Introduction to Docker (as presented at December 2013 Global Hackathon)

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Not on board of the Docker ship yet? This presentation will get you up to speed, and explain everything you want to know about Linux Containers and Docker, including the new features of the latest 0.7 version (which brings support for all Linux distros and kernels).

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Introduction to Docker (as presented at December 2013 Global Hackathon)

  1. 1. a Gentle Introduction to Docker and All Things Containers December 2013—updated for Docker 0.7
  2. 2. Outline ● Whom is this for? ● What's the problem? ● What's a Container? ● Docker 101 ● Docker images ● Docker deployment ● Docker future
  3. 3. Outline ● Whom is this for? ● What's the problem? ● What's a Container? ● Docker 101 ● Docker images ● Docker deployment ● Docker future
  4. 4. Devs ● all languages ● all databases ● all O/S ● targetting Linux systems Docker will eventually be able to target FreeBSD, Solaris, and maybe OS X.
  5. 5. Ops ● any distro ● any cloud ● any machine (physical, virtual...) ● recent kernels – at least 3.8 – or the one that comes with RHEL 6.5
  6. 6. CFO, CIO, CTO, ... ● LESS overhead! ● MOAR consolidation! ● MOAR agility! ● LESS costs!
  7. 7. Outline ● Whom is this for? ● What's the problem? ● What's a Container? ● Docker 101 ● Docker images ● Docker deployment ● Docker future
  8. 8. The Matrix From Hell django web frontend node.js async API background workers SQL database distributed DB, big data message queue ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? my laptop your laptop staging prod on cloud VM prod on bare metal QA
  9. 9. Another Matrix from Hell ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  10. 10. Solution: the intermodal shipping container
  11. 11. Solved!
  12. 12. Solution to the deployment problem: the Linux container
  13. 13. Linux containers... Units of software delivery (ship it!) ● run everywhere – – regardless of host distro – ● regardless of kernel version (but container and host architecture must match*) run anything – if it can run on the host, it can run in the container – i.e., if it can run on a Linux kernel, it can run *Unless you emulate CPU with qemu and binfmt
  14. 14. Outline ● Whom is this for? ● What's the problem? ● What's a Container? ● Docker 101 ● Docker images ● Docker deployment ● Docker future
  15. 15. High level approach: it's a lightweight VM ● own process space ● own network interface ● can run stuff as root ● can have its own /sbin/init (different from the host) « Machine Container »
  16. 16. Low level approach: it's chroot on steroids ● can also not have its own /sbin/init ● container = isolated process(es) ● share kernel with host ● no device emulation (neither HVM nor PV) « Application Container »
  17. 17. Separation of concerns: Dave the Developer ● inside my container: – my code – my libraries – my package manager – my app – my data
  18. 18. Separation of concerns: Oscar the Ops guy ● outside the container: – logging – remote access – network configuration – monitoring
  19. 19. How does it work? Isolation with namespaces ● pid ● mnt ● net ● uts ● ipc ● user
  20. 20. pid namespace jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ ps aux | wc -l 212 jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ sudo docker run -t bash root@ea319b8ac416:/# ps aux USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT COMMAND root 1 0.0 0.0 18044 1956 ? S root 16 0.0 0.0 15276 1136 ? R+ aux (That's 2 processes) -i ubuntu START TIME 02:54 02:55 0:00 bash 0:00 ps
  21. 21. mnt namespace jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ wc -l /proc/mounts 32 /proc/mounts root@ea319b8ac416:/# wc -l /proc/mounts 10 /proc/mounts
  22. 22. net namespace root@ea319b8ac416:/# ip addr 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever inet6 ::1/128 scope host valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 22: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000 mtu 1500 qdisc link/ether 2a:d1:4b:7e:bf:b5 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 10.1.1.3/24 brd 10.1.1.255 scope global eth0 valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever inet6 fe80::28d1:4bff:fe7e:bfb5/64 scope link valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
  23. 23. uts namespace jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ hostname tarrasque root@ea319b8ac416:/# hostname ea319b8ac416
  24. 24. ipc namespace jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ ipcs ------ Shared Memory Segments -------key shmid owner perms 0x00000000 3178496 jpetazzo 600 0x00000000 557057 jpetazzo 777 0x00000000 3211266 jpetazzo 600 root@ea319b8ac416:/# ipcs ------ Shared Memory Segments -------key shmid owner perms ------ Semaphore Arrays -------key semid owner perms ------ Message Queues -------key msqid owner perms bytes 393216 2778672 393216 nattch 2 0 2 status dest bytes nattch status nsems used-bytes messages dest
  25. 25. user namespace ● ● no « demo » for this one... Yet! UID 0→1999 in container C1 is mapped to UID 10000→11999 in host; UID 0→1999 in container C2 is mapped to UID 12000→13999 in host; etc. ● required lots of VFS and FS patches (esp. XFS) ● what will happen with copy-on-write? – double translation at VFS? – single root UID on read-only FS?
  26. 26. How does it work? Isolation with cgroups ● memory ● cpu ● blkio ● devices
  27. 27. How does it work? Isolation with cgroups ● memory ● cpu ● blkio ● devices
  28. 28. memory cgroup ● keeps track pages used by each group: – file (read/write/mmap from block devices; swap) – anonymous (stack, heap, anonymous mmap) – active (recently accessed) – inactive (candidate for eviction) ● each page is « charged » to a group ● pages can be shared (e.g. if you use any COW FS) ● Individual (per-cgroup) limits and out-of-memory killer
  29. 29. cpu and cpuset cgroups ● keep track of user/system CPU time ● set relative weight per group ● pin groups to specific CPU(s) – Can be used to « reserve » CPUs for some apps – This is also relevant for big NUMA systems
  30. 30. blkio cgroups ● keep track IOs for each block device – read vs write; sync vs async ● set relative weights ● set throttle (limits) for each block device – read vs write; bytes/sec vs operations/sec Note: earlier versions (<3.8) didn't account async correctly. 3.8 is better, but use 3.10 for best results.
  31. 31. devices cgroups ● controls read/write/mknod permissions ● typically: – allow: /dev/{tty,zero,random,null}... – deny: everything else – maybe: /dev/net/tun, /dev/fuse
  32. 32. If you're serious about security, you also need… ● capabilities – okay: cap_ipc_lock, cap_lease, cap_mknod, cap_net_admin, cap_net_bind_service, cap_net_raw – troublesome: cap_sys_admin (mount!) ● think twice before granting root ● grsec is nice ● seccomp (very specific use cases); seccomp-bpf ● beware of full-scale kernel exploits!
  33. 33. How does it work? Copy-on-write storage ● ● ● unioning filesystems (AUFS, overlayfs) snapshotting filesystems (BTRFS, ZFS) copy-on-write block devices (thin snapshots with LVM or device-mapper) Since 0.7, Docker has a storage plugin system!
  34. 34. Efficiency
  35. 35. Compute efficiency: almost no overhead ● ● ● ● processes are isolated, but run straight on the host CPU performance = native performance memory performance = a few % shaved off for (optional) accounting network performance = small overhead; can be reduced to zero
  36. 36. Storage efficiency: many options! Union Filesystems Snapshotting Filesystems Copy-on-write block devices Provisioning Superfast Supercheap Fast Cheap Fast Cheap Changing small files Changing large files Diffing Superfast Supercheap Fast Cheap Fast Costly Slow (first time) Inefficient (copy-up!) Fast Cheap Fast Cheap Superfast Superfast (ZFS) Kinda meh (BTRFS) Slow Memory usage Efficient Efficient Inefficient (at high densities) Drawbacks Random quirks AUFS not mainline !AUFS more quirks ZFS not mainline BTRFS not as nice Higher disk usage Great performance (except diffing) Bottom line Ideal for PAAS and high density things This might be the Future Dodge Ram 3500
  37. 37. Outline ● Whom is this for? ● What's the problem? ● What's a Container? ● Docker 101 ● Docker images ● Docker deployment ● Docker future
  38. 38. Docker-what? ● Open Source engine to commoditize LXC ● using copy-on-write for quick provisioning STOP! HAMMER DEMO TIME.
  39. 39. Yes, but... ● ● ● « I don't need Docker; I can do all that stuff with LXC tools, rsync, and some scripts! » correct on all accounts; but it's also true for apt, dpkg, rpm, yum, etc. the whole point is to commoditize, i.e. make it ridiculously easy to use
  40. 40. Containers before Docker
  41. 41. Containers after Docker
  42. 42. What this really means… ● instead of writing « very small shell scripts » to manage containers, write them to do the rest: – continuous deployment/integration/testing – orchestration ● = use Docker as a building block ● re-use other people images (yay ecosystem!)
  43. 43. Docker-what? The Big Picture ● Open Source engine to commoditize LXC ● using copy-on-write for quick provisioning ● allowing to create and share images ● ● standard format for containers (stack of layers; 1 layer = tarball+metadata) standard, reproducible way to easily build trusted images (Dockerfile, Stackbrew...)
  44. 44. Docker-what? Under The Hood ● rewrite of dotCloud internal container engine – – ● original version: Python, tied to dotCloud's internal stuff released version: Go, legacy-free the Docker daemon runs in the background – manages containers, images, and builds – HTTP API (over UNIX or TCP socket) – embedded CLI talking to the API ● Open Source (GitHub public repository + issue tracking) ● user and dev mailing lists ● FreeNode IRC channels #docker, #docker-dev
  45. 45. Outline ● Whom is this for? ● What's the problem? ● What's a Container? ● Docker 101 ● Docker images ● Docker deployment ● Docker future
  46. 46. Authoring images with run/commit 1) docker run ubuntu bash 2) apt-get install this and that 3) docker commit <containerid> <imagename> 4) docker run <imagename> bash 5) git clone git://.../mycode 6) pip install -r requirements.txt 7) docker commit <containerid> <imagename> 8) repeat steps 4-7 as necessary 9) docker tag <imagename> <user/image> 10) docker push <user/image>
  47. 47. Authoring images with a Dockerfile FROM ubuntu RUN RUN RUN RUN RUN apt-get apt-get apt-get apt-get apt-get -y update install -y install -y install -y install -y g++ erlang-dev erlang-manpages erlang-base-hipe ... libmozjs185-dev libicu-dev libtool ... make wget RUN wget http://.../apache-couchdb-1.3.1.tar.gz | tar -C /tmp -zxfRUN cd /tmp/apache-couchdb-* && ./configure && make install RUN printf "[httpd]nport = 8101nbind_address = 0.0.0.0" > /usr/local/etc/couchdb/local.d/docker.ini EXPOSE 8101 CMD ["/usr/local/bin/couchdb"] docker build -t jpetazzo/couchdb .
  48. 48. Authoring Images with Trusted Builds 0) create a GitHub account On index.docker.io: 1) create a Docker account 2) link it with your GitHub account 3) enable Trusted Builds on any public repo On your dev env: 4) git add Dockerfile 5) git commit 6) git push
  49. 49. Authoring Images with Chef/Puppet/Ansible/Salt/... Plan A: « my other VM is a container » ● write a Dockerfile to install $YOUR_CM ● start tons of containers ● run $YOUR_CM in them Good if you want a mix of containers/VM/metal But slower to deploy, and uses more resources
  50. 50. Authoring Images with Chef/Puppet/Ansible/Salt/... Plan B: « the revolution will be containerized » ● write a Dockerfile to install $YOUR_CM ● … and run $YOUR_CM as part of build process ● deploy fully baked images Faster to deploy Easier to rollback
  51. 51. Outline ● Whom is this for? ● What's the problem? ● What's a Container? ● Docker 101 ● Docker images ● Docker deployment ● Docker future
  52. 52. Running containers SSH to Docker host and manual pull+run ● REST API (feel free to add SSL certs, OAUth...) ● maestro, maestro-ng (https://github.com/signalfuse/maestro-ng) ● OpenStack Nova ● OpenStack Heat ● who's next? OpenShift, CloudFoundry? ● multiple Open Source PAAS built on Docker ●
  53. 53. Orchestration & Service Discovery ● you can name your containers ● they get a generated name by default – – ● 0.6: red_ant, gold_monkey... 0.7: angry_linus, naughty_tesla... you can link your containers docker run -d -name frontdb mysqlimage docker run -d -link frontdb:sql nginximage → container frontweb gets one bazillion environment vars
  54. 54. Orchestration & Service Discovery roadmap ● ● ● currently single-host problem: how do I link with containers on other hosts? solution: ambassador pattern! – app container runs in its happy place – other things (Docker, containers...) plumb it
  55. 55. Orchestration roadmap ● ● ● currently static problem: what if I want to… move a container? do a master/slave failover? WebScale my MangoDB cluster? solution: dynamic discovery!
  56. 56. Multi-host Docker deployments I could give a full talk about this topic (and actually I did once)
  57. 57. Outline ● Whom is this for? ● What's the problem? ● What's a Container? ● Docker 101 ● Docker images ● Docker deployment ● Docker future
  58. 58. Docker: the community ● Docker: >240 contributors ● Docker inc.: <20 engineers ● latest milestone (0.7): >100 contributors ● ~50% of all commits by external contributors ● GitHub repository: >1000 forks ...and counting!
  59. 59. Docker long-term roadmap Docker 1.0: ● remove AUFS, THINP, LXC, etc. – – ● storage? cp! – ● execution? chroot! we can run everywhere o/ re-add everything as plugins discover and interconnect hosts and services through docker.io
  60. 60. Thank you! Questions? http://docker.io/ http://docker.com/ https://github.com/dotcloud/docker @docker @jpetazzo

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