Brian's "Approaches to Lighting" Lecture


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This lecture was given in Baylor University's Production Methods One course on 10/18/06 and 10/20/06.

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Brian's "Approaches to Lighting" Lecture

  2. 2. <ul><li>Lighting is more than simply obtaining adequate exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also ノ </li></ul>
  3. 3. Approaches to Lighting <ul><li>[1] A way to direct the viewer’s eye in the frame </li></ul>
  4. 4. Approaches to Lighting <ul><li>[1] ノ a way to direct the viewer’s eye in the frame </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>[2] To </li></ul><ul><li>establish </li></ul><ul><li>the </li></ul><ul><li>character </li></ul>
  6. 6. Approaches to Lighting <ul><li>[3] Establish mood </li></ul>
  7. 7. Approaches to Lighting <ul><li>OR The dramatic quality of the image. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Approaches to Lighting <ul><li>[4] Establish time of day </li></ul>
  9. 9. Approaches to Lighting <ul><li>[4] ノ e stablish time of day </li></ul>
  10. 10. Approaches to Lighting <ul><li>[5] Bring out or mute certain colors </li></ul>
  11. 11. Approaches to Lighting <ul><li>[6] Create a feeling of safety or danger </li></ul>
  12. 12. Approaches to Lighting <ul><li>[7] Emphasize or de-emphasize depth </li></ul>
  13. 13. Approaches to Lighting <ul><li>[8] Layer in planes </li></ul><ul><li>from front </li></ul><ul><li>[] </li></ul><ul><li>to rear [bgd] </li></ul><ul><li>of the frame. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, it </li></ul><ul><li>can help define </li></ul><ul><li>the space in 3 </li></ul><ul><li>dimensions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lighting Styles <ul><li>SOURCE LIGHTING </li></ul><ul><li>Also called </li></ul><ul><li>REALISTIC or </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL LIGHTING </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Bound </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Glory </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lighting Styles <ul><li>EXPRESSIONISTIC </li></ul><ul><li>Also called </li></ul><ul><li>STYLIZED LIGHTING </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Hero </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Also </li></ul><ul><li>Stylized </li></ul><ul><li>To a </li></ul><ul><li>Degree </li></ul>
  19. 19. Lighting Styles <ul><li>Lighting setups must also take into account </li></ul><ul><li>--the technical limitations of the camera, lens, and recording medium [film/video, etc] </li></ul><ul><li>--the dramatic needs of the story. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Dramatic Need of the Story <ul><li>Dir/Wtr Billy Wilder on Stanley Kubrick’s Barry Lyndon : </li></ul><ul><li>“ He worked like 6 months trying to find a way to photograph somebody by candlelight, not artificial light. And nobody really gives a s**t whether it is by candlelight or not. What are the jokes? What is the story?” </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations with Wilder, </li></ul><ul><li>by Cameron Crowe, p. 24 </li></ul>
  21. 21. 3 POINT LIGHTING <ul><li>We’ve covered what is considered “normal,” here are some additional thoughts: </li></ul><ul><li>THE KEY LIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>-- Normally told to put it 30 to 45 degrees from the camera to subject axis </li></ul><ul><li>-- Normally elevated at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees above the camera to subject axis. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 3 POINT LIGHTING-KEY <ul><li>--Often want it FOCUSABLE, </li></ul><ul><li>which is why we often choose a </li></ul><ul><li>FRESNEL </li></ul><ul><li>It adjusts to flood or spot . </li></ul><ul><li>--Usually creates some shadows, which gives shape to the subject </li></ul><ul><li>--Since it’s the dominant light, it’s the one we usually get our F-stop (iris) reading from. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Setup </li></ul>
  24. 25. 3 POINT LIGHTING-KEY <ul><li>LIGHT PLACEMENT- </li></ul><ul><li>HORIZONTAL PLANE </li></ul><ul><li>Front, </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 front, </li></ul><ul><li>side, </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 rear, </li></ul><ul><li>Back. </li></ul>
  25. 26. 3 POINT LIGHTING-KEY <ul><li>Why Choose Front Position ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why Side ? </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Interview Position? </li></ul><ul><li>LIGHT PLACEMENT-VERTICAL PLANE </li></ul><ul><li>1 Below [low angle], </li></ul><ul><li>2 Camera level, </li></ul><ul><li>3. Above [30-60 degrees, norm. 45 degrees] </li></ul><ul><li>4. High [typically 60-90 degrees, the latter being called “TOP” lighting] </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical </li></ul><ul><li>45 </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>Key Away </li></ul><ul><li>From </li></ul><ul><li>Camera </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Top </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Fight Club </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>The Cooler </li></ul><ul><li>Key light vertical position changes over </li></ul><ul><li>the course of the film </li></ul>
  31. 32. 3 POINT LIGHTING- FILL <ul><li>The Key Light determines shadow placement. </li></ul><ul><li>The FILL LIGHT is used to lighten [fill in] those shadows while avoiding the formation of new shadows . </li></ul><ul><li>Fill lights are almost always soft . Why? </li></ul><ul><li>For “Slow Fall-off ” </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Fast </li></ul><ul><li>Fall-Off </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Fall-Off </li></ul>
  34. 35. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL <ul><li>FILL PLACEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Normally told to place opposite key </li></ul><ul><li>Reality - Fills tend to be placed in one of 4 positions: </li></ul><ul><li>[1] The most common - frontal position along the camera/subject axis slightly above camera. Why? </li></ul>
  35. 36. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL <ul><li>FILL PLACEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Same side as key -- from the key side of the camera/subject axis. </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Opposite key -- fill from the off-key side of the face, taking great care not to create a new set of shadows, particularly on the nose . </li></ul><ul><li>2 & 3 allow for more “modeling” effect </li></ul>
  36. 37. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL <ul><li>[4] The High Above Fill Position </li></ul><ul><li>DP Sven Nykvist </li></ul><ul><li>--Advantages-Disadvantages </li></ul>
  37. 38. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL <ul><li>ROVING </li></ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Fill </li></ul>
  38. 39. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL <ul><li>Roving </li></ul><ul><li>Key/Fill </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>placed </li></ul><ul><li>In the </li></ul><ul><li>Shot </li></ul>
  39. 40. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL <ul><li>ノ r oving </li></ul><ul><li>Key/Fill </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>placed </li></ul><ul><li>In the </li></ul><ul><li>Shot </li></ul>
  40. 41. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL <ul><li>FILL PLACEMENT and MOOD </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH KEY – BRIGHT MOOD </li></ul><ul><li>LOW KEY – DARK MOOD </li></ul><ul><li>--FILLS should never be more intense than the key </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>High Key </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>High </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul>
  42. 43. Low Key Lighting <ul><li>Low Key </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul>
  43. 44. 3 Pt. Ltg - Back Light <ul><li>Helps Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Helps Separate </li></ul>
  44. 45. 3 Pt. Ltg - Back Light <ul><li>Helps Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Helps Separate </li></ul>
  45. 46. Back Light <ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Stand </li></ul><ul><li>In Shot </li></ul>
  46. 47. Back Light-Lens Flare
  47. 48. Back Light-Rim <ul><li>Rim </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul>
  48. 49. Back Light-Rim <ul><li>Rim </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul>
  49. 50. Back Light-Rim <ul><li>Orc with a </li></ul><ul><li>Rim </li></ul>
  50. 51. Back Light - Kicker <ul><li>Kicker </li></ul><ul><li>3/4, Low angle </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite </li></ul><ul><li>The </li></ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul>
  51. 52. Back - Rim - Kicker
  52. 53. Kicker <ul><li>Object </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Accent light; </li></ul><ul><li>also </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>called a Kicker </li></ul>
  53. 54. Back Light-Atmosphere <ul><li>Atmospheric Effects </li></ul><ul><li>*Trick to it? </li></ul><ul><li>Road </li></ul><ul><li>To </li></ul><ul><li>Perdition </li></ul>
  54. 55. Back Light-Atmosphere-Rain <ul><li>Atmospheric Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Daredevil </li></ul>
  55. 56. Back Light-Atmosphere-Rain <ul><li>Atmospheric Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Batman </li></ul><ul><li>Begins </li></ul>
  56. 57. Back Light Atmosphere <ul><li>SMOKE </li></ul>
  57. 58. 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER <ul><li>BACKGROUND LIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>Background Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Usually same as KEY </li></ul><ul><li>Background Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>High key - same as Key </li></ul><ul><li>Low Key - @ least </li></ul><ul><li>1 stop difference </li></ul>
  58. 59. Background Lighting <ul><li>TONAL VARIATIONS </li></ul>
  59. 60. Background Lighting <ul><li>TONAL VARIATIONS </li></ul>
  60. 61. Background Lighting-Composition <ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>As well </li></ul><ul><li>As mood </li></ul>
  61. 62. BackgroundLighting-Shadows <ul><li>Natural Shadow Cookie Shadow </li></ul>
  62. 63. 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER <ul><li>BACKGROUND LIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>KEY TO CREATING SHADOW ON B.G. or any background efx </li></ul><ul><li>– Control SPILL!!! </li></ul>
  63. 64. 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER <ul><li>EYE LIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD RULE when lighting actors </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK THE EYES </li></ul><ul><li>--for deadness caused by lack of eyelight </li></ul><ul><li>--for the opposite prob, too many reflections (many lights reflecting in their eyes). </li></ul>
  64. 65. Lighting - Eye Light <ul><li>EYE POPS </li></ul>
  65. 66. Eye Light <ul><li>Even </li></ul><ul><li>Hannibal </li></ul><ul><li>Gets an </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Light </li></ul>
  66. 67. 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER <ul><li>HAIR LIGHTS - Position </li></ul><ul><li>[1] from directly overhead </li></ul><ul><li>[2] from more oblique angles (side) </li></ul><ul><li>[3] from behind the subject </li></ul>
  67. 68. <ul><li>“ CLASSIC </li></ul><ul><li>HOLLYWOOD” </li></ul><ul><li>Marlene </li></ul><ul><li>Dietrich </li></ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul>
  68. 69. 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER <ul><li>PRACTICALS </li></ul><ul><li>-CLOTHES </li></ul><ul><li>-LIGHT </li></ul>
  69. 70. <ul><li>Practicals: </li></ul><ul><li>-Windows </li></ul><ul><li>-Floor Lamp </li></ul><ul><li>-Wall Sconce </li></ul><ul><li>-Desk Lamp </li></ul>
  70. 71. PREPARING TO LIGHT <ul><li>Lighting, like any other part of production, requires advanced planning . </li></ul><ul><li>What are the Aesthetic Considerations to address? </li></ul>
  71. 72. PREPARING TO LIGHT <ul><li>OVERALL LOOK </li></ul><ul><li>LIGHT QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECT LIGHTING RATIOS </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECT/BACKGROUND RATIOS </li></ul><ul><li>COLOR EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>FILM/VIDEO STOCK </li></ul>
  72. 73. Aesthetics - Overall Look
  73. 74. <ul><li>Subject-Lighting Ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Kodak Subject Lighting Ratios for Stock 5246 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  74. 75. Color Effect-Lab
  75. 76. Color-film stocks Traffic
  76. 77. Film/Video Stock <ul><li>How is a stock rated? </li></ul><ul><li>How much will you need? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shooting Ratio”? </li></ul>
  77. 78. PREPARING TO LIGHT <ul><li>LOCATION SHOOTING </li></ul><ul><li>If not in a studio, careful and systematic LOCATION SCOUTING is imperative </li></ul><ul><li>Survey each location to determine ノ </li></ul>
  78. 79. PREPARING TO LIGHT <ul><li>How much light it will require </li></ul><ul><li>How many lights can be mounted [on overhead beams, walls, etc] </li></ul><ul><li>How many crew members will you need (lights and handle reflectors?) </li></ul><ul><li>Where will the sun be when you are shooting? </li></ul>
  79. 80. PREPARING TO LIGHT <ul><li>Survey the location for ELECTRICITY. </li></ul>
  80. 81. PREPARING TO LIGHT <ul><li>How much power do you need? </li></ul><ul><li>How much is actually available there? </li></ul><ul><li>Find the breaker box and map out the power circuits </li></ul><ul><li>How many wall outlets do you have, and where are they located? </li></ul><ul><li>How many EXTENSION CABLES [STINGERS] do you need and how long do they need to be? </li></ul>
  81. 82. PREPARING TO LIGHT <ul><li>Do you have a contact person? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you need to hire an Gaffer? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you need to rent a generator? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you borrow/buy power from someone nearby? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you TRANSPORT the GEAR? </li></ul>
  82. 83. PREPARING TO LIGHT <ul><li>DEVELOP A CHECKLIST </li></ul><ul><li>Major items should include: </li></ul><ul><li>--Lighting instruments and spare lamps, Mounting equipment, Lighting accessories, “Stingers”, Generator, Safety gear, transportation, weather report, maps and crew contact information to disperse </li></ul>
  83. 84. SHOOTING OUTDOORS <ul><li>Tend to shoot WITH Sun, meaning the Sun is AT YOUR BACK </li></ul><ul><li>MAGIC HOUR or GOLDEN TIME </li></ul>
  84. 85. Contrast Range <ul><li>Image Curve </li></ul>
  85. 86. <ul><li>CONTRAST AND REDUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Adding Fill Light </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Reflectors and Flex Fills </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Large Scrim or SILK </li></ul><ul><li>[4] Shoot in the shade </li></ul><ul><li>[5] Shoot on overcast days </li></ul>
  86. 87. Reflectors-Flex Fills
  87. 88. Reflectors-Foam Core
  88. 89. Contrast Redux-Silk <ul><li>4x4 </li></ul><ul><li>Silk </li></ul>
  89. 90. Contrast Redux-Soft Box <ul><li>Rifa Chimera </li></ul>
  90. 91. SHOOTING OUTDOORS <ul><li>CONTRAST AND REDUCTION cont’d </li></ul><ul><li>[6] Filters on the Camera </li></ul><ul><li>--ND or Neutral Density </li></ul><ul><li>--Haze and UV filters </li></ul><ul><li>--Polarizers </li></ul><ul><li>--Low contrast or soft contrast filters </li></ul><ul><li>Filters generally cause some loss in image quality </li></ul>
  91. 92. Neutral Density Filter <ul><li>No filter ND Filter </li></ul>
  92. 93. ND Filter <ul><li>No filter 2 Stop ND Filter </li></ul>
  93. 94. UV-Haze Filter <ul><li>No Filter Tiffen Haze 2 </li></ul>
  94. 95. <ul><li>No Filter Polarizer </li></ul>
  95. 96. Low Contrast Filter <ul><li>NoFilter Contrast </li></ul>
  96. 97. SHOOTING OUTDOORS <ul><li>MAINTAINING CONTINUITY </li></ul><ul><li>When the Sun is the primary light source, there is always the potential for lighting –induced CONTINUITY ERRORS. </li></ul><ul><li>Group similarly lit scenes together in your shooting schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid shooting different sections of the same scene at different times of the day </li></ul>
  97. 98. NIGHT SHOOTING <ul><li>Night for Night </li></ul><ul><li>Dusk for Night </li></ul><ul><li>Day for Night </li></ul><ul><li>Fight Club Ext. </li></ul>
  98. 99. Day for Night <ul><li>Using Digieffects Software Plug-in </li></ul>