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Jarrod Crawford's "Basic Editing Concepts" Lecture.


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This lecture was given in Baylor University's Production Methods One course on 9/08/06 and 9/11/06.

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Jarrod Crawford's "Basic Editing Concepts" Lecture.

  1. 1. Basic Editing Concepts <ul><li>Editing means selecting certain portions of an event or events and putting them into a meaningful sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>We edit to tell a story with clarity and impact. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Functions Combine Condense Correct Build
  3. 3. Functions cont. <ul><li>Combine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting significant event details and put them into a specific sequence to tell a story with clarity and impact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully kept field logs will help </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Functions Cont. <ul><li>Condense: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The condensing function of editing requires a recognition of the essence of an event and the selection of shots that best express that essence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t use three shots if you can communicate the idea with one. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Functions cont. <ul><li>Correct: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistakes made while filming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful attention to preproduction and production details can eliminate most correcting problems. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Functions cont. <ul><li>Build </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The film is the bricks and mortar. The editor will construct the building. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity, Mental Map, Vectors – all important </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Mental Map <ul><li>We construct a “mental map” of what is located on and off screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. From book: Two people talking and one of them is off screen. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vectors <ul><li>Directional forces that lead our eyes from one point to another on the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be known as the Axis of Action or The Line in some cases. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Postproduction Editing <ul><li>Linear Editing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic principle of linear editing is copying sections of the source tapes to the edit master tape in the desired sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. If you want shot 14 to be shot 3, you will have to fast-forward through all eleven to get to it – like a VHS or Audio Tape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The operational principle of LE is copying </li></ul>
  10. 10. VTRs <ul><li>Single-Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source VTR: Displays video to be edited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record VTR: displays edited video portion of the “edit master tape” </li></ul></ul>This Portable Digital Cuts Only Editor is used often by news reporters in the field.
  11. 11. VTRs <ul><li>Multiple Source Linear System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source VTRs are usually lettered or numbered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one Record VTR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows transitions and special fx, whereas single source VTRs only allow for “cuts-only” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Edit Controller Source VTR Search Control Record VTR Search Controls Editing Controls Tape Counter Operational Controls
  13. 13. Hours Minutes Seconds Frames Pulse Count/ Address Code Display The pulse count and address code displays show elapsed hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. The frames roll over to seconds after 29, seconds to minutes @ 59, minutes to hours @ 59, and the hours to zero after 24 15 23 44 01
  14. 14. SMPTE Time Code <ul><li>Pulse count is slightly off </li></ul><ul><li>Time Code provides more accurate editing </li></ul><ul><li>“Society of Motion Picture Television Engineers” </li></ul><ul><li>SMPTE works like street addresses </li></ul>
  15. 15. Non Linear Editing <ul><li>Computers organize and keep track of a electronic slide library </li></ul><ul><li>Not one tape to another but file management </li></ul><ul><li>Works like a DVD or CD </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Random Access </li></ul><ul><li>Programs like Premiere, Avid, Vegas, etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nonlinear Editing Procedures <ul><li>Capture (digitizing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog tapes will need a digital converter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your cameras record digitally – you can connect them directly to a computer via FireWire. </li></ul></ul>FireWire
  17. 17. Procedures cont. <ul><li>Editing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File identification, shot selection, sequencing, transitions, and effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building of Audio Track </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HINT – name everything you save… index, index, index! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export to videotape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The operational principle of NLE is rearranging video and audio data files </li></ul>
  18. 18. Post production Tips <ul><li>Shoot with continuity in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Make Production Copies </li></ul><ul><li>Add Time Code to Source Tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Make a window dub </li></ul><ul><li>Review and log Source Tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Transcribe Audio Text </li></ul><ul><li>Lay a control track </li></ul>
  19. 19. Editing Guidelines <ul><li>Avoid jump cuts </li></ul><ul><li>Follow “motion to motion, still to still” rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut during subject movement, not before/after. </li></ul><ul><li>Make edits intentional and unobtrusive. </li></ul><ul><li>For TV, choose CUs—it’s a CU medium. </li></ul><ul><li>Change shots as soon as you’ve made the point. (3 seconds for moderate pace) </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot/edit A-roll first, then insert B-roll. </li></ul><ul><li>If in doubt, leave it out. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t cross axis of action. </li></ul>
  20. 21. What’s the best transition? <ul><li>CUT: most common, least intrusive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For clarification—to show an event clearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For intensification—sharpen impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it matches music choice </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. What’s the best transition? <ul><li>DISSOLVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates a relationship between objects/concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests time lapse/time change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dream sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show parallel action (could also use a CUT here) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If music matches </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. What’s the best transition? <ul><li>FADE: to signal a scene or show beginning or ending </li></ul>
  23. 24. Shots you will use during editing <ul><li>The Wide Shot: AKA the establishing shot. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>A shot that is wide enough to establish your subject in the mind of the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>A landscape wide shot from Lord of the Rings. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>A wide shot does not have to show everything, just what you want to show the viewer. What is important. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Medium Shot <ul><li>A medium shot is generally of a person from the middle of the torso up. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Medium Shot
  28. 29. Close-up <ul><li>The close-up shot is the tightest and closest you choose to be to your subject. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Close-up
  30. 31. Medium Close-up <ul><li>This is a shot that is framed from about the shoulders to the top of the head. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Extreme Close-up <ul><li>These are the really tight shots, usually used for dramatic effect. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Cutaway <ul><li>A cutaway is the one shot that lets you easily change the length or order of your sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>An example would be during an interview to cutaway towards the listener. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Normal Shot Cutaway
  34. 35. Editing a basic Sequence <ul><li>Before you edit a basic sequence you need to be able to shoot a basic sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important thing to remember is that each new shot should involve a change in both image size and camera angle when possible. </li></ul>
  35. 36. A good rule of thumb. <ul><li>Make the angle difference between shots about a 45 degree difference. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Cut on the Action <ul><li>A key way to gain a smooth transition between shots is to cut on the action. </li></ul><ul><li>If you cut as someone is in mid rise out of a chair, cut when they are half way up and then take the next angle with them continuing the motion. </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>The audience’s eye tends to follow the action on the screen. It is the thing that screams for our attention. </li></ul><ul><li>As an editor we can use that to our advantage. If we cut on the action the viewer follows that and hardly notices that we cut at all. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Examples <ul><li>Getting out of a car. </li></ul><ul><li>Opening a door. </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching for an object </li></ul><ul><li>Throwing an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Any type of movement. </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Remember that the last action of the first shot has to be repeated at the beginning of the second shot. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Clean entrance and Clean exit <ul><li>Reaching for an object on a table. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing Shot of the person that will reach for the object and the beginning of his action. </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by a close-up of the object and the subjects hand entering and exiting the close up shot and returning to the establishing shot. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Things to stay away from: <ul><li>Jump Cuts </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing the Line: The Axis of Action. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Jump Cuts <ul><li>The easiest way to do a jump cut is to change the image size but to not change the angle of the camera. </li></ul><ul><li>As long as you change both of these things (image size and camera angle) you should be alright. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Axis of Action (The Line) <ul><li>Screen direction is the direction people and things face when viewed through the camera. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the imaginary line which determines which direction people and things face when viewed thru a camera. </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>Crossing the line, although not forbidden, is not something one normally does. It tends to confuse the viewer. </li></ul><ul><li>When you cross the line you reverse the screen direction of everything you see. </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>Basically once you have established your scene you have about 180 degrees of movement to place your camera at. </li></ul><ul><li>You can, however, cross the line using continuous camera motion. Or by following the object in the same scene without cutting. This does not confuse the viewer. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Key things to remember <ul><li>A camera move should always have a purpose. Ask yourself why are you panning, or tilting, or zooming in. </li></ul><ul><li>A zoom-in directs attention. Zoom-out usually reveals new information. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Offline Editing <ul><li>The intent is to produce an EDL (Edit Decision List) or rough cut </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a guide for those doing the final editing </li></ul><ul><li>Usually done with low-quality equipment </li></ul><ul><li>More concerned with logic and aesthetic impact of the intended shot sequence rather than the picture quality </li></ul>
  48. 49. Online Editing <ul><li>Intent is to produce the edit master tape </li></ul><ul><li>Produces tape intended for the audience to view </li></ul><ul><li>Done with the best equipment available </li></ul>
  49. 50. REMEMBER <ul><li>Editing will ALWAYS take longer than you think!!! </li></ul>