Brian Elliott's "Camera Basics" Lecture

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This lecture was given in Baylor University's Production Methods One course on 10/2/06 and 10/4/06.

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Brian Elliott's "Camera Basics" Lecture

  1. 1. CAMERA BASICS
  2. 2. The Camera <ul><li>NTSC </li></ul><ul><li>-Lines </li></ul><ul><li>-FPS </li></ul><ul><li>-Fields </li></ul><ul><li>PAL </li></ul><ul><li>SECAM </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Camera <ul><li>Film - FPS </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence of Vision </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Camera - Scanning <ul><li>PROGRESSIVE INTERLACE </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Camera <ul><li>Standard HD Progressive Scan Camera often called 720P </li></ul><ul><li>Or 1280 x 720 P </li></ul><ul><li>1280 PIXELS PER Line x 720 PROGRESSIVE scan lines PER frame </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Camera <ul><li>Standard HD Interlace is often called 1080i </li></ul><ul><li>Or 1920 x 1080 </li></ul><ul><li>1920 PIXELS Per Line x 1080 interlaced scan lines per frame. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Camera
  8. 8. The Camera
  9. 9. The Camera System <ul><li>The Video Signal </li></ul><ul><li>Transducer: Optical > to Electric > back to Optical </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Camera Imaging Device <ul><li>Lens forms image on CCD </li></ul><ul><li>Most Prof’l cams have 3 (RGB) As Film Cam forms image on film </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Camera Imaging Device <ul><li>CCD “target area” has 100,000s up to Millions of PIXELS. </li></ul><ul><li>A pixel detects differences in image brightness, changes it into electric voltages and outputs it. TV Receiver reverses the process. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>Prime or “Fixed Focus” Variable or Zoom </li></ul>
  13. 13. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>MACRO TABLE TOP LENS </li></ul>
  14. 14. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>DIGITAL ZOOM LENS </li></ul><ul><li>Software magnifies or “blows up” a portion of original image. Lower quality </li></ul>
  15. 15. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>FOCAL LENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>300mm lens 35mm lens </li></ul>
  16. 16. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH </li></ul>
  17. 17. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH </li></ul>
  18. 18. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH </li></ul>
  19. 19. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH </li></ul>
  20. 20. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH </li></ul>
  21. 21. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH </li></ul>
  22. 22. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>Setting Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Light Meters </li></ul><ul><li>Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective </li></ul>
  23. 23. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>Aperture or Iris (diaphragm) and F-STOPS </li></ul><ul><li>1 1.4 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ </li></ul>
  24. 24. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>Aperture or Iris (diaphragm) and F-STOPS </li></ul><ul><li>1 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 16 22 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>Overexposure </li></ul><ul><li>“ hot” </li></ul><ul><li>Underexposure </li></ul>
  26. 26. Optical Element - The Lens <ul><li>Auto Iris Problem </li></ul>
  27. 27. Color Temperature <ul><li>Primary - RGB </li></ul><ul><li>2ndary - CYM </li></ul>
  28. 28. Color Temperature <ul><li>3 Primary Colors = 3 CCDs: RED, GREEN, BLUE, COMBINED </li></ul>
  29. 29. Color Temperature <ul><li>Human Eye: Approximate Color Consistency </li></ul>
  30. 30. Color Temperature <ul><li>Sunlight’s Varying Color Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Time of day, Amt. Of Haze, Geographic Locale </li></ul>
  31. 31. Color Temperature <ul><li>Video - Degrees Kelvin </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoors - 5600K Indoors - 3200K </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor Lights we use are usually Incandescent or Tungsten Light </li></ul>
  32. 32. Color Temperature <ul><li>Film - Utilizes Different Film Stocks </li></ul>
  33. 33. Color Temperature <ul><li>Film - Utilizes Different Film Stocks </li></ul>
  34. 34. Color Temperature <ul><li>Before 85 After 85 </li></ul><ul><li>Film - Also uses Compensation Filters </li></ul><ul><li>85 (amber) Using Indoor (tungsten) film with Outdoor sources (sun, HMI Lights, etc.) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Color Temperature <ul><li>Before 80A and After 80A </li></ul><ul><li>Film - Also uses Compensation Filters </li></ul><ul><li>80A (blue) Using Daylight film with Tungsten (indoor) sources </li></ul>
  36. 36. Color Temperature <ul><li>Film - ND or NEUTRAL DENSITY FILTERS </li></ul>
  37. 37. Color Temperature <ul><li>Video Cams use a Filter Wheel - with 3200, 5600, and ND settings </li></ul>
  38. 38. Color Temperature <ul><li>With Video Cams we also WHITE BALANCE </li></ul>
  39. 39. Color Temperature <ul><li>*We can also CHEAT white balance. </li></ul><ul><li>WB on BLUE, image is a more red color. </li></ul><ul><li>WB on YELLOW, image is more blue. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Color Balancing Multiple Cameras <ul><li>CCU’s - Camera Control Units </li></ul><ul><li>-controls a cameras Iris, Pedestal [black level], colors, etc. </li></ul>
  41. 41. DEPTH OF FIELD <ul><li>1/3, 2/3 RULE </li></ul>
  42. 42. DEPTH OF FIELD <ul><li>Focal Length and </li></ul><ul><li>F-STOP impacts DOF </li></ul>
  43. 43. DEPTH OF FIELD <ul><li>Manipulating DOF allows for </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Focus </li></ul>
  44. 44. DEPTH OF FIELD <ul><li>Selective Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Tells </li></ul><ul><li>Us </li></ul><ul><li>Where to Look </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>What’s </li></ul><ul><li>Important </li></ul>
  45. 45. DEPTH OF FIELD <ul><li>Follow Focus </li></ul>
  46. 46. DEPTH OF FIELD <ul><li>Macro Focus </li></ul>
  47. 47. DEPTH OF FIELD <ul><li>RACK FOCUS </li></ul>
  48. 48. DEPTH OF FIELD <ul><li>AUTO FOCUS PROB </li></ul>
  49. 49. DEPTH OF FIELD <ul><li>Director’s </li></ul><ul><li>Viewfinder </li></ul>
  50. 50. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>NTSC: 4 x 3 HDTV: 16 x 9 </li></ul>
  51. 51. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>Sometimes we phrase it -- “2.35” </li></ul><ul><li>What does that mean? 2.35 : 1 </li></ul>
  52. 52. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>NTSC HDTV </li></ul><ul><li>4 x 3 = 1.33:1 16x9 = 1.78:1 </li></ul>
  53. 53. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>US Standard 35mm Film is 1.85:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Europe Standard Film is 1.66:1 </li></ul>
  54. 54. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>Some films use widescreen 35mm Film </li></ul><ul><li>2.35:1 </li></ul>
  55. 55. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>35mm Hard Matte 35mm Soft Matte </li></ul><ul><li>How do they get it wider? By manipulating the frame itself. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>35mm Hard Matte 35mm Anamorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Anamorphic vertically stretches image, then when plays back, looks normal (if system setup correctly) </li></ul>
  57. 57. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>Anamorphic of a 1.85 image: [a] Non-Anamorphic (letterbox), </li></ul><ul><li>[b] Vertically Stretched, [c] Viewed correctly </li></ul>
  58. 58. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>Anamorphic of a 2.35 image: [a] Non-Anamorphic (letterbox), </li></ul><ul><li>[b] Vertically Stretched, [c] Viewed correctly </li></ul>
  59. 59. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>35mm Hard Matte Super 35 </li></ul><ul><li>SUPER 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the Audio Tracks are missing </li></ul>
  60. 60. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>Making Widescreen fit your NTSC TV </li></ul><ul><li>[1] PAN AND SCAN </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: Changes Aesthetic and Cuts 43% of screen at all times. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>[1] PAN AND SCAN - Changes the Aesthetic </li></ul>
  62. 62. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>Cuts 43% - Pan and Scan vs. Letterbox </li></ul>
  63. 63. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>Making Widescreen fit your NTSC TV </li></ul><ul><li>[2] LETTERBOX </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: Black bars means we loose scan lines. Uses only 272 of 480 active lines. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>Anamorphic Letterbox </li></ul><ul><li>Anamorph process better, 33% more lines than letterbox </li></ul>
  65. 65. Camera Shutter <ul><li>SHUTTER SPEED </li></ul><ul><li>Film: Amt of time film is exposed to light </li></ul><ul><li>Video: Amt of time that the light-induced charge is allowed to electronically build </li></ul>
  66. 66. Camera Shutter
  67. 67. Camera Shutter <ul><li>Faster Shutter Speeds Require MORE light! </li></ul><ul><li>CCD Shutter Speed Corresponding f-stop </li></ul><ul><li>Normal 16 </li></ul><ul><li>1/100 11 </li></ul><ul><li>1/250 8 </li></ul><ul><li>1/500 5.6 </li></ul><ul><li>1/,1000 4 </li></ul><ul><li>1/2000 2.8 </li></ul><ul><li>1/4000 2 </li></ul>
  68. 68. Camera Shutter <ul><li>Shutter also allows for the creation of STROBE </li></ul>
  69. 69. Camera Mounts <ul><li>Studio Pedestals </li></ul>
  70. 70. Camera Mounts <ul><li>“ Sticks”, Fluid Head, Hi-Hat, Bean bags </li></ul>
  71. 71. Specialty Camera Setups <ul><li>Robotic </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul>
  72. 72. Specialty Camera Setups <ul><li>“ Follow Me” </li></ul><ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Mount </li></ul>
  73. 73. Specialty Camera Setups <ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Jibs </li></ul>
  74. 74. Specialty Camera Setups <ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Crane & Jib </li></ul>
  75. 75. Specialty Camera Setups <ul><li>Steadicam </li></ul>
  76. 76. Specialty Camera Setups <ul><li>Dollies </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>Track </li></ul>
  77. 77. Specialty Camera Setups <ul><li>Copter Cams </li></ul>
  78. 78. Specialty Camera Setups <ul><li>Shuttle Cam </li></ul>
  79. 79. Specialty Camera Setups <ul><li>Rad Cam </li></ul>
  80. 80. CAMERA BASICS

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