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Sakurai, et al., competing meanings of international experiences for researchers collaborative autoethnography

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Sakurai, et al., competing meanings of international experiences for researchers collaborative autoethnography

  1. 1. Competing Meanings of International Experiences for Early-Career Researchers: A Collaborative Autoethnographic Approach SAKURAI, Yusuke, PhD, Ochanomizu University, Japan Shimauchi, S., Shimmi, Y., Hanada, S., Amaki, Y., & Elliot, D.
  2. 2. Background ◼ Benefits of researcher mobility (e.g. Zweig et al., 2004). ◼ Little is known about how individual researchers make sense of the value of their international experience. ◼ Employed an in-depth autoethnographic approach to work on the RQ: “How do five Japanese early career researchers (we) make sense of our academic international experiences while working as ECRs at Japanese universities” ◼ Universities in Japan have struggled in internationalisation Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  3. 3. A comment from a reviewer One reviewer said… “This study seems to be just a (structured) conversation between 5 people. I would be more interested if the sample was a lot bigger.” Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  4. 4. Theoretical framework: Capital: Accumulated experience, achievements, and acquired qualities that would catalyse as resources and generate further benefits or drawbacks (Bourdieu, 1986; Portes, 1998). Identity-trajectory: Three major strands to understand ECRs’ experiences (McAlpine & Amundsen, 2017) ◼ Intellectual: scholarly activities and contribution ◼ Networking: national and international levels including both tangible and intangible memberships. Both formal and informal opportunities ◼ Institutional: resources and responsibilities in one’s workplace or external affiliations. Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  5. 5. Method: Collaborative Autoethnography Participants: ◼ Five Japanese ECRs having years of international experience (working or studying in degree-granting/exchange programs) Procedures: ◼ Oral and written self-reflexive dialogues together by systematically sharing, analysing and encapsulating our experiences. ◼ An external researcher as a third-party commentator to deepen our reflective practices and bolster the quality of our study Advantages: ◼ Collaborative effort enhances our reflexivity and trustworthiness (Chang, 2016; Lapadat, 2017; Le Roux, 2017) ◼ The researcher is the researched; Accessing the experience of the researched Major criticisms & challenges: ◼ Indulgent, narcissistic, too subjective Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  6. 6. Major findings 5 major & competing themes: ◼ Global personal network; ◼ Communicative competence; ◼ Scholarly community culture; ◼ Scholarly ambition; and ◼ Pedagogical application. Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  7. 7. (1) Global personal network Useful in our commitments. ◼ Invite guest speakers for intellectual activities ◼ Establish the university bilateral agreements of exchange programs Dilemmas: ◼ Weaker networks with local researchers ◼ Uneasy about complicated relationships between senior researchers Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  8. 8. (2) Communicative competence Meaningful cultural capital: ◼ Requirement of English skills ◼ Engage in institutional internationalisation initiatives Concerns: ◼ Additional administrative responsibilities simply because they were “international” tasks ◼ Valued unevenly in the same institutions Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  9. 9. (3) Scholarly community culture Cultural sensitivity in institutional diversity and integrity to encourage efficient outcomes. ◼ Experienced stress due to frequent onerous meetings and bureaucratic decision-making processes ◼ Disregarding different ideas under the name of “common sense”  “Since I will continue working in Japan, I should be familiar with Japanese customs”. Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  10. 10. General Discussion ◼ Context-depended meanings of international experiences ◼ Competing meanings of international experience ◼ Meaning of capital – defined also by the opportunity cost of capital Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  11. 11. Methodological reflections ◼ Our self-selection bias is undeniable (e.g., eager to promote the internationalisation of higher education) ◼ Differ in the future & others in different disciplines, career stages and institutional settings may reach different understandings. ◼ Collaborative analysis & writing, member checking, avoiding self indulgence, making researchers transparent Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  12. 12. Ai, B. (2019). Pains and gains of working in Chinese universities: An academic returnee's journey. Higher Education Research & Development, 38(4), 661-673. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2019.1590320 Ai, B., & Wang, L. (2017). Homeland integration: An academic returnee’s experiences in Chinese universities. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917696741 Ates, G., & Brechelmacher, A. (2013). Academic career paths. In U. Teichler & E. A. Höhle (Eds.), The work situation of the academic profession in Europe: Findings of a survey in twelve countries (Vol. 1, pp. 13-35). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007- 5977-0_2 Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). Greenwood. Brotherhood, T., Hammond, C. D., & Kim, Y. (2019). Towards an actor-centered typology of internationalization: A study of junior international faculty in Japanese universities. Higher Education, 79(3), 497–514. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-019-00420-5 Chang, H. (2016). Individual and collaborative autoethnography as method: A social scientist's perspective. In S. H. Jones, T. E. Adams, & C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of autoethnography (pp. 107-122). Routledge. Choi, S.-J., & Lu, J. (2013). Returnee faculty members, network position and diversification strategy: An analysis of business schools in China. Asia Pacific Business Review, 19(4), 559-577. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602381.2012.739361 Crossman, J. E., & Clarke, M. (2010). International experience and graduate employability: Stakeholder perceptions on the connection. Higher Education, 59(5), 599-613. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-009-9268-z Darmoe, J. (2017). The professor coming home determinants of retention of brain gain knowledge. International Journal of Management in Education, 11(2), 128-139. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMIE.2017.083351 Elliot, D. L., Bengtsen, S. S., Guccione, K., & Kobayashi, S. (2020). The hidden curriculum in doctoral education. Springer. Franzoni, C., Scellato, G., & Stephan, P. (2012). Foreign-born scientists: Mobility patterns for 16 countries. Nature Biotechnology, 30(12), 1250-1253. https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.2449 Gaitanidis, I., & Shao-Kobayashi, S. (2020). Polarized agents of internationalization: An autoethnography of migrant faculty at a Japanese university. Higher Education, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-020-00582-7 Hanada, S. (2019). A quantitative assessment of Japanese students’ intercultural competence developed through study abroad programs. Journal of International Students, 9(4), 1015- 1037. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v9i4.39 Israel, E., Cohen, N., & Czamanski, D. (2019). Return on capital? Determinants of counter-migration among early career Israeli STEM researchers. PloS One, 14(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220609 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. (2020). スーパーグローバル大学創成支援事業の中間 評価. Retrieved August 2 from https://www.jsps.go.jp/j-sgu/ Jonkers, K., & Tijssen, R. (2008). Chinese researchers returning home: Impacts of international mobility on research collaboration and scientific productivity. Scientometrics, 77(2), 309- 333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-007-1971-x Kariya, T. (2017). オックスフォードからの警鐘. Chuokoron-Shinsha. Kariya, T., & Yoshimi, S. (2020). 大学はもう死んでいる? Shueisha. Lapadat, J. C. (2017). Ethics in autoethnography and collaborative autoethnography. Qualitative Inquiry, 23(8), 589-603. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417704462 Le Roux, C. S. (2017). Exploring rigour in autoethnographic research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 20(2), 195-207. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2016.1140965 Li, M., Yang, R., & Wu, J. (2018). Translating transnational capital into professional development: A study of China’s Thousand Youth Talents Scheme scholars. Asia Pacific Education Review, 19(2), 229-239. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-018-9533-x McAlpine, L., & Amundsen, C. (2011). Making meaning of diverse experiences: Constructing an identity through time. In Doctoral education: Research-based strategies for doctoral students, supervisors and administrators (pp. 173-183). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0507-4_10 McAlpine, L., & Amundsen, C. (2017). Identity-trajectories of early career researchers: Unpacking the post-PhD experience. Palgrave Macmillan Limited. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349- 95287-8 Melin, G., & Janson, K. (2006). What skills and knowledge should a PhD have? Changing preconditions for PhD education and post doc work. In U. Teichler (Ed.), Wenner-Gren international series: The formative years of scholars (pp. 105-118). Portland Press. Merga, M., & Mason, S. (2020). Sharing research with academia and beyond: Insights from early career researchers in Australia and Japan. Learned Publishing, 33(3), 277-286. https://doi.org/10.1002/leap.1296 Ota, H., & Shimmi, Y. (2019). Recent trends in learning abroad in the context of a changing Japanese economy and higher education situation. In R. Coelen & C. Gribble (Eds.), Internationalization and employability in higher education (pp. 78-91). Routledge. Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24(1), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.24.1.1 Robles, G., & Franzoni, A. L. (2015). Developing successful novice international faculty through a mentoring program. 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Shimauchi, S. (2018). English-medium instruction in the internationalization of higher education in Japan: Rationales and issues. Educational Studies in Japan, 12, 77-90. Takagi, K. (2018). Accommodating project-based professionals in higher education institutions in Japan. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 40(3), 272-286. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080x.2018.1462434 Turner, G., & McAlpine, L. (2011). Doctoral experience as researcher preparation: activities, passion, status. International Journal for Researcher Development, 2(1), 46-60. https://doi.org/10.1108/17597511111178014 Wang, B. (2020). A temporal gaze towards academic migration: Everyday times, lifetimes and temporal strategies amongst early career Chinese academic returnees. Time & Society, 29(1), 166-186. https://doi.org/10.1177/0961463X19873806 Xu, D. (2009). Opportunities and challenges for academic returnees in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 26(1), 27-35. https://doi.org/10.1177/0961463X16682516 Yi, L. (2011). Auditing Chinese higher education? The perspectives of returnee scholars in an elite university. International Journal of Educational Development, 31(5), 505-514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2011.03.003 Zweig, D., Changgui, C., & Rosen, S. (2004). Globalization and transnational human capital: Overseas and returnee scholars to China. The China Quarterly, 179, 735-757. Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  13. 13. The setting: Internationalisation and ECRs in Japan Globalisation in Japan: ◼ Top concern, but they have struggled—e.g., Increasing international students, collaborations, English-taught programs, and faculty members with international competence (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 2020). ◼ In social science: relatively little awareness (Merga & Mason, 2020). The situation of ECRs in Japan ◼ ECRs (e.g., project lecturers/professors) mainly engage in service and teaching: little research work (Takagi, 2018). ◼ Research work is important but not well supported (Kariya & Yoshimi, 2020; Takagi, 2018). Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD
  14. 14. Research questions: (1) How do we make sense of our academic international experiences while working as ECRs at Japanese universities; and (2) what conditions of our sociocultural environment have shaped our sense- making? ◼ “International experience”: academic histories in which we crossed either tangible or intangible boundaries of nations, languages and cultures (incl. study and work abroad, academic conferences, business visits and internships (Crossman & Clarke, 2010)). Yusuke SAKURAI, PhD

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