MAN MADE DISASTER
Most important man made disasters are technological and
industrial. Both of these occur as a result of misuse of technology,
accidents etc. All the technological innovations have some risk
which may cause hazards. Both of these disasters have no
predictability as they occur suddenly. These are mostly attributed
to human error. The causes of technological and industrial disasters
may be lack of proper installations, lack of adequate training, lack
of awareness, lack of safety measures, deactivation of safety
system, sabotage from inside or outside. From the technological
hazard point of view, 1984 was the worst year(Bhopal tragedy).
Chemicals can be corrosive, toxic, and they may react, often
By their nature, the manufacture, storage, and transport of
chemicals are accidents waiting to happen.
The impacts of chemical accidents can be deadly, for both
human being and environment.
Chemical disasters are also caused by industrial accidents.
Eg:Bhopal gas tragedy(1984)
A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the
rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction. The
driving reaction may be nuclear fission, nuclear fusion or a
multistage cascading combination of the two, though to date all
fusion based weapons have used a fission device to initiate fusion,
and a pure fusion weapon remains a hypothetical device.
Industrial disasters or accidents, which are disasters caused by industrial companies, either
by accident, negligence or incompetence. They are a from of industrial accident where
great damage, injury or loss of life are caused.
other disasters can also be considered industrial
disasters, if their causes are rooted in the products or processes of industry.
Eg: Great Chicago fire(1871, October 10).
Fire is caused when a source of fire like naked flame, cigarette or
bidi, electric spark or any source of ignition comes into contact with inflammable material.
The Bhopal disaster, also referred to as the Bhopal gas tragedy, was a gas
leak incident in india, considered the world’s worst industrial disaster. It occurred on
the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union carbide india limited (UCIL)
pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Over 500,000 people were exposed
to methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals.
The Chernobyl disaster was a catastrophic nuclear
accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the
chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine (then
officially the Ukrainian SSR), which was under the
direct jurisdiction of the central authorities of the
soviet union. An explosion and fire released large
quantities of radioactive particles into the
atmosphere, which spread over much of the
western USSR and europe.
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan were
conducted by the United States during the final stages of world war 2 in
August 1945. To date the two bombings are the only instance of the use
of nuclear weapons in wartime.
Following a firebombing campaign that
destroyed many Japanese cities, the allies prepared for a costly invasion of
japan. The war in europe ended when nazi germany signed its instrument of
surrended on May 8, 1945, but the pacific war continued. Together with the
United Kingdom and china, the United States called for the unconditional
surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the potsdam declaration on July
Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is
being phased out globally. The two isomers, endo and exo, are known
popularly as I and II. Endosulfan sulfate is a product of oxidation containing
one extra O atom attached to the S atom. Endosulfan became a highly
controversial agrichemical due to its acute toxicity, potential
for bioaccumulation, and role as an endocrine disruptor. Because of its
threats to human health and the environment, a global ban on the
manufacture and use of endosulfan was negotiated under the stockholm
convention in April 2011.
Fukushima nuclear disaster
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was a catastrophic failure at the fukushima
nuclear power plant on 11 March 2011.