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Comparing historical and contemporary representations essay

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OCR A2 Media Studies, Media and Collective Identity

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Comparing historical and contemporary representations essay

  1. 1. Comparing Historical and Contemporary Representations Lesson Objectives: To be able to compare the way in which youth is represented in historical and contemporary media.
  2. 2. Who am I?  I was an Italian political thinker. (20)  I was interested in the way one social class is able to dominate society. (10)  I developed the concept of hegemony. (5)  I AM GRAMSCI.
  3. 3. Who am I?  I am interested in youth subcultures. (20)  I wrote a book about the importance of style to youth subcultures. (10)  I believe media representations of young people portray them as either fun or trouble. (5)  I AM HEBDIGE.
  4. 4. Who am I?  I’m interested in the effects of media representations of delinquent youth. (20)  I developed the concept of the ideology of protection. (10)  I think media representations of anti- social youth reinforces hegemony. (5)  I AM ACLAND.
  5. 5. Who am I?  I researched the effect of television on viewers. (20)  I think that the repetitive nature of television means that over time television influences how people see the world. (10)  I call this cultivation theory. (5)  I’M GERBNER OF COURSE.
  6. 6. Who am I?  I’m a Marxist. (20)  I consider how the state maintains control. (15)  I developed the concepts of ideological and repressive state apparatus. (10)  I killed my wife. (5)  KEEP BACK I’M ALTHUSSER.
  7. 7.  How far does the representation of a particular social group change over time? Refer to at least two media in your answer.
  8. 8.  Level 4  Explanation/analysis/argument (16-20 marks)  Candidates adapt their learning to the specific requirements of the chosen question in excellent fashion and make connections in order to present a coherent argument. The answer offers a clear, fluent balance of media theories and knowledge of industries and texts and informed personal engagement with issues and debates.  Use of examples (16-20 marks)  Examples of theories, texts and industry knowledge are clearly connected together in the answer. History and the future are integrated into the discussion with conviction.  Use of terminology (8-10 marks)  Throughout the answer, material presented is informed by contemporary media theory and the command of the appropriate conceptual and theoretical language is excellent.  Complex issues have been expressed clearly and fluently using a style of writing appropriate to the complex subject matter. Sentences and paragraphs, consistently relevant, have been well structured, using appropriate technical terminology. There may be few, if any, errors of spelling, punctuation and grammar.
  9. 9. Historical Representations  ‘Rebel Without a Cause’ How were young people represented? What ideological messages are communicated by the representation? To what extent do representations construct identity? Remember to relate representations to relevant theory.
  10. 10. Contemporary Representations  Films – ‘Attack the Block’, ‘The Selfish Giant’, hoodie cinema  Television – ‘Misfits  Newspapers – ‘Hoodies or Altar Boys’ study How are young people represented? What are the ideological implications of these representations? THEORY
  11. 11. Comparing Representations  What are the similarities between historical and contemporary representations?  What are the differences?  What ideological reasons might there be for this?
  12. 12. Structure  Introduction  State your argument  Identify texts  Section 1 – analysis of historical representations  Section 2 – Hoodies or Altar Boys/Hoodie cinema  Section 3 – Misfits/Attack the Block/The Selfish Giant  Conclusion  Return to your argument  What have you demonstrated  Prediction for the future
  13. 13. Argument  What might your argument be in answer to this question? How far does the representation of a particular social group change over time? Refer to at least two media in your answer.
  14. 14. Introduction  Quote/paraphrase/explain – link to argument
  15. 15. Rebel Without a Cause  How are young people represented? - link to theory  What are the ideological messages – link to theory?  Signpost links to contemporary texts.  To what extent does the representation influence perceptions of identity?
  16. 16. Hoodies or Altar Boys/Hoodie Cinema  Mid to late 2000s moral panic about ‘Broken Britain’ reflected in newspapers (Hoodies or Altar Boys study) and films (Hoodie cinema).  How are young people represented? – link to theory.  Why are young people represented in this way? – link to theory.  Relate to historical representations – similar/different?  How much do these representations influence perceptions of youth?
  17. 17. Contemporary Film and TV  Media representations of youth are complex/contradictory – plurality of representations.  Hegemony – site of constant struggle – Gramsci.  Representations like Misfits, Attack the Block, The Selfish Giant can be seen as responses to negative discourse around youth.
  18. 18. Contemporary Film and TV  How are young people represented? – link to theory.  Why are they represented like this – ideological implications – link to theory – link to other representations.  Compare to historical representations.  To what extent do these representations influence understanding of identity.
  19. 19. Conclusion  Sum up your argument – ANSWER THE QUESTION. How are young people represented? How much does this change over time? Ideological implications – THEORIES. Predictions for the future.
  20. 20. Planning  Focus on one section of the essay. What key points would you make? What theorists would you refer to? How would you relate your discussion to your argument?  In each section you need to:  Explain how young people are represented with some examples – relate this to theory  Consider the ideological implications of the representation – linked to theory  Compare the representation to other texts.  Refer to question – extent of change over time  Link to argument about influence of representations
  21. 21. Essay Plan  Write the introduction and conclusion for this essay.  Bullet point key points and examples for the two sections of the essay. How far does the representation of a particular social group change over time? Refer to at least two media in your answer.
  22. 22. Checklist  Does your answer: Refer to at least 2 different media Develop a clear argument Refer to theory and texts Make links between texts, and theories Use terminology

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