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Key Competences In The Spanish Education System

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Key Competences In The Spanish Education System

  2. 2. What is a Key Competence? <ul><li>The ability to integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes in a practical way to solve problems and react appropriately in a variety of contexts and situations. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, it is the integration and application of theoretical and practical knowledge in settings outside the academic context. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Where do they come from? <ul><li>The key competences ( Competencias Básicas ) in the Spanish Education Sysem have their origin in the key competences, established by the European Union at the end of the 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>They are also referred to in the Delors Report (“Learning, the treasure within”, UNESCO, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>and in the DeSeCo Project (“Defining and Selecting Key Competences”, OCDE, 1999). </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are the European Key Competences? <ul><li>Communication in the mother tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Communication in foreign languages </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Digital competence </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal, intercultural and social competences and civic competence </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural expression </li></ul>Key competences for lifelong learning:
  5. 5. When do they appear in the Spanish education system? <ul><li>The Ley Orgánica de Calidad de la Educación (LOCE, 2002) mentioned the competences, without defining them or establishing which competences were relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>They appear in the Spanish education system with the Ley Orgánica de Educación (LOE, 2006) and in the curricula described in this law. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How are the key competences related to the curriculum? <ul><li>In article 6 of the LOE the curriculum is defined as a series of objectives, key competences, contents, methodology and evaluation criteria. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Which key competences are described in regional education systems? (I) <ul><li>General competences : </li></ul><ul><li>Competence in linguistic communication </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical competence </li></ul><ul><li>Competence in knowledge of and interaction with the physical world </li></ul><ul><li>Competence in processing information and use of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Competence in social skills and citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and artistic competence </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy and personal initiative . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Which key competences are described in regional education systems? (IV) <ul><li>CATALUNYA </li></ul><ul><li>(different nomenclature and grouping of competences) </li></ul><ul><li>Transversal competences : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicative: Linguistic and audiovisual communication and Cultural and artistic competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodological: Data processing and digital competence , Mathematical competence and Learning to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal: Autonomy and personal initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competences specifically concerned with co-existence and living in the world: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence in knowledge and interaction with the physical world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and civic competence . </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Who is supposed to teach the key competences? (I) <ul><li>The LOE says that all subject areas should contribute to the development of as many competences as possible, and each one includes specific reference to the competences most associated with the area. </li></ul><ul><li>The most obvious link for English is with competence in linguistic communication and the foreign language ‘completes and enriches’ the communicative language work done in the mother tongue </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who is supposed to teach the key competences? (II) <ul><li>Whilst competence in linguistic communication is clearly the main competence to be developed, the curriculum also specifies: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Competence in social skills and citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Competence in processing information and use of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and artistic competence </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy and personal initiative </li></ul><ul><li>as relevant to the English classroom </li></ul>
  11. 11. Who is supposed to teach the key competences? (III) <ul><li>It is important to remember, at the same time, that the only competence which will be evaluated in English (or in the first foreign language of the school) is competence in linguistic communication . </li></ul><ul><li>The English classes can contribute to the other competences, but according to the information published to date they will be evaluated in the students mother tongue. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What does each key competence consist of? <ul><li>Note </li></ul><ul><li>The following information refers to the key competences established in the royal decrees on the curricula for Primary and Secondary Education, and so does not include descriptions of competences specific to certain autonomous regions, which may have added to, or made changes to the competences . </li></ul>
  13. 13. What does competence in linguistic communication involve ? <ul><li>This competence presupposes the use of language as a means of oral and written communication and as a learning tool and for self-regulation of thinking, emotions and behaviour. It contributes in this way to the development of a positive self-image, and helps forge a constructive relationship with others and with the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>So learning to communicate a way of establishing links with others, and approaching and making sense of other cultures. Linguistic competence is fundamental in the resolution of conflicts and in learning to co-exist peacefully. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of this competence involves a command of oral and written language in a variety of contexts, and a functional use of at least one foreign language . </li></ul>
  14. 14. ¿What does mathematical competence involve? <ul><li>This competence involves the ability, above all, to use numbers and basic mathematical operations, symbols and different types of mathematical expression and reasoning to produce and interpret information, understand quantitative and spatial concepts and to solve everyday and work-related problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of this competence means employing skills and attitudes which allow one to use mathematical reasoning, understand a mathematical argument, express oneself and communicate in mathematical language, and to integrate mathematical and other types of knowledge. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What does competence in knowledge of and interaction with the physical world involve ? <ul><li>This is the ability to interact with the physical world it its natural state, and in that created by human activity, in order to understand events and predict of consequences, and appreciate actions designed to improve and preserve living conditions of other people and living creatures. </li></ul><ul><li>This competence implies the acquisition of a scientific-rational thought process which allows autonomous interpretation of information, personal initiative in decision-making, and the use of ethical values when taking personal and social decisions. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What does competence in processing information and use of ICT involve? <ul><li>This is the ability to search for, obtain, process and communicate information, and transform it into knowledge. Different skills are involved, from access to and selection of the information, to its use and transmission through different media, and the use of ITC as an essential element of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of this competence involves the use of technological resources to resolve problems efficiently, keeping a critical and reflective attitude when evaluating the available information. </li></ul>
  17. 17. What does competence in social skills and citizenship involve ? <ul><li>This competence enables the student to form a part of the society he/she lives in, understand how it functions and play a part, as a democratic citizen, in an ever more diverse society. It involves the individual patterns of behaviour which facilitate peaceful co-existence, relationships with others, cooperation, commitment, and the resolution of conflicts. The acquisition of this competence involves being capable of putting oneself in the place of others, accepting differences, being tolerant and respecting the values, beliefs, cultures and personal and collective history of those around one. </li></ul><ul><li>It implies an understanding of the social situation we live in, and the ability to respond to conflicts with ethical values, exercising with solidarity and responsibility the rights and obligations we have as citizens. </li></ul>
  18. 18. What does cultural and artistic competence involve? <ul><li>This competence implies knowledge, appreciation, understanding, and critical evaluation of different cultural and artistic manifestations, both for the sake of enjoyment and as a source of personal enrichment, and considering them as part of the heritage of different cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>It involves an appreciation and enjoyment of Art and other manifestations of culture, keeping an open-minded attitude towards different types of Art, preserving the common cultural heritage and encouraging one’s own creative capacity. </li></ul>
  19. 19. What does learning to learn involve? <ul><li>This competence involves beginning to learn and being capable of continuing to learn autonomously, looking for and finding answers in a rational manner. This means accepting a variety of possible answers to the same problem, and being motivated to use different methodologies to find them. </li></ul><ul><li>It implies being able to organise one’s own learning, and an efficient use of intellectual resources and techniques. </li></ul>
  20. 20. What does autonomy and personal initiative involve? <ul><li>This involves making choices following one’s own criteria, carrying out the initiatives necessary to develop one’s choice, and taking responsibility for one’s decisions both in social and personal domains and in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>The acquisition of this competence implies creativity, innovation, responsibility and a critical approach in the development of individual or group projects. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Why are the key competences referred to as ‘básicas’ in Spanish? <ul><li>Because they are within the capabilities of the majority of students </li></ul><ul><li>Because they are common to many areas of everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Because they contribute to continuing learning </li></ul><ul><li>Because not attaining them would have a negative effect on personal, social and professional development . </li></ul>
  22. 22. What use are they to the student? <ul><li>The competences are useful in: </li></ul><ul><li>achieving self-fulfilment. </li></ul><ul><li>smoothing the path to adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>helping them to become active citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>developing life-long learning . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Key competences and learning <ul><li>The integration of the key competences into the </li></ul><ul><li>curriculum allows a focus on essential learning, in a holistic sense, and learning that is directed towards the practical application of the knowledge acquired. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Methodology and the key competences <ul><li>The introduction of the key competences implies changes in teaching methods, which should now focus on: </li></ul><ul><li>Essential learning (from knowing to being competent ). </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive learning ( understanding and applying ) rather than reproductive learning ( repetition ). </li></ul><ul><li>Research and use if ITC. </li></ul><ul><li>Student autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Group work. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>A transversal subject and content curriculum (horizontal and vertical). </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of formal and informal learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination between departments. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Key competences and reading in Primary Education <ul><li>Literacy is fundamental for the development of the key competences. </li></ul><ul><li>When schools organise their teaching they should guarantee a daily reading period of at least 30 minutes throughout the different stages of primary education .. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Key competences and reading at secondary level <ul><li>Literacy is also absolutely essential for the development of the key competences at secondary level. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools should guarantee that throughout secondary education, and in all subject areas, some time is devoted to reading. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Key competences in school life <ul><li>The organization of the school, its teaching, the relationship between members of the school community and complementary and extra-curricular activities can also help the attainment and development of the key competences. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Key competences and diversificación curricular <ul><li>Diversificación curricular programmes </li></ul><ul><li>(3rd and 4th year secondary) should specify </li></ul><ul><li>methodology, contents and evaluation criteria which guarantee the attainment of the key competences. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Key competences and vocational training <ul><li>Vocational training courses in secondary schools should make the development of key competences possible and so make the transition from the education system into the workplace smoother. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Key competences and assessment in secondary education (I) <ul><li>The evaluation criteria of the different subject areas will be an essential reference point for evaluation of the level of acquisition of the key competences, and the achievement of objectives . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Key competences and assessment in secondary education (II) <ul><li>Assessment of students taking part in the diversificación curricular programme will have an essential reference in the key competences, the secondary objectives and in the specific evaluation criteria of the programme. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Key competences and passing to the next cycle of primary education <ul><li>Students will pass on to the next educational cycle in primary if it is considered that they have attained the corresponding key competences and an appropriate level of maturity. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Key competences and passing to the next educational stage in primary education <ul><li>Students will pass on to secondary level if they have attained the appropriate development in the key competences and a sufficient level of maturity. </li></ul><ul><li>They can follow the new course of studies as long as their level of attainment does not impede this, in which case they will receive the necessary support to achieve the level required. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Key competences and the achievement of the secondary certificate of graduation <ul><li>The student who, on finishing secondary education, has attained the key competences and completed the objectives of this educational stage will receive the secondary certificate of graduation. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can also obtain this certificate if they fail one or two subjects at the end of secondary, and in special cases even having failed three subjects, as long as the teaching staff of the school feel that the type and weight of these subjects in the overall objectives of the stage do not preclude the attainment of the key competences </li></ul><ul><li>and the general secondary objectives. </li></ul>