California: A History<br />Jeffrey Phongsamran<br />
4. Striking it Rich<br />Feb 2, 1848, all Mexican territories north of the Rio Grande were ceded to the United States.<br />From the conquest of 1846 to the signing of the treaty, the U.S. administered California under international law as occupied enemy territory in time of war.<br />California was experiencing difficulties in establishment of a civil society, as the population grew the military governors found themselves increasingly reluctant to administer civilians.<br />
4. Striking it Rich: Important Persons<br />Charles Webber established the city of Tuleburg, later renamed Stockton in honor of the conqueror of California.<br />William Leidesdorff built a warehouse and city hotel, the first such hostelry in San Francisco.<br />John Augustus Sutter created Sutter’s Fort, inland of the Sacramento River. City is eventually named Sacramento<br />James Wilson Marshal was commissioned to build a sawmill at Sutters Fort and eventually found gold that lead to the gold rush.<br />William Leidesdorff<br />John Augustus Sutter<br />
4. Striking it Rich: The Gold Rush<br />On January 24, 1848, Marshall noticed some sparkling pebbles in the gravel bed. It was gold.<br />Employee’s of Sutter began to abandon their jobs to look for gold fulltime.<br />Within two years, the gold rush fast forwarded California into what historians describe as “a rapid, monstrous maturity.”<br />
9. War and Peace<br />Seized as an act of war and governed by the military, California remained closely connected to the military.<br />It contained an important Navy repair facility and minted the army’s pacific headquarters.<br />As the United States became a global military power (especially at sea), the military importance of California increased.<br />
9. War and Peace: World War I<br />In 1914 the Navy established the Pacific Fleet as its navy presence grew in San Diego.<br />During the First World War California contributed a fair share of troops.<br /><ul><li>Professor George Ellery Hale helped organize the national scientific establishment on behalf of the war effort.
San Diego became a kind of Gibraltar on the Pacific. It had a Marine Corps training depot coupled with a strong navy. </li></li></ul><li>9. War and Peace: World War II<br />Californian’s supported the “America First” movement and wanted to keep the U.S. out of the war.<br />The War Department had increased its presence in California, the Army Air Corps established a number of pilot and mechanic training.<br />The attack on Pearl Harbor threw California into a panic. The “California-Japanese War” took place and a law passed that prohibited Japanese Immigrants from owning land and eventually many Japanese were being arrested on suspicion of being a spy.<br />
10. O Brave New World!<br />Through engineering and technology, California invented itself as an American place.<br />They had taken a lead in the development of radio and television. <br /><ul><li>California emerged as a society friendly to the search for utopia through science and technology, to discover the truth and make the world a better and more interesting place.</li></li></ul><li>10. O Brave New World: Technology<br />The University of California opened in 1869 and was interested in mining, geology, agriculture, and mechanical engineering.<br />The greatest mechanical invention during this period was the Pelton Turbine. An improvement to the waterwheel, technology that hasn’t changed for thousands of years.<br /><ul><li>Brothers John and James Montgomery flew the first recorded heavier-than-air flight in human history in California.</li></ul>Pelton Turbine<br />
10. O Brave New World: Aviation<br />Over the 19th century, aviation would shape California and California would shape aviation.<br />Air travel would merge in with the California Identity. <br /><ul><li>The Wright brothers flew their powered craft on 1903 in North Carolina, but California would be the place to capitalize on it.
Lockheed brothers designed a passenger-carrying sea plane, first flown in 1911.
Claude Ryan would make he Spirit of St. Louis, the first plane flown across the Atlantic.</li>