><li>Animals were allowed to eat ad libitum throu...
Method- Materials <ul><li>Picrotoxin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a white, crystalline substance that has been shown to effective...
Pre  Post Consummatory  Forced  Consummatory  Dependent  Group  Injection  Drink  Injection  Variable  Hypothesis (CS)   (...
 
Discussion <ul><li>The primary hypothesis was supported:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picrotoxin CTA Groups > Saline CTA Group <...
Conclusion <ul><li>Aversive component of alcohol and GABA </li></ul><ul><li>The taste aversion paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>...
Future Research <ul><li>Taste aversions to other UCSs, especially substances of abuse  </li></ul><ul><li>Examining the TAR...
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Original Research Presentation

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Original research presented orally at the 2006 Southeastern Psychological Association Meeting

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Original Research Presentation

  1. 1. Effect of a GABA Antagonist on Ethanol-Induced Taste Aversions Joseph Tkacz , M.S. Stephen H. Hobbs , Ph.D. Ralph L. Elkins , Ph.D.
  2. 2. Conditioned Taste Aversions (CTA) <ul><li>What is a taste aversion? </li></ul><ul><li>Lab Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pair flavored water (CS) with LiCl (UCS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then, assess acceptance/rejection of CS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment for substance abuse/dependence </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Taste-Aversion Prone (TAP) and Taste-Aversion Resistant (TAR) Rats <ul><li>“ Problem” of individual differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do these have a genetic basis? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selective breeding program with rats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saccharin (CS) + Cyclophosphamide (UCS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selectively breed those with stronger/weaker aversions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TAP animals -> Avoid saccharin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TAR animals -> Consume saccharin </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. TAP and TAR Lines Cont. <ul><li>TAP and TAR rats do not differ on other types of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Line differences are maintained with other CSs </li></ul><ul><li>Line difference are maintained with other UCSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notably, even drugs of abuse: alcohol, cocaine, nicotine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Research with Animal Lines
  6. 7. Research with Animal Lines Cont.
  7. 8. Our interest: What mechanisms are involved in the aversive response to ethanol by TAP animals?
  8. 9. The GABA Receptor Complex <ul><li>GABA is found in almost every region of brain </li></ul><ul><li>It is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines, barbiturates and alcohol, can bind to the GABA receptor complex </li></ul>
  9. 10. Purpose and Hypothesis <ul><li>Determine if the GABA system plays a role in the aversive response to alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>H 1 – Antagonizing the GABA receptor site will reduce the aversiveness of alcohol, as indicated by weakened rejection of saccharin in a CTA paradigm. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Method- Subjects <ul><li>50 TAP Sprague-Dawley derived rats </li></ul><ul><li>Animals were allowed to eat ad libitum throughout the course of the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>12:12 light-dark schedule with lights on at 0600 EST; temperature of 23ºC +/- 2º. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Method- Materials <ul><li>Picrotoxin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a white, crystalline substance that has been shown to effectively antagonize the GABA A receptor site </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Pre Post Consummatory Forced Consummatory Dependent Group Injection Drink Injection Variable Hypothesis (CS) ( UCS) _______________________________________________________________________________ A Strong Conditioning Saline -> Saccharin -> Ethanol -> Two Bottle Aversion Test B Weaker Low Drug Picrotoxin -> Saccharin -> Ethanol -> Two Bottle Aversion Experimental .5 mg/kg Test C Weakest High Drug Picrotoxin -> Saccharin -> Ethanol -> Two Bottle Aversion Experimental 1 mg/kg Test D No Pseudo- Picrotoxin -> H20 -> Ethanol -> Two Bottle Aversion Conditioning 1 mg/kg Test Control E No Injection Picrotoxin -> Saccharin -> Saline -> Two Bottle Aversion Control 1 mg/kg Test
  13. 15. Discussion <ul><li>The primary hypothesis was supported: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picrotoxin CTA Groups > Saline CTA Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picrotoxin CTA Groups = Control Groups </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Conclusion <ul><li>Aversive component of alcohol and GABA </li></ul><ul><li>The taste aversion paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Picrotoxin dosage </li></ul>
  15. 17. Future Research <ul><li>Taste aversions to other UCSs, especially substances of abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Examining the TAR rats </li></ul>

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