<ul><li> “ All music is nothing more than a succession of impulses that converge towards a definite point of repose.” </li...
<ul><li>Symbols called  sharps   # , or  flats ♭ placed in front of letter named tones, determine the direction, either up...
<ul><li>Keys next to one another, either up or down or black or white, are referred to has  half-steps . </li></ul>↑ ↑ ↑ ↑...
Materials of Music <ul><li>Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Transposition –  shifting an entire piece of music from one key to anot...
The Baroque Era 1600-1750
<ul><li>Baroque style adopted a  highly dramatic type of expression rather than the classical ideals of the Renaissance. <...
The Baroque Era <ul><li>Drama </li></ul><ul><li>Extravagance </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Opulence </li></...
 
 
St. Peter’s Basilica
The View from the Dome at St. Peter’s
Versailles
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trevi Fountain, Rome
The Baroque Era <ul><li>The term Baroque means odd, irregular, rough and uneven and refers to the elaborate quality of the...
The Baroque Era <ul><li>A time of contrasts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science and Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowled...
The Baroque Era <ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Painters were fascinated with the effects of light. </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Caravaggio
Caravaggio Artemesia Gentileschi
Vermeer
Rembrandt Artemesia Gentileschi
Baroque Music <ul><li>First Opera house constructed </li></ul><ul><li>First public concerts </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of ...
Baroque Music <ul><li>Movements </li></ul><ul><li>Individual sections of a larger piece of music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The...
 
 
Baroque Music <ul><li>Movements act much like acts of a play or chapters of a book.  They are a portion of the whole. </li...
Baroque Music <ul><li>The tonal system we use today, with major and minor scales, was put into wide use during this time. ...
The Doctrine of the Affections <ul><li>One mood or affection per movement or piece of music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This aro...
Women in Baroque Music <ul><li>Women continue to advance in Baroque music as singers, instrumentalists and composers </li>...
Francesca Caccini Barbara Strozzi Elisabeth la Guerre
Francesca Caccini (1587-1641) <ul><li>Italian composer, singer, lutenist, poet, and music teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Sang a...
Elisabeth Claude Jacquet de La Guerre (1665-1729) <ul><li>French composer & harpsichordist </li></ul><ul><li>One of the on...
Elisabeth Claude Jacquet de La Guerre (1665-1729) <ul><li>Suite No. 1, 2 nd  Gigue, from  Pieces for Harpsichord </li></ul...
 
 
17 th -century Italy <ul><li>Italy in the seventeenth century was very different from the unified country we know today. C...
<ul><li>Home of the  Florentine Camerata   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of intellectuals who discussed and initiated arti...
<ul><li>They wanted to express words in vocal music as clearly as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyphonic textures were ...
Opera <ul><li>An opera is a musical drama that is entirely sung. </li></ul><ul><li>Opera is an excellent example of the ex...
Opera <ul><li>The written story or text of an opera is called: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Libretto. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Sections of the Opera:  Recitative & Aria <ul><li>Recitative  – a style of singing closely related to speech.  </li></ul><...
Opera <ul><li>Aria </li></ul><ul><li>An  aria  expresses the emotions of an opera, and the reflection of the characters.  ...
Sections of Opera <ul><li>The Recitatives and Arias </li></ul><ul><li>Can be considered the body and soul of opera. </li><...
Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) <ul><li>Choir master at St. Mark’s in Venice.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monteverdi successfull...
 
Opera in France & England <ul><li>King Louis XIV of France established French national ballet and French national opera </...
Opera in France & England <ul><li>English puritans banned theater during the early Baroque period </li></ul><ul><li>Henry ...
Opera Singers <ul><li>Some of the most famous and sought after singers of opera were male singers, even for woman’s roles....
Carlo Maria Broschi  a.k.a., Farinelli
The Last Living Castrati <ul><li>Alessandro Moreschi (1858-1922) </li></ul><ul><li>A member of the Pope’s choir </li></ul>...
Barbara Strozzi  and the Italian Secular Cantata <ul><li>Cantata (Italian “to sing”)  </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal genre for so...
Barbara Strozzi (1619–1677)   <ul><li>Italian singer and composer </li></ul><ul><li>Educated in Venice </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Strozzi:  Begli occhi  ( Beautiful Eyes )   <ul><li>Short secular cantata </li></ul><ul><li>Two sopranos and basso continu...
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>An organist. From a musical family of over 200 years of musicians </li></ul><ul>...
 
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the hardest working musicians in music h...
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>Bach was a devout Lutheran. </li></ul><ul><li>He refined the sacred  cantata  to...
Bach’s Cantatas <ul><li>Early Lutheran church services were often 4 hours long.  </li></ul><ul><li>Bach wrote over 300 can...
George Frederic Handel (1685-1759) <ul><li>German born </li></ul><ul><li>Trained in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Traveled throu...
George Frederic Handel
George Frideric Handel (1685–1759) <ul><li>International career </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote: </li></ul><ul><li>Italian  opera ...
Handel and the Oratorio <ul><li>Oratorio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed by solo voices, chorus, orchestra </li></ul></ul>...
Handel:  Messiah   <ul><li>Premiered in Dublin in 1742 </li></ul><ul><li>Written in 24 days </li></ul><ul><li>Libretto: co...
<ul><li>“ Hallelujah! Hallelujah!”  homophonic </li></ul><ul><li>“ For the Lord God reigneth”  monophonic </li></ul><ul><l...
Hallelujah Chorus <ul><li>Tradition states the George II was so moved that he rose to his feet in admiration </li></ul><ul...
Bach and Handel Comparison <ul><li>Bach   Handel </li></ul><ul><li>Musical roots   Struggled to make a living </li></ul><u...
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  • St. Peter’s basilica 1630 and current
  • View from St. Peter’s
  • Play Poppea example of an Aria
  • Cantata : (Italian “to sing”) a vocal genre for solo singers and instrumental accompaniment Cantatas based on lyric, dramatic, or narrative poetry Lyric: expresses personal emotion Dramatic : written for performance in a play Narrative : tells a story
  • Barbara Strozzi (1619–1677) Italian singer and composer Educated in Venice Worked in a male-dominated field Prolific composer of madrigals, arias, cantatas, and sacred motets
  • Strozzi: Begli occhi ( Beautiful Eyes ) (Listening Guide) Short secular cantata Two sopranos and continuo Shifts between unmeasured and measured rhythm Abrupt tempo and mood changes Text speaks of unrequited love Dissonances emphasize bitterness
  • Track 37 of 87
  • George Frideric Handel (1685–1759) Born in Germany Studied and composed in Italy Success brought him to London Royal Academy of Music Prolific composer of Italian opera seria Julius Caesar After opera seria fell out of vogue, composed oratorios Israel in Egypt, Messiah, Judas Maccabaeus, Jephtha
  • 24. Handel and the Oratorio The Oratorio Oratorio : large-scale dramatic genre with religious or Biblical text Performed by solo voices, chorus, orchestra No staging or costumes
  • Handel: Messiah , Nos. 18, 44 (Listening Guide) Premiered in Dublin in 1742 Written in 24 days Libretto: compilation of Old and New Testament
  • II: Easter Famous “Hallelujah Chorus” Textural shifts: homophony, imitation   III: Redemption of the world through faith
  • Mus 100 3 terms barq

    1. 1. <ul><li> “ All music is nothing more than a succession of impulses that converge towards a definite point of repose.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Igor Stravinsky </li></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>Symbols called sharps # , or flats ♭ placed in front of letter named tones, determine the direction, either up or down of half-steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharps = up ↑ </li></ul><ul><li>Flats = down ↓ </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Keys next to one another, either up or down or black or white, are referred to has half-steps . </li></ul>↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Half steps
    4. 4. Materials of Music <ul><li>Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Transposition – shifting an entire piece of music from one key to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is done often for singers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modulation – changing from one key to other keys within one piece of music </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Baroque Era 1600-1750
    6. 6. <ul><li>Baroque style adopted a highly dramatic type of expression rather than the classical ideals of the Renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>Art, architecture, dress and music becomes extreme, grandiose and highly emotional. </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Baroque Era <ul><li>Drama </li></ul><ul><li>Extravagance </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Opulence </li></ul><ul><li>Extremes </li></ul><ul><li>Grandeur </li></ul>
    8. 10. St. Peter’s Basilica
    9. 11. The View from the Dome at St. Peter’s
    10. 12. Versailles
    11. 20. Trevi Fountain, Rome
    12. 21. The Baroque Era <ul><li>The term Baroque means odd, irregular, rough and uneven and refers to the elaborate quality of the Baroque style. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was originally a negative term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sacred and secular culture was even more equal in this style period than the past. </li></ul>
    13. 22. The Baroque Era <ul><li>A time of contrasts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science and Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty and opulence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Religious Wars between Protestants and Catholics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans, Separatists and Quakers leave England seeking religious freedom. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 23. The Baroque Era <ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Painters were fascinated with the effects of light. </li></ul><ul><li>Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Rubens </li></ul>
    15. 24. Caravaggio
    16. 25. Caravaggio Artemesia Gentileschi
    17. 26. Vermeer
    18. 27. Rembrandt Artemesia Gentileschi
    19. 28. Baroque Music <ul><li>First Opera house constructed </li></ul><ul><li>First public concerts </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of instrumental music </li></ul><ul><li>Explorations in dynamics (contrast) </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of movements occurs during this time. </li></ul>
    20. 29. Baroque Music <ul><li>Movements </li></ul><ul><li>Individual sections of a larger piece of music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sections often contrast each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French Suite, No. 1, D minor BWV 812 Johann Sebastian Bach </li></ul><ul><li>Allemande </li></ul><ul><li>Courante </li></ul><ul><li>Sarabande </li></ul><ul><li>Menuet </li></ul><ul><li>Gigue </li></ul>
    21. 32. Baroque Music <ul><li>Movements act much like acts of a play or chapters of a book. They are a portion of the whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of multi-movement works: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chamber Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symphony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dance Suite </li></ul></ul>
    22. 33. Baroque Music <ul><li>The tonal system we use today, with major and minor scales, was put into wide use during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>The triad became a significant element to harmonic writing. </li></ul>
    23. 34. The Doctrine of the Affections <ul><li>One mood or affection per movement or piece of music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This arose out of the union of text and music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The rise of the virtuoso </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performers with exceptional ability or skill </li></ul></ul>
    24. 35. Women in Baroque Music <ul><li>Women continue to advance in Baroque music as singers, instrumentalists and composers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Francesca Caccini (1587-1638) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singer and first woman to compose an opera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singer and composer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elisabeth-Jacquet de la Guerre (c. 1666-1729) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French harpsichord player in Louis XIV’s court and composer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 36. Francesca Caccini Barbara Strozzi Elisabeth la Guerre
    26. 37. Francesca Caccini (1587-1641) <ul><li>Italian composer, singer, lutenist, poet, and music teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Sang at the wedding of Henry IV to Maria de Medici </li></ul><ul><li>Hired as a musician at the very influential Medici court </li></ul><ul><li>Her stage work, La liberazione di Ruggiero , has been widely considered the first opera by a woman composer. </li></ul>
    27. 38. Elisabeth Claude Jacquet de La Guerre (1665-1729) <ul><li>French composer & harpsichordist </li></ul><ul><li>One of the only women musicians at the court of Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><li>After leaving court she was an influential musicians at the French salons </li></ul>
    28. 39. Elisabeth Claude Jacquet de La Guerre (1665-1729) <ul><li>Suite No. 1, 2 nd Gigue, from Pieces for Harpsichord </li></ul><ul><li>C’en est fait, le repos – from Judith </li></ul>
    29. 42. 17 th -century Italy <ul><li>Italy in the seventeenth century was very different from the unified country we know today. Cities like Florence, Venice, Genoa, Bologna, and Naples formed small individual states with distinct local customs, traditions, dialects, and even artistic traditions. </li></ul>
    30. 43. <ul><li>Home of the Florentine Camerata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of intellectuals who discussed and initiated artistic style changes </li></ul></ul>Florence, Italy
    31. 44. <ul><li>They wanted to express words in vocal music as clearly as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyphonic textures were avoided </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This type of new solo singing style is called monody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Songs were accompanied by simple chords that supported the vocal line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monody influences the creation of opera </li></ul>Florentine Camerata
    32. 45. Opera <ul><li>An opera is a musical drama that is entirely sung. </li></ul><ul><li>Opera is an excellent example of the exaggerated drama of the Baroque era. </li></ul>
    33. 46. Opera <ul><li>The written story or text of an opera is called: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Libretto. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The libretto is then set to music by a composer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Librettos were highly sought after by Baroque opera attendees. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 47. Sections of the Opera: Recitative & Aria <ul><li>Recitative – a style of singing closely related to speech. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They provide the story and dramatic action to an opera. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their melodies follow the natural inflections of speech. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their primary purpose is to clearly express the text. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 48. Opera <ul><li>Aria </li></ul><ul><li>An aria expresses the emotions of an opera, and the reflection of the characters. </li></ul><ul><li>The text is often less complicated than recitatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arias may contain extensive vocal display. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 49. Sections of Opera <ul><li>The Recitatives and Arias </li></ul><ul><li>Can be considered the body and soul of opera. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body – Structure, foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soul – Emotion, passion </li></ul></ul>
    37. 50. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) <ul><li>Choir master at St. Mark’s in Venice. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monteverdi successfully incorporated the clear vocal line from Florence - Monody </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo of 1607 is considered the first opera . </li></ul>
    38. 52. Opera in France & England <ul><li>King Louis XIV of France established French national ballet and French national opera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trag édie lyrique – French opera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jean-Baptiste Lully – composer of French opera </li></ul></ul>
    39. 53. Opera in France & England <ul><li>English puritans banned theater during the early Baroque period </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Purcell – England’s first opera composer. Wrote Dido and Aeneas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 141, 142 Recitative and Aria </li></ul></ul>
    40. 54. Opera Singers <ul><li>Some of the most famous and sought after singers of opera were male singers, even for woman’s roles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An interest in women’s voices was still developing during this time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Castrati were boys who were castrated before reaching maturity in order to preserve the quality of their voices. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Castrati were eventually outlawed in most countries. The French particularly disliked the sound of the castrati voice. </li></ul></ul>Allesandro Moreschi
    41. 55. Carlo Maria Broschi a.k.a., Farinelli
    42. 56. The Last Living Castrati <ul><li>Alessandro Moreschi (1858-1922) </li></ul><ul><li>A member of the Pope’s choir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made the only known recording of a castrato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made in Rome in 1903/04 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In his mid 40s </li></ul></ul>
    43. 57. Barbara Strozzi and the Italian Secular Cantata <ul><li>Cantata (Italian “to sing”) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal genre for solo singers and instrumental accompaniment </li></ul><ul><li>Based on lyric, dramatic, or narrative poetry </li></ul>
    44. 58. Barbara Strozzi (1619–1677) <ul><li>Italian singer and composer </li></ul><ul><li>Educated in Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Worked in a male-dominated field </li></ul><ul><li>Prolific composer of madrigals, arias, cantatas, and sacred motets </li></ul>
    45. 59. Strozzi: Begli occhi ( Beautiful Eyes ) <ul><li>Short secular cantata </li></ul><ul><li>Two sopranos and basso continuo </li></ul><ul><li>Abrupt tempo and mood changes </li></ul><ul><li>Text speaks of unrequited love </li></ul><ul><li>Dissonances emphasize bitterness </li></ul>
    46. 60. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>An organist. From a musical family of over 200 years of musicians </li></ul><ul><li>Never left Germany. Worked in many cities within his own country </li></ul><ul><li>Married twice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First wife Maria Barbara died young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anna Magdalena was his 2nd wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He had a total of 20 children between two wives </li></ul></ul>
    47. 62. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the hardest working musicians in music history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He is considered the greatest composer of polyphonic music in the history of western music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His music contributions are so important that the end of the Baroque period is also the year he died - 1750 </li></ul></ul>
    48. 63. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>Bach was a devout Lutheran. </li></ul><ul><li>He refined the sacred cantata to provide for the heavy demand for vocal music for Sunday church services and special holidays. </li></ul><ul><li>Cantata – a musical piece that is sung. </li></ul>
    49. 64. Bach’s Cantatas <ul><li>Early Lutheran church services were often 4 hours long. </li></ul><ul><li>Bach wrote over 300 cantatas for these types of services. </li></ul><ul><li>Cantata No. 80, A Mighty Fortress is Our God </li></ul>
    50. 65. George Frederic Handel (1685-1759) <ul><li>German born </li></ul><ul><li>Trained in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Traveled throughout Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Spent a large part of his life in England. </li></ul><ul><li>Organist, harpsichordist, composer. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted the dramatic opera style of Italy to his music. </li></ul>
    51. 66. George Frederic Handel
    52. 67. George Frideric Handel (1685–1759) <ul><li>International career </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote: </li></ul><ul><li>Italian opera seria </li></ul><ul><li>oratorios </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music for the Royal Fireworks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Music </li></ul></ul>
    53. 68. Handel and the Oratorio <ul><li>Oratorio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed by solo voices, chorus, orchestra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocal dramas like opera but on a sacred subject and they are not costumed or staged. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>His oratorios appealed to the people of England. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handel’s oratorios contain extensive use of choruses. </li></ul></ul>
    54. 69. Handel: Messiah <ul><li>Premiered in Dublin in 1742 </li></ul><ul><li>Written in 24 days </li></ul><ul><li>Libretto: compilation of Old and New Testament </li></ul>
    55. 70. <ul><li>“ Hallelujah! Hallelujah!” homophonic </li></ul><ul><li>“ For the Lord God reigneth” monophonic </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Kingdom for this world is become” homophonic </li></ul><ul><li>“ And He shall reign for ever and ever” polyphonic </li></ul><ul><li>“ King of Kings and Lord of Lords” homophonic </li></ul>Hallelujah Chorus: contrasting textures
    56. 71. Hallelujah Chorus <ul><li>Tradition states the George II was so moved that he rose to his feet in admiration </li></ul><ul><li>This tradition still goes on today. </li></ul>
    57. 72. Bach and Handel Comparison <ul><li>Bach Handel </li></ul><ul><li>Musical roots Struggled to make a living </li></ul><ul><li>Stayed in Germany Traveled throughout Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Church musician Wrote for the Theater </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative Lutheran Cosmopolitan, fashionable life </li></ul><ul><li>No operas Wrote many operas and oratorios </li></ul>

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