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Vertical Planning

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Vertical planning of grammar skills.

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Vertical Planning

  1. 1. Vertical Grammar Planning To Improve Student Writing
  2. 2. James Pinnuck
  3. 3. What is this workshop about? • What is vertical planning? • Major text types and vertical planning - Creative writing, Text response, Comparing texts, Persuasive writing • How does The Student Guide To Writing Better Sentences In The English Classroom complement a vertical planning approach?
  4. 4. What is Vertical Planning?
  5. 5. Typical Horizontal Planning Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Term 4 Text Response Grammar Chapters 1,2,3,4,5 Persuasive Writing Grammar Chapters 10,11,12 Film response Grammar Chapters 16,17,18,19 Comparing Short Stories Grammar Chapters 24,25,26,27 Creative Response to text Grammar Chapters 6,7,8,9 Oral Presentation Grammar Chapters 13,14,15 Narrative Grammar Chapters 20,21,22,23
  6. 6. Year Level Skills Specific Language General Writing Skills 7 *analyse key moments in protagonist’s journey *explain how setting affects protagonist *analyse themes and discuss how protagonist experiences them *shows, portrays, explains *and, also, but *protagonist, antagonist, climax, complication *sentences make sense *uses full-stops, commas and capital letters correctly *uses quotation marks 8 *explain how symbols deepen readers’ understanding of themes *discuss themes with references to minor characters *demonstrates, illustrates, discovers, learns *however, yet *moral compass *embeds quotes 9 *analyse how minor characters are used to show something important about protagonist *juxtaposes, challenges, highlights, epitomises *furthermore, moreover, *cultural guardian *embeds quotes and explains their significance in the one sentence. *writes a range of sentence types 10 *explain how setting affects different characters differently *transforms, exposes, focuses, reveals, manipulates *in addition, further to this, providing a point of contrast *foil *uses quotes in a range of ways *begins sentences with prepositions, -ing verbs *range of noun groups for key ideas
  7. 7. Horizontal Planning Vertical Planning • Gives clear idea for what teachers are doing at a particular year level • Doesn’t allow students to move smoothly from one level of learning to another • Teachers can be unclear about what is taught at prior and subsequent levels, so re-teaching or non-teaching can occur • Teachers work with year level teams, not whole faculty • Easier to find time for year level teams to work together • Allows teachers to locate students on a continuum of skills • Allows teachers to modify and differentiate for instruction • Provides a clear and specific map for what has to happen next for students to improve their writing • Provides information for what students have already learned and, therefore, what needs to be reinforced, not introduced • Time consuming (to begin with); need to work with small teams from each year level • Teachers are clearer about which skills they need to focus upon and can work well on these skills, rather than trying to do ‘everything’
  8. 8. How vertically planned is the English curriculum at your school?
  9. 9. Vertical planning needs to happen for all areas of English • Reading • Writing • Speaking / Listening
  10. 10. Vertical planning will allow teachers to teach grammar in context so it improves student writing outcomes
  11. 11. Where in a unit can grammar instruction happen? • Instruction and deliberate or slow practice during a unit • Vocabulary planning before a writing piece • Instruction and specific grammatical feedback on drafts
  12. 12. Vertical grammar planning for creative writing
  13. 13. • Establish text type students will produce • Identify writing / grammar skills students can utilise to produce that text type • Identify activities students can engage in during the unit
  14. 14. Year Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Nouns Verbs 7 Looking beyond common adjectives Turning adjectives into adverbs Prepositions of time Alternative nouns for main characters Reporting verbs for speech 8 Putting adjectives at the beginning of sentences Irregular adverbs Adverbs to mark the passage of time - not just ‘then’ Prepositions of movement Alternative abstract nouns for ideas or feelings Action verbs to help describe the characters 9 Putting adjectives at the end of a sentence Using adverbs such as ‘literally’ with irony Prepositions of place Using nouns or pronouns repetitively for literary effect Verbs to personify setting or objects 10 Comparative adjectives for description Adverbs in similes Adverbs in different positions Using prepositions to add detail to ideas Verb chains for for complex sentences
  15. 15. Before writing tasks (explicit instruction and deliberate practice)
  16. 16. Where in a sentence can an adjective go?
  17. 17. Most common ways of using adjectives in a sentence The dark and foreboding forest stood in front of us. The forest standing in front of us was dark and foreboding. Less common ways of using adjectives in a sentence The forest stood dark and foreboding in front of us. Dark and foreboding, the forest stood before us. The forest stood over before us, dark and foreboding.
  18. 18. Different ways to start sentences
  19. 19. Choose a grid from below to practise writing sentences with different starts or with different structures. Write one paragraph of 5-6 sentences. The topic can be your choice or set by the teacher. Before writing each sentence, roll a dice. The number you roll indicates the action from the grid you must use to write your sentence. Dice Roll Write a sentence that starts with: 3 & 4 A preposition: about, after, before, at, beneath, beyond, by, during, except, from, inside, in, near, outside, over, since, through, toward, to, until, with, within, without 1 The, A, An, He, She, It 2 &6 The name of something (A noun) such as Jeff, Evening, Morning, Sounds (no The, A, An etc…before it) 5 An -Ly word: Slowly, quickly, loudly
  20. 20. Reporting speech
  21. 21. Word Explanation and example Synonym very close in meaning Roars to make a sound like a wild animal, such as a lion or tiger ‘Arrgghhh,’ the chef roared in pain after she had cut herself. Bellows Screams to yell out in a high pitched voice so other people can hear you ‘Help’, the drowning swimmer screamed. Screeches Shouts to speak very loudly so people listen ‘Stop making so much noise,’ the teacher shouted at the squabbling children. Booms Exclaims to say something loudly and suddenly ‘I love life,’ the girl exclaimed, looking at the sunny day outside. Call outs States to say something ‘We’re having spaghetti for dinner,’ the father told his kids. Utters Confides to tell someone a secret, often in a quiet way ‘I lied about being able to travel in time,’ the boy confided to his friend. Confesses Sighs to speak in a low and soft happy or unhappy way ‘I’m glad to get some rest,’ he sighed, getting into bed. Breathes Murmurs to speak in a quiet way ‘I think our teacher’s hair is fake,’ the student murmured behind her hand to her friend. Hums Whispers to speak in a very quiet way so other people can’t hear ‘Don’t tell mum about the treasure map,’ Jaclyn whispered to her sister in the back of the car. -
  22. 22. Dialogue style Example Just dialogue “Go away!” Dialogue followed by “said” “Go away,” she said. Dialogue followed by “said" and then further description about what a character looked like, sounded like or acted like. “Go away,” she said, spitting her words out like venom. “Go away,” she said and stared at him malevolently, waiting for him to leave. Dialogue followed by a more specific “saying” word than said such as: whispered, yelled, shouted etc… “Go away,” she hissed. “Go away,” she said hissingly. “Go away,” she said with a great hiss. Dialogue followed by said, a more more specific “saying” word, description plus more dialogue. “Go away,” she said. “I want to be alone.” "Go away,” she screamed at the top of her voice. “Leave me alone”. Description of a character first then dialogue. She stared at him. “Go away”. She stared at him menacingly. “Go away”. With a hiss she said, “Go away.” She stared at him and hissed, “Go away”.
  23. 23. “Get out,” she spoke hissingly. “Get out,” she said with a hiss.
  24. 24. Verb Adverb I ate the ice cream quickly. I ate the ice cream with great speed. I ate the ice cream in a hurry. I… in/with…
  25. 25. Marking the passage of time
  26. 26. And then…and then… Adverbial phrases After this… Later… Then… Eventually… Within days… On that occasion… Afterwards… Subsequently… For the next few moments/hours/minutes… Thereafter… Some time later… A while later… On the next day…
  27. 27. Vocabulary planning
  28. 28. Verbs?…let’s not forget them Commonly used verb Alternatives was lived, existed, went happened, occurred, materialised, transpired, developed get, got gained, received, procured, accomplished, acquired, attained, inherited, grab, earn, grasped, took had enjoyed, owned, possessed, cherished, kept came, come appeared, breezed in, arrived, materialised, entered, emerged, arose, advanced, progressed, rocked up would caused, authorised, decreed, directed, intended go fly, exit, hightail, journey, leave, move, travel, abscond, depart, escape, make a break for it, run, take off
  29. 29. Events/Actions Things which can be described Descriptive vocabulary
  30. 30. After writing
  31. 31. Vertical planning for text responses
  32. 32. Year Level Skills Specific Language General Writing Skills 7 *analyse key moments in protagonist’s journey *explain how setting affects protagonist *analyse themes and discuss how protagonist experiences them *shows, portrays, explains *and, also, but *protagonist, antagonist, climax, complication *sentences make sense *uses full-stops, commas and capital letters correctly *uses quotation marks 8 *explain how symbols deepen readers’ understanding of themes *discuss themes with references to minor characters *demonstrates, illustrates, discovers, learns *however, yet *moral compass *embeds quotes 9 *analyse how minor characters are used to show something important about protagonist *juxtaposes, challenges, highlights, epitomises *furthermore, moreover, *cultural guardian *embeds quotes and explains their significance in the one sentence. *writes a range of sentence types 10 *explain how setting affects different characters differently *transforms, exposes, focuses, reveals, manipulates *in addition, further to this, providing a point of contrast *foil *uses quotes in a range of ways *begins sentences with prepositions, -ing verbs *range of noun groups for key ideas
  33. 33. Before writing activities
  34. 34. Writing about themes • How to write about themes as abstract nouns in introductions • How to write about themes as abstract nouns and noun phrases in topic sentences
  35. 35. *Prepositional phrase Proper nouns Analytical verb Basic idea nouns Throughout In From the start From the outset At its heart, Fundamentally, Author or Director’s Name + the Name of Text challenges scrutinises explores highlights questions transforms exposes focuses reveals manipulates speculates discusses advocates contrasts epitomises growing up discovery identity survival loss friendship family justice nature independence happiness value loyalty love hate conflict courage defeat bravery life lives hope power humanity prejudice oppression conscience the past being a hero (Optional) Protagonist’s Name discovers learns finds realises understands seeks changes transforms becomes
  36. 36. Introduction and topic sentence idea nouns and noun phrases “Overall Idea” noun phrases “Overall Idea” nouns • the challenges and triumphs of… • the pressures and difficulties of… • the dangerous nature of… • the devastating impact of… • the value of.. • the importance/significance of… • how…is prevalent in the world of… • the ways in which acts of…can… • how experiences of…can • how times of…can • a world in which…is.. • how societies in which…can • the ways in which….affects us all. • the ways in which people overcome… • the nature of…in a world which/where… • the experience of… in a world where… • how…challenges us to… • how…forces us to… • how…compels us… • what it means to be… • what it means for… • the struggle for… • the quest for… • the ways characters routinely experience… growing up belonging identity independence friendship family society happiness loyalty love hope compassion sacrifice power prejudice oppression self interest/selfishness hate defeat despair conflict loss grief discovery courage strength being a hero lessons survival justice conscience truth nature life lives humanity the past the future the present
  37. 37. Avoiding “The Theme of…” Justice Injustice fair equal open-mindedness legal honesty integrity legitimacy righteousness mercy bias discrimination prejudice bigoted cheating unfair one-sided partisan corruption dishonesty
  38. 38. During writing activities
  39. 39. In Use these words at the start of a sentence to provide an additional example or further analysis on top of the previous sentence also furthermore as well as moreover along with in addition likewise on top of this is also these But Use these words to introduce a different example or point of discussion although however still despite this on the other hand nevertheless yet beside aside from in comparison meanwhile on the contrary conversely By Use these words to begin a sentence focusing on how a technique is used or character acts in a text through since with when as So Use these words to bring your discussion to a conclusion therefore as a consequence hence consequently for this reason ultimately this what this these Beyond TEEL
  40. 40. Teaching punctuation in context
  41. 41. *Prepositional phrase Proper nouns Analytical verb Basic idea nouns Throughout In From the start From the outset At its heart, Fundamentally, Author or Director’s Name + the Name of Text challenges scrutinises explores highlights questions transforms exposes focuses reveals manipulates speculates discusses advocates contrasts epitomises growing up discovery identity survival loss friendship family justice nature independence happiness value loyalty love hate conflict courage defeat bravery life lives hope power humanity prejudice oppression conscience the past being a hero (Optional) Protagonist’s Name discovers learns finds realises understands seeks changes transforms becomes
  42. 42. Teaching commas Year Level What 7 • The ‘main clause’ of a sentence (a basic sentence) can be given extra information with a comma • Lists are separated by commas 8 • Sentences beginning with -ing verbs have a ‘dependent clause’, which must be separated by a comma • Sentences beginning with adjectives or adverbs must have a comma 9 • Sentences can be extended with -ing verbs, and must be separated from the main clause by a comma • Prepositional phrases must have a comma separating them from main clause 10 • Sentences can have multiple verbs: each action must be separated by a comma
  43. 43. -ing verbs Emphasising this point, [name] asserts… Demonstrating his/her argument with…, Disputing the claims of…., [name] writes… Proper noun - active verb - that [name] asserts that… [name] argues that… [name] proposes that… [name] reassures his/her readers when… preposition -verb - writer - verb To demonstrate this, [name] suggests… In order to prove this point, [name] argues… By emphasising that…[name] demonstrates… To support this argument, [name] proposes that… Adverb - verb - that When s/he argues that…
  44. 44. Vertical planning for comparative responses
  45. 45. Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Conjunctions Points of connection nouns: Similarity Connection Affinity Parallel Likeness Overlap Contrast Distinction Difference Separation Divergence Comparative verbs: echoes resembles mirrors parallels shares diverges separates differs departs ‘-ing’ Comparative verbs: Echoing Paralleling Mirroring Diverging from Differing from Emphatic adjectives: significant essential crucial critical important fundamental distinct profound stark key Basic transition adverbs: Similarly Likewise However In contrast On the other hand Emphatic adverbs: Ultimately Significantly Essentially Fundamentally Distinctly Clearly Directly Comparative adverbs: more (is far more) less (is far less) Adverbs of degree: to a far greater degree entirely mostly quite to a degree somewhat Basic conjunctions: and but because Although While Despite and also as well as in addition to… Correlative conjunctions: rather than…is… not…but… not only…but also… not just…but also
  46. 46. Similarity/Difference Adverb of degree similar parallel much the same resemble each other related in many ways dissimilar different juxtaposing opposing unlike contrasting fundamentally importantly critically significantly essentially crucially precisely entirely to a large degree quite very mostly somewhat to some extent to a degree partly
  47. 47. Transitional prepositional phrases However, in the world of…, In [author’s name]’s novel however,… In contrast to this,… The opposite of this is shown in…, which In a similar manner,… In the same way,… This is also apparent in…, In much the same manner, [text name] demonstrates… The audience can see a parallel in…, In this aspect, … resembles…
  48. 48. Teaching commas Year Level What 7 • The ‘main clause’ of a sentence (a basic sentence) can be given extra information with a comma • Lists are separated by commas 8 • Sentences beginning with -ing verbs have a ‘dependent clause’, which must be separated by a comma • Sentences beginning with adjectives or adverbs must have a comma 9 • Sentences can be extended with -ing verbs, and must be separated from the main clause by a comma • Prepositional phrases must have a comma separating them from main clause 10 • Sentences can have multiple verbs: each action must be separated by a comma
  49. 49. After writing
  50. 50. Add on information When using a conjunction, adverb or preposition at the start of a sentence: Although I like pizza, icecream is my favourite food. When adding information onto a sentence with an -ing verb: I ran out of the kitchen, gobbling my ice cream as quickly as I could. Insert information When using ‘who’, ‘which’ or ‘whose’ to insert information after a noun: Ice cream, which is my favourite food, should be put on our national flag. To insert a description immediately after a noun: My neighbour, the oldest and wisest person on the street, loves ice cream just like me. List information List items or objects: I like pasta, ice cream and jelly. List a series of descriptions: The cold, frosty day was getting me down. List a series of actions: I entered the kitchen, looked around, made sure no one was there and quickly are all the ice cream.
  51. 51. Now you know some rules about commas • Check if sentences start with a: • -ing verb: Having • Preposition: in, with, by, through • Conjunction: When, while, although • Has a comma been used appropriately with this part of speech?
  52. 52. Vertical planning for persuasive writing
  53. 53. Grammatical focus Examples Words Persuasive adjectives negative: selfish, evil, cruel, unnecessary, catastrophic positive: effective, successful, urgent, necessary, beneficial Persuasive nouns negative: crisis, catastrophe, disaster positive: gain, benefit, success, leap forward Persuasive verbs negative: destroy, ruin, wreck positive: create, improve Transition phrases To begin with, on top of this, Most of all Emphatic phrases Let’s be clear, Above all else, One thing is incredibly important Sentences Introducing evidence A recent survey of… One study by… Persuasively presenting what evidence means This evidence provides clear proof that… Cause and effect sentences If we improve funding to schools, we will not only give our students the best chance to succeed, but create a future where everyone benefits. Short, powerful persuasive sentence We simply must improve school funding. Repetition structures Tricolons: At the start of sentences, within sentences.
  54. 54. Year Grammar that will be introduced 7 Transition phrases Persuasive verbs 8 Persuasive adjectives Sentences to introduce and discuss evidence 9 Short sentences and cause and effect sentences Persuasive nouns 10 Different types of repetition structures Emphatic phrases
  55. 55. Before writing
  56. 56. Focus on persuasive verbs • Uniform makes people have no real identity. • Uniform____________ people’s identity • Uniform____________ people’s identity, __________-ing them into robots.
  57. 57. Part Points Vocabulary Intro We should not have a school uniform BP 1 Not good for individuality Uniform crushes, destroys, eliminates BP 2 Not popular People loathe, despise uniform BP 3 Expensive increases bills Conclusion We must change the situation now
  58. 58. Uniform Result More persuasive adjectives & nouns Make everyone the same mindless robots colourless world Not popular Deep dislike Expensive Financial pressure Financial hardship Financial burden
  59. 59. After writing
  60. 60. • Let’s look at the verbs you used in your persuasive writing. Which ones can be more powerful? • Let’s look at the nouns you’ve used in your persuasive writing. Can they be more persuasive? Can we put stronger adjectives next to them?
  61. 61. Other information • Also chapters on: • Film reviews • News reports • Autobiographies/biographies • Analysing argument • In the next edition (out Term 4): • Analysing poetry
  62. 62. Booklisting • Tell your book supplier the title and ISBN and they’ll take care of the rest
  63. 63. Thank you

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