Developing IT Strategy that Connects                   in a “Consumer IT” Environment                                     ...
Developing IT Strategy that Connects               Requirements               • Define an IT Strategy               • Alig...
B                 I              N              G              O Paradigm                Virtualization     HTML5         ...
Developing IT Strategy that Connects               Requirements               • Define an IT Strategy               • Alig...
How does IT drive 15/15?        Direct            Expense Management                              • Optimize real $$ costs...
Whats Driving this Brevity? • Speed of business?                               7
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l       ll           9
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Whats Driving this Brevity? • Speed of business? • Todays current fire? • Expecting BoD-style?                            ...
13
A Simple Question     Said     • Define an IT Strategy     • Align with Corporate Objectives     Unsaid     • Cut my Costs...
A Simple Question     Requirements     • Define an IT Strategy     • Align with Corporate Objectives     Assumptions     •...
Sustainable IT Strategy for the Fast Twitch Set      Where to Begin?          – Top Down: Corporate Strategic Objectives  ...
Sustainable IT Strategy for the Fast Twitch Set      Where to Begin?          – Top Down: Corporate Strategic Objectives  ...
What are your Corporate Strategic Objectives?      1. More Revenue      2. Less Cost                                      ...
What are your Corporate Strategic Objectives?      1. More Revenue              a. Grow Earnings      2. Less Cost        ...
Been There, Done That     •   $35M Subsidiary of Schindler Elevator (€4B)     •   Privately Held     •   Light Manufacturi...
Been There, Done That     •   $4B subsidiary of Monsanto ($9B)     •   Publicly Held     •   Pharmaceuticals     •   Strat...
Been There, Done That     •   $700M subsidiary of Vivendi ($29B)     •   Publicly Held (International)     •   Consumer Du...
Been There, Done That     •   $3.5B subsidiary of Rank Group     •   Private Equity     •   Foodservice Disposables Manufa...
Been There, Done That     •   $2B, Diversified Engineered Products     •   Publicly Held     •   Industrial Manufacturing ...
Top Line is Better 15% Annual Earnings Growth • Aggressively Acquisitive, ~$100-200M per year • Organic is a Focus in 2013...
IT Operation: How I Spend My Days   For the two major components of People Time …                    RTB                  ...
Project Management is Easy, Right?   Idea    Concept    Design    Build   Install   Run   Review                 • Communi...
IT + Finance Language: Common Ground               Enhance the Business               New capabilities         ETB   with ...
Sustainable IT Strategy for the Fast Twitch Set      Where to Begin?          – Top Down: Corporate Strategic Objectives  ...
IT + Finance Language: Common Ground               Enhance the Business               New capabilities         ETB   with ...
How does IT drive 15/15 (ROIC) ?               Enhance the Business               New capabilities         ETB   with incr...
How does IT drive 15/15 (Growth)?               Enhance the Business         ETB   New capabilities               with inc...
How does IT drive 15/15 (Growth)?               Enhance the Business         ETB   New capabilities               with inc...
How does IT drive 15/15 (Growth)?               Enhance the Business         ETB   New capabilities               with inc...
How does IT drive 15/15?        Direct            Expense Management                              • Optimize real $$ costs...
How does IT drive 15/15?           Direct            Expense Management                                 • Optimize real $$...
Sustainable IT Strategy for the Fast Twitch Set      Where to Begin?          – Top Down: Corporate Strategic Objectives  ...
2013 Corporate IT Budget: Components Consumption-based Bill-backs      Telecomm / Data / Network               $ 5.0    10...
2013 Corporate IT Budget: Components Consumption-based Bill-backs      Telecomm / Data / Network               $ 10.0   20...
IT-as-a-Service  1. Bill-backs       – Consumption-based costs as they are incurred  2. Direct allocations       – Committ...
IT-as-a-Service  1. Bill-backs       – Consumption-based costs as they are incurred  2. Direct allocations       – Committ...
Sustainable IT Strategy for the Fast Twitch Set      Where to Begin?          – Top Down: Corporate Strategic Objectives  ...
See IT, Read IT, Hear IT               Mode                   •    In Person / One-in-One                   •    Written  ...
See IT, Read IT, Hear IT               Mode                   •    In Person / One-on-One                   •    Written  ...
See IT, Read IT, Hear IT               Mode                   •    In Person / One-on-One                   •    Written  ...
See IT, Read IT, Hear IT               Mode                   •    In Person / One-in-One                   •    Written  ...
See IT, Read IT, Hear IT               Mode                   •    In Person / One-in-One                   •    Written  ...
One page method
How does IT drive 15/15?        Direct            Expense Management                              • Optimize real $$ costs...
Multi-page method
IT + Finance Language: Common Ground               Enhance the Business               New capabilities         ETB   with ...
How does IT drive 15/15 (ROIC) ?               Enhance the Business               New capabilities         ETB   with incr...
How does IT drive 15/15 (Growth)?               Enhance the Business         ETB   New capabilities               with inc...
How does IT drive 15/15?        Direct            Expense Management                              • Optimize real $$ costs...
Intranet method
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How does IT drive 15/15?           Direct            Expense Management                                 • Optimize real $$...
Everything will be all right in the end...if its not all right, then its not yet the end                                  ...
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Developing IT Strategy that Connects             Requirements             • Define an IT Strategy             • Align with...
Developing IT Strategy that Connects             Requirements             • Define an IT Strategy             • Align with...
Developing IT Strategy that Connects in a “Consumer IT” EnvironmentAITP Chicago – Chapter MeetingRolling Meadows, IL11 Feb...
This presentation is licensed under the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States                              ...
Developing IT Strategy that Connects
Developing IT Strategy that Connects
Developing IT Strategy that Connects
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Developing IT Strategy that Connects

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Developing IT Strategy that Connects

  1. 1. Developing IT Strategy that Connects in a “Consumer IT” Environment AITP Chicago – Chapter Meeting Rolling Meadows, ILJames P. MacLennan 11 February 2013
  2. 2. Developing IT Strategy that Connects Requirements • Define an IT Strategy • Align with Corporate Objectives Assumptions • Cut my Costs • Deliver Innovation • Something I Can Understand 3
  3. 3. B I N G O Paradigm Virtualization HTML5 Big Data Hacktivism Shift Something- Speed ofConsumer IT Blog Innovation As-a-Service Business BYOD Green IT FREE Business Gamification SPACE Intelligence Outside theGlobalization SEO NFC Synergy Box Wisdom of Internet ofSocial Media Alignment Web 3.0 the Crowds Things
  4. 4. Developing IT Strategy that Connects Requirements • Define an IT Strategy • Align with Corporate Objectives Assumptions • Cut my Costs • Deliver Innovation • Something I Can Understand ? 5
  5. 5. How does IT drive 15/15? Direct Expense Management • Optimize real $$ costs on variable spend • Reallocate $$ and people time from RTB Indirect Services: Projects and Skills / Training • Enable growth with new capabilities / market access • Drive savings through visibility and automation Enhance the Business ETB New capabilities with incremental benefits Reallocate People Run the Business RTB Keeping the Trains Running Variable: – Data / Telecommunications Optimize – Hardware / Software $$ Fixed: – Depreciation IT Budget Mix 6
  6. 6. Whats Driving this Brevity? • Speed of business? 7
  7. 7. 8
  8. 8. l ll  9
  9. 9. 10
  10. 10. Whats Driving this Brevity? • Speed of business? • Todays current fire? • Expecting BoD-style? 11
  11. 11. 13
  12. 12. A Simple Question Said • Define an IT Strategy • Align with Corporate Objectives Unsaid • Cut my Costs • Deliver Innovation • Something I Can Understand 14
  13. 13. A Simple Question Requirements • Define an IT Strategy • Align with Corporate Objectives Assumptions • Cut my Costs • Deliver Innovation • Something I Can Understand 15
  14. 14. Sustainable IT Strategy for the Fast Twitch Set Where to Begin? – Top Down: Corporate Strategic Objectives – Bottom Up: IT Operations – Common Ground: IT Finance Bridging the Gap – Making the connection – Common language – What the cat said to the dog Hidden Messages – Transparency – IT as a Service Communicating the Message – One Time – Multi-Media 16
  15. 15. Sustainable IT Strategy for the Fast Twitch Set Where to Begin? – Top Down: Corporate Strategic Objectives – Bottom Up: IT Operations – Common Ground: IT Finance Bridging the Gap – Making the connection – Common language – What the cat said to the dog Hidden Messages – Transparency – IT as a Service Communicating the Message – One Time – Multi-Media 17
  16. 16. What are your Corporate Strategic Objectives? 1. More Revenue 2. Less Cost 18
  17. 17. What are your Corporate Strategic Objectives? 1. More Revenue a. Grow Earnings 2. Less Cost a. Grow Returns b. Increase Cash Flow 19
  18. 18. Been There, Done That • $35M Subsidiary of Schindler Elevator (€4B) • Privately Held • Light Manufacturing • Strategic Objectives (ca. 1997) – Mature markets in the US generate cash to fund international growth at parent – Revenue growth in the US focused on new product segments and custom manufacturing 20
  19. 19. Been There, Done That • $4B subsidiary of Monsanto ($9B) • Publicly Held • Pharmaceuticals • Strategic Objectives (ca. 1999) – Drive revenue growth on new product (Celebrex) – Focus R&D on long-term pipeline in smaller set of markets, funded by reallocation of resources 21
  20. 20. Been There, Done That • $700M subsidiary of Vivendi ($29B) • Publicly Held (International) • Consumer Durables Manufacturing • Strategic Objectives (ca. 2002) – Balance revenue flow by growing recurring streams – Streamline back office for company-owned stores by establishing shared services 22
  21. 21. Been There, Done That • $3.5B subsidiary of Rank Group • Private Equity • Foodservice Disposables Manufacturing & Distribution • High Volume, Low Mix • Strategic Objectives (ca. 2011) – Mature markets in the US generate cash to fund acquisitions at parent – Grow revenue by acquiring new products that will leverage broader distribution network 23
  22. 22. Been There, Done That • $2B, Diversified Engineered Products • Publicly Held • Industrial Manufacturing • Low Volume, High Mix • Strategic Objectives “15/15” – 15% Annual Earnings Growth – 15% ROIC (Return on Invested Capital) 24
  23. 23. Top Line is Better 15% Annual Earnings Growth • Aggressively Acquisitive, ~$100-200M per year • Organic is a Focus in 2013 • We prefer revenue growth over cost-cutting – IDEX businesses typically enjoy strong margins – Contribution Margin has faster / stronger impact than cost-cutting 15% Return on Invested Capital (ROIC) • ROIC measures how well a company generates cash flow relative to the capital it has invested • Working Capital, Lean, & Productivity fall under this topic 25
  24. 24. IT Operation: How I Spend My Days For the two major components of People Time … RTB ETB … define subcomponents / categories … Admin Operations Break/Fix Improvement Opportunity Projects Admin Meetings, Training/Development, Vacations/Holidays Operations Recurring maintenance, Patches – Keeping things running Break/Fix Bug fixes, Remedy tickets – “… it used to work but now it doesn’t …” Improvement Process documentation, user assistance, small development efforts Opportunity Opportunity Phase of New Projects – prepping for Concept Tollgate Projects Grouped by business, and moving through the PM stage gates 26
  25. 25. Project Management is Easy, Right? Idea Concept Design Build Install Run Review • Communicate • Plan the Work • Manage Resources • Create Deliverables • Checkpoint / Tollgate 27
  26. 26. IT + Finance Language: Common Ground Enhance the Business New capabilities ETB with incremental benefits The IT Budget “Mix” • Fixed / CommittedPeople • ($$$) Depreciation Run the Business • (Time) RTB RTB Keeping the Trains Running • Variable / Opportunity • ($$$) Telecom, Software, Hardware, Services Variable: • (Time) ETB – Data / Telecommunications – Hardware / Software $$$ Fixed: – Depreciation 28
  27. 27. Sustainable IT Strategy for the Fast Twitch Set Where to Begin? – Top Down: Corporate Strategic Objectives – Bottom Up: IT Operations – Common Ground: IT Finance Bridging the Gap – Making the connection – Common language – What the cat said to the dog Hidden Messages – Transparency – IT as a Service Communicating the Message – One Time – Multi-Media 29
  28. 28. IT + Finance Language: Common Ground Enhance the Business New capabilities ETB with incremental benefits The IT Budget “Mix” • Fixed / CommittedPeople • ($$$) Depreciation Run the Business • (Time) RTB RTB Keeping the Trains Running • Variable / Opportunity • ($$$) Telecom, Software, Hardware, Services Variable: • (Time) ETB – Data / Telecommunications – Hardware / Software $$$ Fixed: – Depreciation 30
  29. 29. How does IT drive 15/15 (ROIC) ? Enhance the Business New capabilities ETB with incremental benefits Optimize RTB • Complexity ReductionPeople • Standardization RTB Run the Business • Automation Keeping the Trains Running Optimize Expense • Complexity Reduction Variable: – Data / • Standardization Telecommunications – Hardware / Software • Leveraged Spend $$$ Fixed: Direct: Expense Management – Depreciation (Cost Savings) 31
  30. 30. How does IT drive 15/15 (Growth)? Enhance the Business ETB New capabilities with incremental benefits “Innovation Margin”People RTB Run the Business Reallocate Resources Keeping the Trains Running • ($$$) from IT to (other) • ($$$) from RTB to ETB • (Time) from RTB to ETB Variable: – Data / Telecommunications – Hardware / Software $$$ Fixed: Indirect: Services – Depreciation • Projects and Skills / Training • Enabling BU Growth / Savings
  31. 31. How does IT drive 15/15 (Growth)? Enhance the Business ETB New capabilities with incremental benefits “Innovation Margin”People RTB Run the Business Reallocate Resources Keeping the Trains Running • ($$$) from IT to (other) • ($$$) from RTB to ETB • (Time) from RTB to ETB Variable: – Data / Telecommunications – Hardware / Software l ll $$$ l  Fixed: Indirect: Services – Depreciation • Projects and Skills / Training l • Enabling BU Growth / Savings 33
  32. 32. How does IT drive 15/15 (Growth)? Enhance the Business ETB New capabilities with incremental benefits “Innovation Margin”People RTB Run the Business Reallocate Resources Keeping the Trains Running • ($$$) from IT to (other) • ($$$) from RTB to ETB • (Time) from RTB to ETB Variable: – Data / Telecommunications – Hardware / Software $$$ Fixed: Indirect: Services – Depreciation • Projects and Skills / Training • Enabling BU Growth / Savings
  33. 33. How does IT drive 15/15? Direct Expense Management • Optimize real $$ costs on variable spend • Reallocate $$ and people time from RTB Indirect Services: Projects and Skills / Training • Enable growth with new capabilities / market access • Drive savings through visibility and automation Enhance the Business ETB New capabilities with incremental benefits Reallocate People Run the Business RTB Keeping the Trains Running Variable: – Data / Telecommunications Optimize – Hardware / Software $$ Fixed: – Depreciation IT Budget Mix 35
  34. 34. How does IT drive 15/15? Direct Expense Management • Optimize real $$ costs on variable spend • Reallocate $$ and people time from RTB Indirect Services: Projects and Skills / Training • Enable growth with new capabilities / market access • Drive savings through visibility and automation Enhance the Business ETB New capabilities with incremental benefits This is reactive, not proactive When can IT become a strategic differentiator? Reallocate People “Earn our voice” with Execution Excellence RTB Run the Business Keeping the Trains Running Update Strat Plan process to proactively include IT Exit 2013 as an active participant in growth planning and initiatives Variable: – Data / Telecommunications Optimize – Hardware / Software $$ Fixed: – Depreciation IT Budget Mix 36
  35. 35. Sustainable IT Strategy for the Fast Twitch Set Where to Begin? – Top Down: Corporate Strategic Objectives – Bottom Up: IT Operations – Common Ground: IT Finance Bridging the Gap – Making the connection – Common language – What the cat said to the dog Hidden Messages – Transparency – IT as a Service Communicating the Message – One Time – Multi-Media 37
  36. 36. 2013 Corporate IT Budget: Components Consumption-based Bill-backs Telecomm / Data / Network $ 5.0 10% 10% - Consumption Software (Buy + Maintenance) People / Talent Staff - ETB (New capabilities) 15.0 30% Staff - RTB (Keep the trains running) Staff - Travel / Training Professional Services Technology / Assets Hardware (Lease/Buy + Maintenance) 23.0 46% Software (Buy + Maintenance) Telecomm / Data / Network Other 90% - Allocated (PB) Depreciation 7.0 14% $ 50.0 All $ shown are estimates; $M please – no wagering
  37. 37. 2013 Corporate IT Budget: Components Consumption-based Bill-backs Telecomm / Data / Network $ 10.0 20% 20% - Consumption Software (Buy + Maintenance) Consumption-based Allocations Hardware (Lease/Buy + Maintenance) Software (Buy + Maintenance) Professional Services People / Talent Staff - ETB (New capabilities) 14.0 28% Staff - RTB (Keep the trains running) Staff - Travel / Training Professional Services Technology / Assets Hardware (Lease/Buy + Maintenance) 19.0 38% Software (Buy + Maintenance) Telecomm / Data / Network Other 80% - Allocated (PB) Depreciation 7.0 14% $ 50.0 All $ shown are estimates; $M please – no wagering
  38. 38. IT-as-a-Service 1. Bill-backs – Consumption-based costs as they are incurred 2. Direct allocations – Committed costs, pre-allocated based on consumption 3. General allocations – Committed, shared costs, pre-allocated based on % of revenue – Exception for New Acquisitions: No general allocation during first full year at IDEX
  39. 39. IT-as-a-Service 1. Bill-backs – Consumption-based costs as they are incurred 2. Direct allocations – Committed costs, pre-allocated based on consumption 3. General allocations – Committed, shared costs, pre-allocated based on % of revenue – Exception for New Acquisitions: No general allocation during first full year at IDEX l lll l  l
  40. 40. Sustainable IT Strategy for the Fast Twitch Set Where to Begin? – Top Down: Corporate Strategic Objectives – Bottom Up: IT Operations – Common Ground: IT Finance Bridging the Gap – Making the connection – Common language – What the cat said to the dog Hidden Messages – Transparency – IT as a Service Communicating the Message – One Time – Multi-Media 43
  41. 41. See IT, Read IT, Hear IT Mode • In Person / One-in-One • Written • Presentation Media • Paper • eMail • Blog • PowerPoint • Browser Milieu • Team meetings • Global meetings • SuccessFactors 44
  42. 42. See IT, Read IT, Hear IT Mode • In Person / One-on-One • Written • Presentation Media • Paper • eMail • Blog • PowerPoint • Browser Milieu • Team meetings • Global meetings • SuccessFactors 45
  43. 43. See IT, Read IT, Hear IT Mode • In Person / One-on-One • Written • Presentation Media • Paper • eMail • Blog • PowerPoint • Browser Milieu • Team meetings • Global meetings • SuccessFactors 46
  44. 44. See IT, Read IT, Hear IT Mode • In Person / One-in-One • Written • Presentation Media • Paper • eMail • Blog • PowerPoint • Browser Milieu • Team meetings • Global meetings • SuccessFactors 47
  45. 45. See IT, Read IT, Hear IT Mode • In Person / One-in-One • Written • Presentation Media • Paper • eMail • Blog • PowerPoint • Browser Milieu • Team meetings • Global meetings • SuccessFactors 48
  46. 46. One page method
  47. 47. How does IT drive 15/15? Direct Expense Management • Optimize real $$ costs on variable spend • Reallocate $$ and people time from RTB Indirect Services: Projects and Skills / Training • Enable growth with new capabilities / market access • Drive savings through visibility and automation Enhance the Business ETB New capabilities with incremental benefits Reallocate People Run the Business RTB Keeping the Trains Running Variable: – Data / Telecommunications Optimize – Hardware / Software $$ Fixed: – Depreciation IT Budget Mix 50
  48. 48. Multi-page method
  49. 49. IT + Finance Language: Common Ground Enhance the Business New capabilities ETB with incremental benefits The IT Budget “Mix” • Fixed / CommittedPeople • ($$$) Depreciation Run the Business • (Time) RTB RTB Keeping the Trains Running • Variable / Opportunity • ($$$) Telecom, Software, Hardware, Services Variable: • (Time) ETB – Data / Telecommunications – Hardware / Software $$$ Fixed: – Depreciation 52
  50. 50. How does IT drive 15/15 (ROIC) ? Enhance the Business New capabilities ETB with incremental benefits Optimize RTB • Complexity ReductionPeople • Standardization RTB Run the Business • Automation Keeping the Trains Running Optimize Expense • Complexity Reduction Variable: – Data / • Standardization Telecommunications – Hardware / Software • Leveraged Spend $$$ Fixed: Direct: Expense Management – Depreciation (Cost Savings) 53
  51. 51. How does IT drive 15/15 (Growth)? Enhance the Business ETB New capabilities with incremental benefits “Innovation Margin”People RTB Run the Business Reallocate Resources Keeping the Trains Running • ($$$) from IT to (other) • ($$$) from RTB to ETB • (Time) from RTB to ETB Variable: – Data / Telecommunications – Hardware / Software $$$ Fixed: Indirect: Services – Depreciation • Projects and Skills / Training • Enabling BU Growth / Savings
  52. 52. How does IT drive 15/15? Direct Expense Management • Optimize real $$ costs on variable spend • Reallocate $$ and people time from RTB Indirect Services: Projects and Skills / Training • Enable growth with new capabilities / market access • Drive savings through visibility and automation Enhance the Business ETB New capabilities with incremental benefits Reallocate People Run the Business RTB Keeping the Trains Running Variable: – Data / Telecommunications Optimize – Hardware / Software $$ Fixed: – Depreciation IT Budget Mix 55
  53. 53. Intranet method
  54. 54. 57
  55. 55. 58
  56. 56. 59
  57. 57. How does IT drive 15/15? Direct Expense Management • Optimize real $$ costs on variable spend • Reallocate $$ and people time from RTB Indirect Services: Projects and Skills / Training • Enable growth with new capabilities / market access • Drive savings through visibility and automation Enhance the Business ETB New capabilities with incremental benefits This is reactive, not proactive When can IT become a strategic differentiator? Reallocate People “Earn our voice” with Execution Excellence RTB Run the Business Keeping the Trains Running Update Strat Plan process to proactively include IT Exit 2013 as an active participant in growth planning and initiatives Variable: – Data / Telecommunications Optimize – Hardware / Software $$ Fixed: – Depreciation IT Budget Mix 60
  58. 58. Everything will be all right in the end...if its not all right, then its not yet the end 61
  59. 59. 62
  60. 60. Developing IT Strategy that Connects Requirements • Define an IT Strategy • Align with Corporate Objectives Assumptions • Cut my Costs • Deliver Innovation • Something I Can Understand 63
  61. 61. Developing IT Strategy that Connects Requirements • Define an IT Strategy • Align with Corporate Objectives Assumptions • Cut my Costs • Deliver Innovation • Something I Can Understand lllll l  l l 64
  62. 62. Developing IT Strategy that Connects in a “Consumer IT” EnvironmentAITP Chicago – Chapter MeetingRolling Meadows, IL11 February 2013 James P. MacLennan Chief Information Officer IEX Corporation 1925 West Field Court Lake Forest, IL 60045 (847) 664 4775 jmaclennan@idexcorp.com An electronic version of these slides is available online www.cazh1.com This presentation is licensed under the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States license, available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/20130211 AITP CIO Dinner.pptx Image Credits: Next Page
  63. 63. This presentation is licensed under the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States license, available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ IMAGES Internet Explorer Icon Outlook Icon PowerPoint Icon by Tatice [CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0] by Benjigarner [CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0] by Benjigarner [CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0](www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- nd/3.0)], via IconArchive nd/3.0)], via IconArchive nd/3.0)], via IconArchive MS Word 2 Icon Standard Blog Icon Devices printer Icon by Benjigarner [CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0] by Brendan Mitchell [CC-BY-SA 3.0] by Oxygen Team [GNU LGPL],(www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by- via IconArchive nd/3.0)], via IconArchive sa/3.0)], via blog.brendanmitchell.com Marigolds Ski Racer by rugs (originally posted to Blogger 13 Aug Devices video projector Icon by Rickdrew [CC-BY-SA 3.0] 2011) [CC-BY-SA 3.0] by Oxygen Team [GNU LGPL], (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by- (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by- via IconArchive sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons Passing Jugglers (various) by Juggler [CC-BY-SA 3.0] (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by- sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons The products or characters depicted in these slides are © by Respective Copyright Owners No Animals Were Harmed in the Making of This Presentation

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