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  • Leadership is always situated within an environmental context and leaders must be trained to understand and address strategic themes emanating from that context. It requires mental agility. We are asking more workers to shift to self authoring minds and more leaders to move to transforming minds. The self authoring mind would create a direction – align and have the courage to hold steadfast toward that view. The transforming mind would be able to do all of that but would be able to step outside – evaluate and re-author Mental complexity can make a complex world more or less manageable (Keagan & Kelley, p. 24 Cognitive development is progressive and sequential
  • This nested framework demonstrates how mental models that are aligned with the dominant paradigm. This alignment reinforces and sustains the paradigm. As educators conform to the requirements of the paradigm and mental models they develop mindsets (attitudes) about the value and effectiveness of the paradigm and the related mental models. The mindsets influence choice of behavioral strategies; that is, their attitudes toward the paradigm and mental models help them to devise strategies for how to do their work. As they implement their strategies, observable behavior is manifested. Successful behaviors are rewarded, which, in turn, reinforces the mindsets, mental models, and the paradigm. This interconnectedness and reciprocal reinforcement is unavoidable and powerful. Mental Models The concept of mental models was first proposed by Craik (1943). He said, “…the mind constructs ‘small-scale models’ of reality that it uses to anticipate events, to reason, and to underlie explanation” (cited in Johnson-Laird, Girotto, & Legrenzi, 1998, Introduction, para. 1). Johnson-Laird (1983) is one of the foremost authorities of mental model theory. He believed that people construct cognitive representations of what they learn and what they think they know. He called these representations “mental models.” Senge (1990) described mental models as “…deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action” (p. 8).
  • Our minds are habitual, pattern recognition machines.
  • Statements 1 and 2 reflect closed-mindset thinking. Statements 3 and 4 indicate an open mindset. Where do you fall on the spectrum? You can fall somewhere in the middle, but most people lean in one direction. You also have beliefs about your other abilities. Try substituting artistic talent, sports acumen or a particular business skill for intelligence.
  • The right-hand drawing in the top row, when viewed alone, has equal chances of being perceived as a man or a woman. When test subjects are shown the entire series of drawings one by one, their perception of this intermediate drawing is biased according to which end of the series they started from. Test subjects who start by viewing a picture that is clearly a man are biased in favor of continuing to see a man long after an "objective observer" (for example, an observer who has seen only a single picture) recognizes that the man is now a woman. Similarly, test subjects who start at the woman end of the series are biased in favor of continuing to see a woman. Once an observer has formed an image--that is, once he or she has developed a mind-set or expectation concerning the phenomenon being observed--this conditions future perceptions of that phenomenon
  • To imagine the future, we have to recognise the blinders to our thinking.
  • You are probably stuck in your habitual mode of thinking. Thinking styles become automatic over the years, and because for the most part they work well for us, we have no incentive to change them. But when your thinking patterns limit your ability to approach problems creatively, it is time to challenge old habits.
  • The ability to see systems holistically by understanding the properties, forces, patterns and interrelationships that shape how a system works in order to provide you with options for action. See the Forest then the trees Identify patterns in data, issues, or situations Look for interdependencies among individuals and issues
  • The ability to look at your reality using multiple perspectives, frameworks, mental models, and paradigms in order to generate new insights and options for action. Suspending judgment while appropriate information is gathered. Identifying and understanding the mental models being used to frame a problem, situation or issue. Reviewing and reframing your own and others’ understanding of situations .
  • The ability to use perceptions, experience and information to make judgments as to what has happened in the past and is happening in the present in order to guide your future actions. Recognizing why certain choices worked and others did not. Questioning your assumptions and mentally testing consequences of actions. Using your own and other people’s perceptions, experience and knowledge to understand how to think about situations and inform action .
  • Several studies have been completed. Pisapia, Reyes-Guerra, and Yasin studied 138 for-profit and not-for-profit managers and executives. Pang and Pisapia conducted a study of 543 school principals in Hong Kong. Pisapia, Reyes-Guerra, Zsiga studied 540 YMCA directors in the United States.  Pisapia, Pang, Fatt and Ling studied 328 students preparing for educational management roles in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Shanghai and the United States. Our overall conclusion is that successful leaders use the three strategic thinking capabilities more often than less successful leaders. Six major impressions were left from statistical analyses in 5 studies. Strategic thinking is strongly associated with self reported effectiveness. Supervisors and managers in our data base score lower than the executives as expected. However, the high performers in each category used these mental skills significantly more often than less successful managers. There is a cumulative impact when the three capabilities which form the strategic thinking construct are used. The strength of the relationship between strategic thinking and leader success increases as leaders use the three dimensions in tandem. There is a significant relationship between strategic thinking capabilities and self directed learning. The STQ appears free of cultural and gender bias; but reveals an age bias. The use of these skills improves with age, experience, and education– the younger you are the less you use these skills. Strategic thinking capabilities can be developed through training that encourages a more open mindset.
  • Mindset

    1. 1. Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010) Mindset Reset Your Thinking and See the Future
    2. 2. <ul><li>We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Mindset “ drives every aspect of our lives, from work to sports, from relationships to parenting.” (Dweck, 2006). It affects : </li></ul><ul><li>What we pay attention to (and don’t) </li></ul><ul><li>What we retrieve from memory </li></ul><ul><li>The way you process relevant information </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Responses to authority/leader figures </li></ul>Why? The Importance of Mindset Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte: NC: IAP
    4. 4. Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte: NC: IAP How are Mindset’s Formed?
    5. 5. Our assumptions encase us in the past.
    6. 6. Test Your Mindset # 1 What do you believe about your intelligence? <ul><li>Your intelligence is something very basic that cannot change much. </li></ul><ul><li>You can learn new things, but you can’t really change how intelligent you are. </li></ul><ul><li>No matter how intelligent you are, you can always improve. </li></ul><ul><li>You can substantially change how intelligent you are. </li></ul>Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte: NC: IAP
    7. 7. Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte: NC: IAP
    8. 8. <ul><li>Awareness Test </li></ul><ul><li>Agility is the ability to switch from a strategic mindset -“Why and What” – </li></ul><ul><li>to a </li></ul><ul><li>tactical mindset -“How and When” - in a rapid and iterative processes </li></ul>Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte: NC: IAP
    9. 9. And, just how do I do this in real life?
    10. 10. <ul><li>Mental filters ( patterned responses ) </li></ul><ul><li>Overconfidence ( far too certain ) </li></ul><ul><li>Penchant for confirming rather than disconfirming evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Dislike for ambiguity ( want certainty ) </li></ul><ul><li>Group think ( Abilene effect ) </li></ul>Recognize the Blinders PJH Schoemaker and GS Day Driving through the Fog, Long Range Planning 37 (2003): 127-142
    11. 11. WELL - It’s a challenge!
    12. 12. <ul><li>Moving beyond pattern response and habitual thinking that no longer works well when uncertainty is dominant. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-training our brains to make new connections (ie be creative). </li></ul><ul><li>Moving our brains from automatic pilot to manual steering. </li></ul>Well - It’s about changing the way you think…
    13. 13. The Theoretical Frame The Strategic Thinking Skills
    14. 14. The Strategic Thinking Skills Systems Thinking Systems thinking refers to the ability to think holistically, defining the entire problem by extracting patterns in the information one collects before breaking the problem into parts Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010)
    15. 15. Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte, NC: IAP
    16. 16. Examples – Systems Thinking Skills <ul><li>Good Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Try to extract rules and/or patterns from the information available </li></ul><ul><li>Search for the cause before taking action.  </li></ul><ul><li>Find that one thing indirectly leads to another </li></ul><ul><li>Try to understand how the facts presented in a problem are related to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Try to identify external forces which affect your work </li></ul><ul><li>Try to understand how the people in the situation are connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Look for fundamental long-term corrective measures </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the ‘Big Picture’ in the information available before examining the details </li></ul><ul><li>Seek specific feedback on your organization’s performance </li></ul><ul><li>Think about how different parts of the organization influence the way things are done </li></ul><ul><li>Bad Habits </li></ul><ul><li>View relationships individually as opposed to being part of an interwoven network </li></ul><ul><li>Break the problem into parts before defining the entire problem </li></ul>Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010)
    17. 17. The Strategic Thinking Skills Reframing Reframing refers to the ability to switch attention across multiple perspectives, frames, mental models, and paradigms in order to generate new insights and options for actions. Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010)
    18. 18. Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte, NC: IAP
    19. 19. Examples – Reframing Skills <ul><li>Good Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Seek different perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Track trends by asking everyone if they notice changes in the organization's context. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in discussions with those whose values differ from yours </li></ul><ul><li>Use different viewpoints to map out strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize when information is being presented from only one perspective  </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to everyone’s version of what happened before making a decision?  </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in discussions with those who have different beliefs or assumptions about a situation? </li></ul><ul><li>Bad Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Find only one explanation for the way things work? ® </li></ul><ul><li>Decide upon a point of view before seeking a solution to a problem? ® </li></ul><ul><li>Create a plan to solve a problem, before considering other viewpoints? ® </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the situation only with people who share your beliefs </li></ul>Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010)
    20. 20. The Strategic Thinking Skills Reflecting Reflection refers to the ability to weave logical and rational thinking together with experiential thinking through perceptions, experience, and information in order to make judgments as to: (a) what has happened; and (b) create intuitive principles to guide what is happening in the present and future. Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010)
    21. 21.
    22. 22. Examples – Reflecting Skills <ul><li>Good Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Review the outcomes of past decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruct an experience in your mind  </li></ul><ul><li>Consider how you could have handled the situation after it was resolved  </li></ul><ul><li>Accept that your assumptions could be wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the limitations of your own perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Ask “WHY” questions when trying to solve a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Frame problems from different perspectives  </li></ul><ul><li>Connect current problems to your own personal experience and previous successes  </li></ul><ul><li>Take into account the effects of decisions others have made in similar situations </li></ul><ul><li>Bad Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore past decisions when considering current similar situations? ® </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore past experiences when trying to understand present situations </li></ul>Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010)
    23. 23. Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010) <ul><li>More Effective leaders use the three strategic thinking skills significantly more often than Less Effective leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Reyes-Guerra & Yasin, 2006 - Pang & Pisapia, 2006 - N=900 </li></ul><ul><li>There is a cumulative impact - The strength of the relationship between strategic thinking and leader success increases as leaders use the three dimensions in tandem. </li></ul><ul><li>Skill use improves with age, experience, and education– the younger you are the less you use these skills. Since the age bias is present, there are implications for teaching at early entry career levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic thinking skills can be developed through training. There is a significant relationship between strategic thinking capabilities and self directed learning. </li></ul>STQ Findings Thus Far
    24. 24. Selected Books and Articles <ul><li>Strategic Leadership Pisapia, J. (2009). The strategic leader . Charlotte: Information Age Publishers . Strategic Thinking Perry Geri (2010). The relationship of strategic thinking skills and technology usage among Firefighters. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University </li></ul><ul><li>Pisapia, J. & Glick-Cuenot (2010). Strategic thinking skills and undergraduate student academic success. Paper presented at the American Higher Education Conference, Williamsburg, Va. </li></ul><ul><li>Pisapia, J., Pang, N.S.K., Hee, T. H. Lin, Ying, & Morris, J.D.  (2009). A comparison of the use of strategic thinking skills of aspiring school leaders in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Shanghai, and the United States: An exploratory study . International Journal of Educational Studies. 2(2), 48-58.  Zsiga, P. (2008). Leader effectiveness from self-directed learning and strategic thinking International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management 2008 - Vol. 8, No.4  pp. 306 - 317 Pang, S. K. & Pisapia, J. (2007). The Strategic thinking capabilities of school leaders in Hong Kong . Presented at the Annual Conference of the American Education Research Association, Chicago, Il. Pisapia, J., Reyes-Guerra, D. & Yasin, M. (2006) Strategic Thinking and Leader Success Presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Conference on Advances in Management, Lisbon Portugal, July 19-22, 2006. Pisapia, J., Reyes-Guerra, D., & Coukos-Semmel, E. (2005). Developing a Strategic Mindset: Constructing the Measures .  Leadership Review, Spring 2005, Vol. 5, pp. 41-68 - cited in Scopus Pisapia, J., Coukos-Semmel, E., and Reyes-Guerra, D. (2004 ). Assessing the cognitive processes of leaders: Do effective leaders think differently than less effective leaders ?  In A. Lazaridou (Ed.), Contemporary issues on educational administration and policy (Chapter 9, pp 147-170). Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research. ISBN: 960-88331-2-4. </li></ul>Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010)
    25. 26. Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010)