HUM 2220 Greek and Roman

1,304 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,304
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 Greek & Roman
  • HUM 2220 Greek and Roman

    1. 1. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 1 Humanities & Employment How can the humanities help prepare us for employment?
    2. 2. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 2 Surveys show that employers are looking for the following things: • Writing skills • Speaking skills • Computation skills • Social skills • Reading skills
    3. 3. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 3 Employers Realize The more high-tech we become…
    4. 4. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 4 Humanities: Greek & Roman Laocoon, by Agesander, et al, of Rhodes, late 2nd centuryB.C., Vatican Museum, Rome, Italy
    5. 5. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 5 Employers Realize • Technology can lead to isolationism • This results in a loss of humaneness • Humanities help keep us humane
    6. 6. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 6 Humanities & Definition “...Humanities is about who we are, who we were, and who we will be… it is the study of humankind and its achievements, both glorious and humble… It is...the study of the human experience, an experience that is universal and timeless…” --Vandermast
    7. 7. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 7 Humanities & History • History has a flow • The flow of history is rooted in ideas • Ideas determine actions
    8. 8. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 8 How Ideas Spread • Geographically • Sociologically • One discipline to another
    9. 9. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 9 How Ideas Penetrate the Culture • Philosophy • Art & Music • General Culture
    10. 10. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 10 Levels of Discussion • Theorhetical • Emotional • Table Talk
    11. 11. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 11 Divisions of History Ancient Middle Modern Post-modern
    12. 12. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 12 Greek & Roman Timeline 1000 BC 400 323-146 133-476AD Heroic Age Classical Period Hellenistic Period Roman
    13. 13. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 13 Dominant Ideas of the Greeks The Polis The Gods Philosophy
    14. 14. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 14 Dominant Ideas of the Romans Republican Rome Imperial Rome
    15. 15. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 15 The Legend of Theseus According to Greek legend, the hero Theseus, the son of Aegeus, king of Athens, was born and brought up in a distant land. his mother did not send him to Athens until he was a young man able to lift a stone under which his father had put a sword and a pair of sandals.
    16. 16. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 16 Theseus Arrives In Athens When Theseus arrived in Athens after many adventures, he found the city in deep mourning. it was again time to send to Minos, king of Crete, the yearly tribute of seven youths and seven maidens to be devoured by the Minotaur. • This was a terrible monster, half human and half bull. Theseus offered himself as one of the victims, hoping that he would be able to slay the monster.
    17. 17. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 17 Thesues Reaches Crete When he reached Crete, Ariadne, the beautiful daughter of the king, fell in love with him. She aided him by giving him a sword, with which he killed the Minotaur, and a ball of thread, with which he was able to find his way out of the winding labyrinth where the monster was kept.
    18. 18. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 18 Theseus Returns Theseus had promised his father that if he succeeded in his quest he would hoist white sails on his ship when he returned; it had black sails when he left. He forgot his promise. King Aegeus, seeing the dark sails, thought his son was dead and jumped into the sea. The sea has since been called the Aegean in his honor. Theseus then became king of the Athenians. He united the village communities of the plain of Attica into a strong and powerful nation.
    19. 19. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 19 Theseus Is Killed Theseus was killed by treachery during a revolt of the Athenians. Later his memory was held in great reverence. At the battle of Marathon in 490 BC many of the Athenians believed they saw his spirit leading them against the Persians. After the Persian Wars the oracle at Delphi ordered the Athenians to find the grave of Theseus on the island of Skyros, where he had been killed, and to bring back his bones to Athens.
    20. 20. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 20 Theseus’ Remains Carried to Athens The oracle's instructions were obeyed. In 469 BC the supposed remains of Theseus were carried back to Athens. The tomb of the great hero became a place of refuge for the poor and oppressed people of the city.
    21. 21. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 21 Minoan Civilization: 3000-1300 B.C. Developed on Crete highly organized bronze age culture Built large towns served as centers for ruling families & religious leaders In 1900 Arthur Evans discovered the palace at Knosis covering 5.5 acres
    22. 22. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 22 Characteristics of the Minoans Palace walls Decorated with vivid paintings & porcelain pottery Elaborate jewelry Was worn by figures pictured Storerooms Were found with huge oils jars bathrooms W/drainage, waste shoots & ventilation
    23. 23. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 23 Minoan Religion & Mythology Called Minoan after King Minos who was according to mythology the son of Zeus and Europa, a Phoenician princes Worshiped the mother goddess whose symbol was the double bladed ax called the labrys The maze of rooms in the palace recall the Greek myth of the labyrinth Daedalus built a labyrinth to house the maneating Minotaur (half-man, half-bull)
    24. 24. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 24 Mysterious End of the Minoans The Mycenaeans conquered the Minoans c. 1400 B.C. Knossos was abandoned for unkown reasons Both cultures became a source for later Greek mythology
    25. 25. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 25 Mycenae 1900-1100 B.C. Mycenaean life also centered around the palace complexes The lions gate (left) opens to the citidel of Mycenae escavated by Heinrich Schliemann
    26. 26. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 26 Mycenaean Characteristics Power center of Mediterranean Prosperous traders from Egypt to Italy Militaristic: fortress-palace Hero worship, later influence on Greeks Trojan war: reality & myth (inspiration for Homer’s Iliad. c. 1200 B.C. Mycenae mysteriously fell invasion, internal strife, natural causes all suggested as responsible for fall
    27. 27. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 27 The Dark Age The death of one civilized order The birth of a new civilized order
    28. 28. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 28 Early Greece Zeus or Poseidon, ca 460-450 B.C. National Museum, Athens, Greece
    29. 29. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 29 Early Greece:Three Periods The Heroic Age (c. 1000-750 B.C.) Age of Colonization (c. 750-600 B.C.) Archaic Period (c. 600-480 B. C.) Apollo, from pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, ca 460 B.C. Museum Olympia.
    30. 30. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 30 The Heroic Period First three hundred years of iron age limited contact with other Mediterranean peoples First great works of literature known as epic poems: Illiad & Odyssey (heroic themes) Development slow Geometric visual art
    31. 31. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 31 The Age of Colonization Greek travelers & merchants explore lands east & west Many new ideas & artistic styles brought to Greece
    32. 32. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 32 The Archaic Period Foreign influences absorbed Paved the way for the Classical Period Victory over Persians in wars lasting from 490-479 B.C.
    33. 33. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 33 Polis: City-State After fall Mycenaeans Greece was divided regionally/geographically into city-states. Athens - Attica Thebes - Boeotia Sparta - Laconia, etc.
    34. 34. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 34 City-States in Ancient Greece
    35. 35. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 35 Athens as an Example The polis was the center of political, religious, social, and artistic life Citizens maintained a strong sense of loyalty to the polis The individuals identity was tied to the polis Map of ancient Athens
    36. 36. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 36 The Acropolis: Athens A fortified, elevated citadel Or hilltop fortress around which life revolved in the Greek city-states (Left) The famed Athenian Acropolis, a hill about 260 feet high
    37. 37. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 37 Architeture of Acropolis The Propylaea, by Mnesicles, 437-432 B.C. Temple of Athena Nike, 427-424 B.C. The Erechtheum, 421-405 B.C. The Parthenon, by Ictinus and Callicrates, 438-432 B.C. Model of Acropolis
    38. 38. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 38 The City-State: Glorious & Humble Each city developed its unique artistic style This led to competition Competition led to bitter & destructive rivalries Rivalry produced unsurpassed development and internal struggles It proved an insufficient base for the larger superstructure
    39. 39. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 39 Greek Gods Zeus - Father of Gods & Men Hera - Wife of Zeus, Queen of Heaven Poseidon - Brother of Zeus, God of Sea Hephaestus - Son of Zeus & Hera, God of Fire Ares - God of War Apollo - God of prophecy, intellect, Music & Medicine
    40. 40. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 40 Greek Gods Continued • Artemis - Goddess of Chastity & Moon • Demeter - Earth Mother, Goddess of Fertility • Aphrodite - Goddess of Beauty, Love & Marriage • Athena - Goddess of Wisdom • Hermes - Messenger of Gods, God of Cleverness • Dionysus - God of Wine & Emotions
    41. 41. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 41 Greek Gods & Western God • Greek • polytheistic • dualistic - good & evil • amplified humanity • limited knowledge • limited power • mutable • finite • not transcendent • Western • monotheistic • omnibenevolent - all good • supreme spirit • omniscient • omnipotent • immutable • infinite • transcendent
    42. 42. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 42 Homer & Epic Poems • Iliad & Odyssey • held in high esteem for centuries • Homer is their accepted author • regarded as the first & best Western literary figure • although little is known about him • verbal tradition • passed down by professional bards (storytellers)
    43. 43. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 43 The Iliad • Takes place during the final year of Greeks siege of Troy • Only indirectly concerned with Trojan War • Its subject • is really the anger of Achilles & its consequences • Its message or moral • be prepared to take responsibility for our actions • wrong actions effect more than ourselves, even those we love
    44. 44. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 44 The Story • Agamemnon – Commander of Greek forces – Angers Apollos by taking Chryseis, the daughter of Chryses & priest of Apollo, as a spoil of war – He refuses to return her to her father unless he takes another – He takes Briseis who is Achilles spoil • Achilles – The Greeks most powerful warrior & hero – He avenges the actions of Agamemnon by withdrawing his military support – This results in the death of his best friend Patroclus
    45. 45. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 45 The Odyssey • Odysseus encounters: – The island of the Lotus-Eaters, the one eyed Cyclopes, the Aeolian wind – Laestrygone cannibals – The enchantress Circe – Hades, the nymphs of Siren, Scylla & Charybdis, the Isle of the Sun, Calypso
    46. 46. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 46 Art In Heroic Age • Painted pottery is all that remains from 1st 300 yrs. of Greek art • Pottery decorated with abstract geometric designs • Two divisions of period: • Protogeometric (1000- 900 B.C. text p. 40) • Geometric (900-700 B.C. left) Dipylon Amphora. c. 750 B.C. Height 4’11’’. National Museum, Athens. Or- iginally grave marker. Note: dead man & mourners on main band.
    47. 47. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 47 Characteristics of Geometric Art • 1000-900 designs: concentric circles & semicircles (text 40, 2.2) • Qualities of clarity & order begin to show • 900-700 linear designs zigzags, triangles, diamonds, meander (maze pattern), human & animal figures
    48. 48. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 48 Art in Age Of Colonization – City-states ruled by small groups of aristocrats – Their graves marked by Amphoras – Two centuries of peace led to prosperity – Ruling class became image conscious regarding city-states – They began to function as patrons of the arts – Festivals became competitive sites for artists
    49. 49. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 49 Greeks Go Abroad • Italy & Sicily were colonized to the west • Egypt & Black Sea region to south • Asia minor to the east including Phoenicians & Persians – Rivalries persisted in colonies • Greece art & life profited from rich culture in Near East.
    50. 50. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 50 Visual Art In Corinth & Athens • Corinthian art used variety of eastern motifs – Sphinxes, winged humans, floral designs – More colorful • Athens was slower to respond Red-figure amphora: vase of Meidias, 5th century B.C. Archaeological Museum, Florence, Italy.
    51. 51. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 51 Beginning of Greek Sculpture • Greek settlers in Egypt given land mid-7th cent. by pharaoh Psammetichos I • Egyptian sculpture influenced Greeks • Small number of figures are repeated • Kouros & Kore Left, Kouros of Anavysos, ca 550-525 B.C. Right, Standing Statue, uninscribed, Egyptian XII Dynasty.
    52. 52. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 52 Beginnings of Greek Sculpture Continued • By 600 B.C. Greek Art changed • From abstract to realism Copyright © 1994-1996 Zane Publishing, Inc. Kore, ca 510-500 B.C., National Museum, Athens, Greece
    53. 53. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 53 Progress of Greek Sculpture • Calf-Bearer. c. 550 B.C. • First break from traditional stance
    54. 54. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 54 Architecture: Doric & Ionic • Archaic period marked by many temples in Doric Style • Also influenced by Egyptian models • Doric order c. 600 B.C. • Ionic style used in classical period 5th cent & later The Basilica, ca 530 B.C., Paestum, Italy
    55. 55. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 55 Doric & Ionic Columns • Comparison of two styles • Ionic left • Doric right
    56. 56. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 56 Doric Style • Doric Simpler & grander • Columns: – have no base & rise from floor – Columns taper toward top – Have 20 flutes (vertical grooves)
    57. 57. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 57 Ionic Style • More elaborate – Tiered base – 24 flutes – spiraled capitals
    58. 58. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 58 Corinthian Style • Discussed in chapter 4
    59. 59. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 59 Greek Dance & Music • Frequent references show music was central to Greek life • History of Greek music problematic • little evidence exists today • less than a dozen fragments exist • the earliest from 5th century B.C. • understanding of notation makes performance impossible • Greeks believed music had a divine origin • played important part of everyday life • important in religious context • Plato & Aristotle wrote about Greek music theory & it was part of the general education curriculum
    60. 60. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 60 Modal Music • Greek music was centered around modes or scales – Each mode had the power to change behavior in a spefific way – Olympus (from Asia Minor) was the mythological founder of music • Musical instruments included the lyre, kithara & the aulos • Music was mainly vocal
    61. 61. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 61 Dance in Early Greece • Played central role in drama • Little is known about dance, but some is pictured in visual arts • It was both religious & social • Like all art, dance too told a story
    62. 62. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 62 Literature • Literature between Homer & Archaic period is limited • Hesiod c. 700 B.C. is exception – Theogony - origins of the world – Works & Days - disadvantages of being poor & oppressed
    63. 63. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 63 Lyric Poetry • Homer for aristocrats • Lyric poetry concerned w/poets own thoughts & feelings • Sappho most significant lyric poet – First women lyricist w/ legacy – Born c. 612 B.C. at Lesbos – Wife, mother, poet, teacher – Both her beauty & passion have been debated
    64. 64. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 64 Herodotus (484-420 B.C.) • First Greek Historian • Called the “Father of History” • Great Story teller • Wrote History of the Persian Wars (an account of the final years of archaic period)
    65. 65. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 65 Herodotus’ Weaknesses • Not scientific • Did not understand military strategy • Interpreted events in terms of personality rather than political or economic
    66. 66. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 66 Herodotus’ Strengths • Impartial • Free from national prejudice • Acute observer • Recorded voluminous information • Provided his own evaluation of the reliability of his sources
    67. 67. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 67 Herodotus’ Analysis • Based on Philosophical & theological presuppositions – The Persians were defeated because they were morally in the wrong – Defeat was due to hubris or excessive ambition & pride – Greek victory an example of right over might – Also that the gods guarantee the triumph of justice
    68. 68. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 68 Herodotus to the Modern Reader • Greeks were successful because they were united against a common enemy • Victory led to the Classical Age - the greatest period in Greek history
    69. 69. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 69 The Classical Period 479-323 • Victory in Persians wars produced optimism – No limit to possibilities of human development – Level of civilization rarely ever achieved – High point last half of 5th cent. – Golden Age of Greece – Drama, historiography, town planning, medicine, painting, sculpture, math, government, philosophy
    70. 70. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 70 The Classical Ideal • Greece’s conquerors spread their ideas – Macedonians, Romans • Greeks did not live in peace – Inability to practice own ideals – War between city states • Success of Classical Age – Belief that quest for reason & order gave unifying ideal – Central principle: existence can be ordered & controlled, human ability can triumph over chaos
    71. 71. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 71 Philosophy • The early philosophers were not great because of the answers they gave; they were great because of the questions they asked
    72. 72. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 72 The Presocratic Philosophers 585 B.C. • Study of nature • What is everything made of? • All things consist of some basic “stuff” or Arche – Thales – water – Anaximenes – air – Heraclitus – fire – Anaximander – an indefinite or boundless realm – Parmenides – whatever is, is – Empedocles – earth, air, fire, water (basic elements) – Leucippus & Democritus – atoms
    73. 73. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 73 The Sophists • The Study of humankind & human behavior • Five core beliefs – Atheists – Naturalists – Relativists – Materialists – Mechanists – Hylozoists
    74. 74. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 74 Sophists • Protagoras – “man is the measure of all things” Knowledge is relative to each person • Gorgias – nothing exisirs, if anything does exist you couldn’t know it, and even if you could know it you couldn’t communicate it • Thrasymachus – injustice to be preferred to justice, might is right, people should aggressively, pursue their own interests, justice is whatever is in the interest of the stronger…
    75. 75. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 75 Socrates (470-399 B.C.) • Life overlapped with sophists • 1st real giant in History. of Phil. • Goals – shift attention from means to end – define key terms i.e. “justice” • Why he was executed – impiety against Olympian Gods – corrupting the youth of Athens
    76. 76. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 76 Socrates: Major Elements • Major elements: – The unexamined life is not worth living • reason separates us from animals (when humans fail to examine their lives they are subhuman/animal-like) – The well being of a person’s soul is more important than their body – Better to suffer injustice than to commit injustice – Virtue is knowledge • The reason why most people do wrong is ignorance
    77. 77. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 77 Plato’s Writings • Early Dialogues – Primarily Socratic • Middle Dialogues – Mixture of Plato’s and Socrates’ ideas • Later Dialogues – Socrates doesn’t appear at all
    78. 78. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 78 Seven Ideas Plato Opposed • Atheism – Plato knew there was a Divine something • Olympian Religion • Greek Mysteries Religions
    79. 79. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 79 Seven Ideas Plato Opposed • Empiricism – All knowledge through sense perception • Plato’s alternative was rationalism
    80. 80. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 80 Seven Ideas Plato Opposed • Relativism – Plato was an absolutist • There are standards which are absolute and unchanging.
    81. 81. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 81 Seven Ideas Plato Opposed • Hedonism – belief that pleasure is the highest good.
    82. 82. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 82 Seven Ideas Plato Opposed • Materialism – Plato was an Idealist
    83. 83. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 83 Seven Ideas Plato Opposed • Naturalism – Plato was a supernaturalist
    84. 84. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 84 Seven Ideas Plato Opposed • Mechanism – Belief that reality was a machine. – No purpose to anything that happens in nature. • Plato was teleologist. • He believed that a mind is at work in the universe.
    85. 85. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 85 Plato’s Dualism (Three Kinds) • Metaphysical • The Ideal and the Physical Worlds – Theory of the Forms • Plato believed that human beings lived in two different worlds. • The worlds of being and becoming • The lower and the upper world
    86. 86. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 86 Plato’s Dualism (Metaphysical) • The Lower World – The world of physical things – Everything is changing • The Upper World – The World of Forms • A Form is an eternal, unchangeable and universal essence.
    87. 87. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 87 Plato’s Dualism • Epistemological – Experience and Reason
    88. 88. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 88 Plato’s Dualism • Anthropological – Body and Soul • Negations of Body/Soul Dualism in Socrates – The unexamined life is not worth living. – The well being of a person’s soul is more important than his body. – Better to suffer injustice than to commit injustice. – Virtue is knowledge.
    89. 89. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 89 Classical Period 479-323 B.C. • Victory in Persians wars produced optimism – No limit to possibilities of human development – Level of civilization rarely ever achieved – High point last half of 5th cent. – Golden Age of Greece – Drama, historiography, town planning, medicine, painting, sculpture, math, government, philosophy Laocoon, by Agesander, et al of Rhodes, late 2nd centuryB.C. Vatican Museum, Rome, Italy
    90. 90. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 90 The Classical Ideal • Greece’s conquerors spread their ideas – Macedonians, Romans • Greeks did not live in peace – Inability to practice own ideals – War between city states • Success of Classical Age – Belief that quest for reason & order gave unifying ideal – Central principle: existence can be ordered & controlled, human ability can triumph over chaos The Acropolis, Athens
    91. 91. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 91 Classical Impact • Emphasis on order affected religion • Also affected political & cultural life – democratic government • ecclesia - directing council • boule - magistracies • Juries
    92. 92. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 92 The Athenian Tragic Dramatists • Three Great Masters – Aeschylus – Sophocles – Euripides • Theater was a religious ritual & considered sacred groud • Each author submitted four plays (trilogy & satyr) performed consecutively on same day
    93. 93. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 93 Dramatic Sources• Religious sources • Mythology – dealt with relationship between human & divine – actors served as priests of Dionysus • masks • elaborate costumes • raised shoes were worn • Chorus • a groups centrally involved in the action • represent the point of view of the spectator • reduces intense emotions of principals to more human terms & comments on them
    94. 94. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 94 Aeschylus 525-456 B.C.• Earliest Playwright, died before Classical period • Work Shows • deep insight into human weakness and dangers of power • maintains belief that right will triumph in the end • the process of recognizing right is painful • one must suffer to learn one’s errors • process is inevitable, controlled by divine force of Justice personified under the name of Zeus • maintains optimism in spite of violence
    95. 95. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 95 Aeschylus’ Dramas• Oresteia trilogy – first prize in festival of 485 B.C. – subject is growth of civilization • the gradual transition from primitive law of vendetta to the rational society of civilized humanity • Agamemnon (first play) – the tension between seeking the good of the individual or that of the public • must make choice between sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia • he sacrifices his daughter • he is murdered by his wife
    96. 96. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 96 Aeschylus’ 2nd & 3rd Plays • Libation Bearers – Centered around the principle of violence breeds violence with Agamemnon & Clytemnestra’s son Orestes • Orestes kills his mother with the ecouragement of his sister Electra • is tormented by the furies - the goddesses of vengence • The Eumenides (The Kindly Ones) – violence can only end through power & reason
    97. 97. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 97 Sophocles 496-406 B.C. • Antigone – Thebes has been attacked by forces under Polynices – Polynices is killed – Creaon forbids anyone to burry Polynices – Polynices sister disobeys stating religious & family rights are above the state – Creaon’s sttubornness bring tragedy for him and Antigone
    98. 98. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 98 Sophocles: Oedipus the King • The choice between good & evil is never clear or easy and sometimes impossible • He insists that we must revere the forces that we cannot see or understand makes him the most traditionally religious of the tragedies • Doomed before his birth to kill his father & mary his mother • attempts to avoid fate, he fails, and blinds himself
    99. 99. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 99 Euripides 484-486 B.C. & Aristophanes 450-385 B.C. • Hates war & senseless misery • Political satire & fantasy
    100. 100. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 100 Greek Tragedy: Definition • “An imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with every kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of dramatic action, not narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purifications of these emotions.” --Aristotle
    101. 101. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 101 Six Parts of a Tragedy • Plot (the most important) • Character (2nd in importance) • Diction • Thought • Spectacle (leat important) • Song
    102. 102. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 102 Elements of Plot • Beginning • Middle • End • Does not require single person as the hero to achieve wholeness • Must be long enough to move sequence of events “from calamity to good fortune,” or “from good fortune to calamity”
    103. 103. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 103 Further Elements of Tragedy• Utilizes surprise • results from reversal • results from recognition • or to arouse pity or fear • It’s complexity arises from cause & effect which proposes to the audience a plausible rationale for the action • The tragic hero must be a noble individual who brings about his own downfall by error or frailty
    104. 104. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 104 Visual Arts In Classical Greece • Classical Features – Balance – Order – Realism – Motion – Naturalism – Proportion – Symmetry
    105. 105. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 105 Myron (Mid 5th) • Most Famous 5th century sculpor • None of his originals survived • There are a number of copies of his most famous piece: Discus Thrower • realistic treatment of action • idealized portrayal of athelete
    106. 106. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 106 Polyclitus Doryphoros (mid 5th) • One of greatest sculptors – Devised a mathematical formula for representing the perfect male body – Wrote book: The Canon • “ideal beauty consists of a precise relationship between the varios parts of the body • Spear Bearer (left) to illustrate theory
    107. 107. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 107 The Ideal of Polyclitus • Chrysippus (280-207 B.C. wrote • “…beauty consists of the proportion of the parts; of finger to finger; of all the fingers to the palm and the wrist; of those to the forearm; of the forearm to the upper arm; and of all these parts to one another as set forth in The canon of Polyclitus.”
    108. 108. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 108 Architecture • Designers concerned with proportion & interrelationship of varios parts to the whole • The Propylaea, by Mnesicles, 437-432 B.C. • Temple of Athena Nike, 427-424 B.C. • The Erechtheum, 421-405 B.C. • The Parthenon, by Ictinus and Callicrates, 438-432 B.C. Copyright © 1994- 1996 Zane Publishing, Inc.
    109. 109. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 109 Parthenon: Acropolis • Work began on Acropolis in 499 by Phidias (greatest sculptor of his day) & Pericles • Parthenon (parthenos or virgun for goddess Athena) was first building constructed (447-438 B.C.) • Its sculpture done by 432 B.C.
    110. 110. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 110 Ground Plan of Doric Temple • Temple of Zeus example of first great architecture following Persian Wars • Construction begun 470 & completed in 456 B.C. • Largest Doric temple in Greece • Illustration Classical preoccupation with proportion
    111. 111. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 111 Temple of Zeus at Olympia • The distance from the center of one column to the center of the next was the unit of measurement for the whole temple • Thus the height of each column is equal to two units • The combined length of a triglyph and metope equals half a unit
    112. 112. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 112 The Acropolis • The Acropolis remains the symbol of the golden age • Intended to perpetuate the memory of Athens’ glorious achievements • Instead it is a reminder of the gulf between classical ideals & realities of political existence in 5th c.
    113. 113. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 113 The Acropolis • The fundraising of Parthenon symbolizes this gap between ideal & real • Funding was provided by transfering of money from Delian League • The League fund was an interstate war chest
    114. 114. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 114 Parthenon: Pediment • The figures in the pediments are freestanding • Left: Isis from pediment
    115. 115. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 115 Parthenon: Frieze • The frieze is carved in low relief • The middle section of a horizontal band of decoration on a building; usually a carving in stone • Left : Detail of Seated Gods
    116. 116. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 116 • The metopes are in high relief
    117. 117. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 117 Propylaea • The Propylaea served as the entrance to the Acropolis • Begun in 437 B.C. • Unusual design in that it used both Doric (front) & Ionic (Back) columns
    118. 118. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 118 Erechtheum: Porch of Maiden • The Erechtheum is an Ionic temple of complex design (421-406) • Uneven ground level was chief technical problem architect faced • Roof rests not on columns but on the famous caryatids
    119. 119. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 119 Visual Art 4th Century • Praxiteles – Hermes • the gentle melancholy • view of male body as object of beauty – Aphrodite of Cyrene • view of female body as object of beauty • 1st attempt at sensuality • Scopas & Lysippus (see text p. 96)
    120. 120. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 120 Hellenistic Period (322-146 B.C.) • Alexander’s generals couldn’t agree on successor after his death causing the empire to split • Syria, Egypt, Pergamum, Macedonia remained at odds until conquered by Rome • Yet each spread Greek culture • Hellenistic from hellenize “to spread” • Alexandria, Egypt was greatest of all Greek learning centers
    121. 121. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 121 Hellenism • The memory of Alexander’s spirit of adventure & experiment caused a new creative spirit that was more emotional & expressive • Artists allowed themselves to depict a kind of righteous confusion • Contrasts of light & shade & appearance of perpetual motion • The wealthy patron replaced the state as promoter & provider of the Arts
    122. 122. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 122 The Roman Legacy • Origin of Western tradition – Greece (intellectual) – Rome (language, law, politics) • Roads • alphabet • calendar • symbol of civilization • spread of ideas especially Greek & Christian
    123. 123. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 123 Etruscans • Late 8th century was time of great activity in Italy • The Latins were a agracultural people in the Tiber valley – establishes small villiage that was to become Rome – inflenced by Etruscan technology, art & architecture – Etruscans were expelled by Romans in 510 B.C.
    124. 124. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 124 Roman Republic • Rome considered itself a Republic • Similar government to Greek city-states only less democratic – two chief magistrates or consuls, elected for one-year terms by male citizens – principal assembly was called Senate • most members from aristocratic families • power cocentrated in upper class or patricians • lower class or plebians allowed to form its own assembly & tribunes represented their interests
    125. 125. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 125 Republic Continued • The meeting place of assembly was the forum • Conflict between patricians & plebeians was ongoing, but never seriously threatened the stability of Rome • 247 B.C. marked the passing of the Hortensian Law which made decisions of plebians binding • 3rd & 2nd centuries were marked by the expansion of the empire
    126. 126. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 126 Republic Continued • 1st century resulted in the whole Hellenistic world being conquered and divided into – provinces – protectorates – free kingdoms • Expansion resulted in poor administration
    127. 127. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 127 Literature • Roman energy centered on political & military affairs • Little time for literature – Ennius (239-169) father of Roman poetry, works are lost – Plautus (254-184) – Terence (195-159) • first Romans to have works survive in quantity • adaptation of Greek comedy • elaborate plots, everything sorted out in last scene
    128. 128. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 128 Literature Continued • Catullus (80-54 B.C.) • romantic themes • ecstacy • disillusionment & despair • direct expression of emotions • similar to Sappho • Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) • most famous Roman • politician • general • administrator • historian
    129. 129. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 129 Literature Continued • Cicero (106-43) – lawyer – consul – conflict with Caesar – 100 letters published – orator • Philosophy – Lucretius - Epicureanism – Cicero & Senaca (8 B.C. - 65 A.D.) Stoicism
    130. 130. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 130 Roman Law • Caesars Ius Civile – original creation of Rome – model for later law – edited by Justinian (527-565 A.D.) Corpus Iuris Civilis – influenced many in 20th century – international – universal – based on natural law, absolutes, equity
    131. 131. J Fitzgerald HUM 2220 131

    ×