Diversity week2 class1

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Diversity week2 class1

  1. 1. Week 2: Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Instructor: Jean-Pierre Mulumba Ph. D. Overview of Section One: Understanding Individual Perspectives of Diversity 1
  2. 2. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Learning Objectives  Understand why diversity management requires organizational change  Present common definitions of terms and theoretical frameworks which provide a foundation for this course  Explain how diversity can become a competitive advantage in today’s marketplace 2
  3. 3. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction ◦ Workplace diversity is now accepted as a fact of organization life  Transition is not easy and corporate leadership is often lacking ◦ Need to capitalize on its advantages and to minimize its complexities 3
  4. 4. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction ◦ Issues and challenges remain  Workers still struggle with prejudice, sexual harassment, and discrimination.  Organizations still sued over civil rights violations,  Overlook opportunities to benefit from their diverse workforces and boards  Fail to see the marketing potential of diverse consumers. 4
  5. 5. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Need to Change  While many organizations have tried to adapt to the new situation  Transition is not easy and corporate leadership is missing.  As a result, organizations are facing new challenges oNeed for change. 5
  6. 6. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Need to Change: Unfreezing o There exist additional forces pushing for the unfreezing of traditional ways of managing diversity: o Recognition of different dimensions of diversity, o New legislation o Movement to value difference o Growing opportunities to serve new global and domestic markets o Awareness of diversity competitive advantage 6
  7. 7. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Need to Change: Change Process o At the same time, there is recognition of a link between this change and a solid diversity leadership on: o The corporate and employee network group levels, o Assessment of diversity efforts, and effective training  That changes individual attitudes and organizational cultures in terms of differences. 7
  8. 8. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Need to Change: Refreezing o The refreezing that results produces new ways of working o new policies and programs, o community outreach to diverse populations, and assessment  That leads to further strategic changes. 8
  9. 9. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Change Model Change Leadership Corporate Boards Diversity Audits ERGs Training Unfreezing Demographics Global Expansion Laws Market Opportunities Values 9 Refreezing Social Responsibility Best Practices Awards Flexible Work
  10. 10. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Business Case for Diversity  Motivated and productive employees  Less turnover  More creativity  Competitive market advantages 10
  11. 11. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Understanding Workforce Diversity Definitions o The Civil Rights Act of 1964 defined diversity in terms of race, color, national origin, religion, and sex. o As more legislation protecting specific groups more categories were added. o People with disability o Older People 11
  12. 12. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Understanding Workforce Diversity Definitions o But these legal definition based on social identity categories were o Limited in scope o Have changed over the years o Do not account for multiple identities or saliency o Encourage generalizations o Are exclusionary o Ignore organizational contexts 12
  13. 13. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Understanding Workforce Diversity Definitions o A strategic definition should be o inclusive of many recognized types of difference o recognizes the need for organizations to change the way the people is managed and the way they work o Market driven o Recognizing diversity as a competitive advantage i.e., the business advantage 13
  14. 14. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Definition of Diversity for This Course It is both the ways that people differ that affect their workplace experiences in terms of performance, motivation, communication and inclusion and the need for organizational strategies that address the diversity of the changing external environment such as customers, suppliers and the community. 14
  15. 15. Understanding Ourselves: the Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Need for Introspection and SelfAwareness  Prejudice: preconceived evaluative attitudes based on social group memberships (Section I of the text)  Stereotypes: generalized beliefs that all members of a group possess the same characteristics  Learned categories  Complexity-identity theory  Discrimination: behaving differently towards a person because of his social identity group membership 15
  16. 16. Understanding social group Managing in a Diverse and Changing World memberships: the need to know others o The group memberships affect our personal and professional lives. o Loden (1996) provides a framework of memberships identities into two interlocking categories: o Primary: are permanent, less changeable, and usually more central to one’s self-perception (Sections II & III of the text) o Secondary, differences more changeable and less visible (Sections IV & V of the text) o Remember: people can have multiple social identities 16
  17. 17. Loden’s Dimensions of Diversity Primary Secondary Age Geographic location Gender Military & work experience Mental/Physical abilities Family status Race Income, Religion Ethnic heritage First language, Education Sexual orientation Organizational role & level Communication & work styles 17
  18. 18. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Managing Diversity and Organizational Change  This matter is discussed in section 6 o Many forces pushing organizations to adapt to diversity are external and not controllable o The following three frameworks will help you to analyze, managing diversity and change in organizations. o The first is Schein’s levels of culture in the following slide 18
  19. 19. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Schein’s Levels of Organizational Culture  Surface level attributes (visible)  Includes organizational structures, processes, dress, rituals, physical layout, etc.  Values (espoused and operational)  Espoused values are what the what the organization says it values in terms, of strategies philosophies, etc.,  Not necessarily what it does.  What it does are the operational values.  Basic underlying assumptions 19  Real source of values and behavior;  Philosophies sometimes unconscious and difficult to change
  20. 20. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Three organizational paradigms (Thomas & Ely) This approach is about the organization starting to change the process by applying three-stage paradigm model. o The first stage is the discrimination and fairness paradigm:  The organization is concentrated on avoiding lawsuits through recruitment and retention of diverse employees Expected to assimilate into the dominant group. o The second is the access and legitimacy paradigm:  Diversity is a competitive advantage in terms of understanding changing customer markets. o The third is where diversity really works best  It is learning and effectiveness paradigm  Diversity is part of its mission, assessment, and adjustment 20
  21. 21. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Inclusion Breakthrough (Miller & Katz)  The third approach is to think organizational diversity in terms of achieving a change: an inclusion breakthrough (Miller & Katz) o Breaking out of the diversity-in-a-box model by changing the organization culture o Allow diversity to change in terms of a competitive advantage. 21

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