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Baroque Musical Terms

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This PDF file contains definitions and background information about the most important terminology pertaining to music of the Baroque period of Western Musical History.

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Baroque Musical Terms

  1. 1. BAROQUE MUSICAL TERMS This document contains definitions and background information about the most important terminology pertaining to music of the Baroque period of Western Musical History. Most of these terms are words of Italian origin, since many of the musical developments of the Baroque period originated in Italy. 1. Opera One of the most significant musical developments in the Baroque period was the development of Opera. Opera is a performing art that combines music and theater. In an opera, singers, accompanied by an orchestra, perform a dramatic work (a play) that combines a text, (sung words) called a libretto, with a musical score. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes also dance. In Baroque opera, the action of the story is usually told in musical sections called Recitatives in which the singers “recite,” or speak on pitch, accompanied by the Continuo instruments. A recitative passage is generally followed with an aria, accompanied by the orchestra, in which a character typically sings about how they feel in reaction to the action of the story. The stories of Baroque opera were usually about mythological characters, and figures in ancient history, such as kings and military heroes. The lives of ordinary people were not the subjects of opera in the Baroque, as they were in later periods of musical history. Opera originated at the end of the 16th century in Italy and soon spread through the rest of Europe.
  2. 2. 2. Continuo Continuo, also known as Basso Continuo, is a kind of musical accompaniment used in the Baroque period. Basso Continuo is an Italian musical term that means "continuous bass." In Baroque music, the Continuo is played by a keyboard instrument and another bass instrument such as Cello, Violone (an old form of the string bass) or Bassoon. The keyboard instrument is normally a Harpsichord, or, if it is being played in a church, an Organ.1 (Other instruments were sometimes also used.) In the Baroque period, the Continuo is a very important component of most instrumental chamber and orchestral music, as well as most choral and solo vocal music. After the Baroque period, the use of the Harpsichord and Continuo dwindled, except in operatic Recitatives, which were often still accompanied by Harpsichord in the Classical and early Romantic periods. 3. Aria An Aria is a vocal work (song), usually with orchestral accompaniment, for a solo voice, in an opera, oratorio or cantata. In the Baroque and Classical periods, arias are usually preceded by Recitatives that are usually accompanied by the Continuo instruments. In the Baroque period, arias are usually composed in the “Da Capo Aria” form. 4. Da Capo Aria A Da Capo Aria is an aria that has the form “A-B-A,” in which “A” is the opening section that is later repeated and “B” is a contrasting section, often slightly slower in tempo and in a related minor key. During the Baroque period, the Da Capo Aria was the predominant form for arias in operas, oratorios and cantatas.
  3. 3. “Capo” is an Italian word that means “head” or “top,” so the term “Da Capo” is also a musical direction to the performer that means from [that is, “go back to”] the top. The Da Capo Aria is in ternary form, meaning it is composed of three sections. 5. Movement A Movement is a self-contained section of a larger musical work, such as a Suite, Concerto, or Concerto Grosso. 6. Concerto Concerto is an Italian term for a large musical composition for a solo instrument with orchestra accompaniment. Concertos usually have three movements. The first and third movements usually have a fast tempo, while the middle movement is usually slow. In Italian, the plural of “concerto” is “concerti” and this term is sometimes used in English, along with the more commonly-used term, “concertos.” The solo concerto became one of the most important musical forms of the Baroque period and its popularity continued through the Classical and Romantic periods through to the current day. 7. Concerto Grosso The most common type of concerto in the early Baroque period is the the Concerto Grosso, which is a concerto for a group of solo instruments and a small orchestra. “Concerto Grosso” is an Italian term that literally means “big concerto.” The popularity of the Concerto Grosso form declined after the Baroque period, and the genre was not revived until the 20th century. The solo concerto, however, has remained a vital musical force from its inception to this day.5
  4. 4. 8. Cadenza A Cadenza is a solo passage for the soloist in a concerto, or sometimes in other works that are usually performed in a "free" rhythmic style, often allowing for virtuosic display. In a concerto, the cadenzas usually occur near the ends of movements, during which time the orchestra or other accompaniment is tacet (silent). Cadenzas developed during the Baroque period and this technique continued through the Classical and Romantic periods to the current day. 9. Oratorio An Oratorio is a large-scale musical work for orchestra and voices, typically a narrative on a religious theme, performed without the use of costumes, scenery, or action. Well-known examples in include Bach's Christmas Oratorio and Handel's Messiah.4 As a musical form, the Oratorio has its roots in Renaissance Dialogue Motets and the Latin Religious Dramas of the Medieval period. Oratorios continued to be a popular musical form with some composers in the Classical Period and beyond. 10. Cantata A Cantata is a vocal composition with instrumental or orchestral accompaniment, typically in several movements, often involving a choir and/or one or more solo voices. The cantata was a very popular musical form in the Baroque period, with both sacred (religious) and secular (non-religious) varieties. The Italian term “Cantata da Chiesa” (Church Cantata) is sometimes used to describe religious cantatas. The Italian term “Cantata da Camera” (Chamber Cantata) is sometimes used to describe secular (non- sacred) cantatas.
  5. 5. Johann Sebastian Bach composed more than 200 cantatas, most of which are religious cantatas. In many respects, Bach’s cantatas represent a high point in the choral, vocal and orchestral music of the Baroque period. Cantatas usually consist of multiple sections or movements, though there are some Cantatas that consist of only one movement. Cantatas usually consist of a variety of movements including one or more recitatives, arias, duets, choruses, or chorales. Most of Bach’s choral cantatas conclude with a 4-part chorale. Musical Examples: Cantatas Johann Sebastian Bach: Cantata No. 51, “Jauchzet Gott in Allen Landen” Sacred Cantata for solo soprano, solo trumpet, orchestra & continuo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u_yi4Hw-VQI Allesandro Scarlatti: “Su le Sponde del Tebro” (On the banks of the Tiber River) Secular (non-sacred) Cantata for solo soprano, solo trumpet, orchestra & continuo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3E4xoQCppFQ 11. Basso Ostinato A Basso Ostinato is a phrase, motive, or theme that is repeated over and over again in the bass line, serving as a principal structural element of a musical work. “Ostinato” is an Italian word that means “obstinate” or “stubborn.” In music, Ostinato is so-named because of the repetitive aspect. In English, Basso Ostinato is also known as Ground Bass.
  6. 6. 12. Terraced Dynamics During the Baroque period, some composers occasionally used an effect called Terraced Dynamics. This means that the volume of the music stays the same for a period of time, then there is a sudden shift to a different dynamic level that is louder or softer. While there are typically no gradual changes in dynamics in Baroque music, subtle changes in dynamics (volume) usually do take place within a musical phrase for expressive purposes. Terraced Dynamics developed in part because the primary keyboard instrument of the Baroque period, the Harpsichord, could only be played in one of two modes, loud (forte) or soft (piano).3 13. Ritornello Ritornello is an Italian musical term that describes a recurring passage in Baroque music for an orchestra or chorus. The Ritornello Form consists of an opening musical passage, usually performed by a full ensemble, alternating with a contrasting passage by one or more solo instruments, as follows: Ritornello / Solo 1 / Ritornello / Solo 2 / Ritornello (etc.) 14. Program Music Program Music is instrumental music associated with a story or other extra-musical idea, such as Antonio Vivaldi’s cycle of concertos, The Four Seasons. Program music has its roots in the Renaissance period and while there are occasional notable instances of program music in the Baroque and Classical periods, it was in the Romantic, Impressionist and Modern periods that program music became an important musical phenomenon. The term “Program Music” refers to instrumental music that tells a story or depicts a scene, as opposed to vocal music, which almost always tells a story because of the text that is being sung. The opposite of Program Music is Absolute Music.
  7. 7. 15. Variation Form The Variation Form is an important musical form in which a melodic unit is repeated in a series of variations, with changes in the melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, or timbre. The Variation Form originated in the Renaissance period and it reached a high point during the Baroque period in such works as J.S. Bach’s Goldberg Variations. The Variation Form remained an important musical form through the Baroque, Classical, Romantic and Modern periods, to the present day. A great deal of 20th and 21st century Jazz music uses Variation Form and techniques. Jazz improvisation is based on the concept of the Variation Form. Sources: 1 https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basso_continuo#cite_note-ammer-1 2 https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/reading-baroque- instrumental-music-4793605/packs/6949399 (Musical Flash Cards) 3 https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Western_Music_History/Baroque_Music 4 https://www.coursehero.com/file/p4s4k9a/Aria-a-long-accompanied- song-for-a-solo-voice-typically-one-in-an-opera-or/ 5 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concerto

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