Basic Model


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Basic Model

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  • Framework: 1. Theory; 2. Key Concepts; 3. Example(s); 4. Activity; 5. Takeaway(s); and 6. References (use the actual headings on your slides) – In Class # 1 Reflect on communications problems you have experienced in your organization and the strategies you have used to solve them. List as many factors as you can that led to miscommunication. List as many factors as you can that led enhancing communication.
  • Leaders must communicate to persuade, instruct, direct, request, present, stimulate, or develop understanding. Sue describes communications from an organizational perspective. What communication role do you think the principal plays in her current school? Can you identify the channels of communication that are being used? Can you discern the nature of the messages that are being sent? Does it appear that the principal receives as well as sends messages?  
  • What we say and how we say it is important. Most people hear only about 10% of what you say. Body language, facial expressions, and tone of voice are important parts of your presence. BF - It will be "obvious that when you open your face and raise your eyebrows, your voice becomes warmer and a smile naturally comes to your lips." Other nonverbal channels, besides facial expressions, include dress, posture, and body positions and the car we drive or the home that we select.
  • Communicating has been defined as the "process of transmitting information and common understanding from one person to another" (Lunnenburg, 1995. p. 140). The process involves a sender and receiver, the message, and the channels through which messages are transmitted. The Message. The purpose of messages is to inform, raise questions, change attitudes, inhibit or stimulate action, or clarify situations. Leaders try to send persuasive or informative messages. Within any communication there are several messages: there is the message the sender wanted to communicate, the message the receiver wanted to receive, the actual message the receiver receives, the message the sender wants to receive in return, and the actual message the sender receives. The Receiver. Words evidently mean different things to different people. Meanings are in people. individuals evaluate the message in light of its source. Individuals judge the messenger and then the message. Many times the message is judged on the trustworthiness of the sender and his/her status, not the message. Many communication flaws will be overlooked if you are perceived as wanting to talk and willing to listen to others The Barriers. Individuals evaluate the message in light of its source has been previously mentioned. In fact, many times the message is judged on the trustworthiness of the sender and his status, not the message. Individuals judge the messenger and then the message. Trust is the belief that one party will not take unfair advantage of another. Many communication flaws will be overlooked if you are perceived as wanting to talk and willing to listen to others. The Channels . Leaders communicate through formal and informal, and verbal, nonverbal and written channels. Communications take place formally through memos, and briefing papers and agendas, and informally through communication cliques and grapevines, interpersonally, Intra organizationally, and inter-organizationally through face-to-face in meetings, conferences, and presentations. Leaders are Senders, Seekers, Receivers, Monitors of messages Messages sent downward are interpreted and ranked for action by receivers. Messages sent upward in the organization maybe distorted, filtering out damaging information so sender may be perceived in a favorable perspective. Leaders need to know if the messages they are receiving are valid, and if their messages were understood and acted upon by the receiver. must be able to discern intent, validity and be able to critique . They must be able to reach logical conclusions and make worthy decisions based on available information. Leaders monitor messages for timely, accurate and honest information on which to base decisions and prioritize needs and in general maintain a sense of the place. In Paris they simply stared when I spoke to them in French; I never did succeed in making those idiots understand their own language!
  • Basic Model

    1. 1. The Basic Communication Models John Pisapia
    2. 2. Why? Communication is important in so many ways: it helps keep relationships good, it helps keep misunderstandings from occurring; it helps everyone to know what is expected of them, and much more. <ul><li>  An example </li></ul><ul><li>At the elementary school where I did my student teaching there was no communication. People didn't know when assemblies were; they didn't know about schedules, they didn't know about program changes. Frequently they got information about things going on in the county from teachers at other schools. The morale at this school was awful. Things were always chaotic. Misunderstandings about expectations were a constant problem. </li></ul><ul><li>At the school where I currently teach, we have weekly staff meetings, a weekly newsletter to the parents from the school, newsletters from the principal to the staff, morning and afternoon announcements, and more. Everyone knows what's going on: from the parents, to the students, to the staff. As a result of this constant flow of information, we have very few misunderstandings; we get along very well, and everyone knows what is expected of them. When I become a principal, I want to have the same good communication with my staff, parents, and students. </li></ul><ul><li>Sue Gorton </li></ul>
    3. 3. ACTIVITY <ul><li>In Class “ </li></ul><ul><li>Think of an incident that was caused by a failure to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Write down some notes on the incident </li></ul><ul><li>Share it with the class after the next slide </li></ul>
    4. 4. Communication means that a message not only was sent, but also received, and responded to in a way which indicates that it was understood What? Theory - The Basic Model: Sender Meaning Message Barriers Channels Barriers Receiver Meaning Message Adapted from Shannon and Weaver (1949) as depicted by Pisapia (2009)
    5. 5. Another Way of looking at the basic model! Theory – THE TRANSACTIONAL COMMUNICATION MODEL Communicator A’s Field of Experience Communicator B’s Field of Experience Shared Field of Experience NOISE COMMUNICATION OVER TIME Symbolic Interactions over Time T 1 T n Adapted from Wood (1997) as reprinted by Osland, Kolb, Rubin, & Turner (2007)
    6. 6. Key Concept THE ARC OF DISTORTION What A Intends to Communicate Arc of Distortion A Sender B Receiver What A Communicates but Does not Intend Adapted from Osland, Kolb, Rubin & Turner (2007)
    7. 7. Key concepts: BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Prejudgment of the sender and the intended message as it is received </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in perception </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving conflicting messages (disorganization) </li></ul><ul><li>Different communication needs of the receiver versus the sender </li></ul><ul><li>Disinterest </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of subject knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>(Pisapia, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of clarity (technological) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences in encoding and decoding (based upon individual field of experience) </li></ul><ul><li>Misinterpretation of nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Defensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of feedback and clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Poor listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness or non-assertiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Culture: high or low context (e.g. silence), direct versus indirect communication style, and self-enhancement versus self-effacement </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>(Osland, Kolb, Rubin, & Turner, 2007) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Personal Take-Aways <ul><li>Gain self-awareness by getting feedback to reflect and make a change. </li></ul><ul><li>Get involved with activities and people who do not know or care what our so-called credentials are to help gain needed perspective and humility. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-diagnose and self-correct arrogance and defensiveness. </li></ul>How?
    9. 9. Interpersonal Take-Aways <ul><li>Use an understanding responding style. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge and validate others (don’t kill the messenger). </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate assertively, not aggressively or non-assertively. </li></ul><ul><li>Use I statements when possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain from in-group talk and gossip. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid talking about ourselves too much. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid excessive criticism and undeserved praise. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid language that offends or demeans people. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of nonverbal clues. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt our communication style: code-switch (cultural, not situational). </li></ul><ul><li>Use active listening. </li></ul>How?
    10. 10. Organizational Take-Aways <ul><li>Send messages others understand, receive and interpret messages, monitor organizational communications, and proactively seek out communications. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop trust to avoid distortion trust by action and word. </li></ul><ul><li>Know our audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the appropriate channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Use written communication and email judiciously. </li></ul><ul><li>Include effective communication skills in hiring process criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide communication training to all employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Set communication norms to alleviate misunderstandings. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform a strategic communications audit. </li></ul>How?
    11. 11. References <ul><li>Blair, R. (1989). Introduction to professional communication . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Osland, J. S., Kolb, D. A., Rubin, I. M., & Turner, M. E. (2007). Organizational behavior: An experiential approach (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Pisapia, J. (2009). Communication . Working paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Van Maanen, J. (1991). The smile factory: Work at Disneyland. In Reframing Organizational Culture . Edited by Peter Frost, Larry Moore, Meryl Louis, Craig Lundberg, and Joanne Martin, pp. 58-76 Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>