Jason godo biology 120 chapter 6 presentation lymphatic and immune system version 1.2
BIOLOGY 120 Author: Jason GodoChapter 6 Presentation
Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma. Lymphoma is cancer of lymph tissue found in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and bone marrow. The first sign of Hodgkin disease is often an enlarged lymph node. The disease can spread to nearby lymph nodes. Later it may spread to the lungs, liver or bone marrow. The cause is unknown.
Hodgkindisease is rare. Symptoms include: painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin fever and chills night sweats weight loss loss of appetite itchy skin
Hodgkin’s disease can be diagnosed with a biopsy. This involves removing and examining a piece of tissue under a microscope. Treatment varies depending on how far the disease has spread and often includes radiation theraphy or chemotherapy. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the more effective the treatment. In most cases, Hodgkin disease can be cured.
Kaposis sarcoma is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the tissues under the skin or mucous membranes that line the mouth, nose, and other organs. KS causes red or purple patches (lesions) on the skin and/or mucous membranes and spreads to other organs in the body, such as the lungs, liver, or intestinal tract.
KStumors are divided into three groups, based on appearance, with much overlap. Nodular lesions are of varying size and thickness. They are purple and will at times have a halo of brown or yellow pigment around them. Infiltrating lesions may be quite large, may be raised, or grow downward beneath the skin. Lymphatic lesions can mimic other causes of swollen lymph nodes and may require a biopsy to rule out infection.
Once the disease occurs, symptoms relate to the site of involvement. Early and more advanced skin lesions are usually only mildly uncomfortable, although painful ulcers may occur. Lesions in the gastrointestinal tract are very common but rarely cause significant symptoms. Early lesions in the lung have no symptoms either, but severe lung involvement produces a profound air hunger.
KS is not considered curable. Long-term survival does occur both with or without treatment, however. Survival in classic KS is usually years and sometimes decades. All forms of KS are sensitive to radiation theraphy. Radiation is especially useful for lesions that are cosmetically disturbing, painful, involve the mouth extensively, block lymphatics, bleed, or protrude from the skin. Chemotherapy and biological therapy are also utilized in treatment.
Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease. It starts as tiny, grain-like lumps called granulomas, which most often appear in your lungs or lymph nodes. They can clump together and form larger lumps that attack other organs. Sarcoidosis often affects your skin, eyes or liver.
It does not always cause symptoms, so you can have it without knowing it. No one is sure what causes sarcoidosis. General symptoms caused by the disease include fever, tiredness or fatigue, weight loss, night sweats and an overall feeling of ill health. Some organs are affected more often than others. Sarcoidosis occurs most often in the lungs. It also commonly affects the skin, eyes, lymph nodes and liver. Less commonly, it affects the spleen, brain, nerves, heart, tear glands, salivary glands, sinuses, bones and joints. Rarely, it affects other organs, such as the kidneys, breasts and male and female reproductive organs. Sarcoidosis may be mild, or it can be severe and do lasting damage.
The majority of people with sarcoidosis recover without any treatment. It is indicated to follow a treatment according to the disease and the risks incurred by the affected organ. The purpose of the sarcoidosis treatment is to slow or even stop the formation of granulomas and alleviate the various symptoms. The various drugs used for this purpose are from different classes: Corticosteroids (anti-inflammatory cortisone type) Cytotoxic agents Immunomodulators (treatment that stimulates or inhibits the response of the immune system) Some antibiotics
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