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Docker:
an insider view
Google Developers Group Meetup
November 2013, Google West Campus 2
Michael Crosby — @crosbymichael
Jérôme Petazzoni — @jpetazzo
Victor Vieux — @vieux
Outline
●
●
●
●
●
●

what is Docker
why it is written in Go
some implementation details
drawbacks
more drawbacks
discussion
What’s Docker?
Docker solves the “Matrix from Hell”
Docker solves the “Matrix from Hell”
Docker solves the “Matrix from Hell”
static website

?

?

?

?

?

?

web frontend

?

?

?

?

?

?

background
workers

?

?

?

?

?

?

user DB

?

?

?

?

?

?

analytics DB

?

?

?

?

?

?

queue

?

?

?

?

?

?

dev VM

QA server

single
prod
server

on-site
cluster

public
cloud

contributor laptop
Real-world analogy: containers
Worldwide shipping:
another Matrix from Hell
clothes

?

?

?

?

wine

?

?

?

?

coffee

?

?

?

?

electronics

?

?

?

?

cars

?

?

?

?

raw materials

?

?

?

?

ships

trains

trucks

storage
Solution:
the intermodal shipping container
clothes
wine
coffee
electronics
cars
raw materials
ships

trains

trucks

storage
Solution to the deployment problem:
the Linux container
What’s a Linux container?
High level approach
Chroot on steroids
● normal processes, but isolated
● share kernel with the host
● no device emulation (neither PV nor HVM)
● doesn’t need a /sbin/init
(runs the app/DB/whatever directly)
“Application Container”
What’s a Linux container?
Low level approach
Lightweight Virtual Machine
● own process space
● own network interface
● can run stuff as root
● can have its own /sbin/init
(different from the host)
“Machine Container”
Separation of concerns:
Dave, from the dev team
●
●
●
●
●
●
●

my code
my framework
my libraries
my system dependencies
my packaging system
my distro
my data
I don’t care where it’s running or how.
Separation of concerns:
Oscar, from the ops team
●
●
●
●
●

logs
backups
remote access
monitoring
uptime
I don’t care what’s running in it.
OK, so what’s Docker?
Runtime for Linux containers
jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ sudo docker run -t -i ubuntu bash
root@092ee318746f:/#
jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ sudo docker run -d johncosta/redis
c6000fa5ddc6
jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ sudo docker inspect c6000fa5ddc6
...
"NetworkSettings": {
"IPAddress": "172.17.0.8",
"Ports": {
"6379/tcp": null
}
...
Standard format for containers,
and a place to share them
● fetch an image from the registry with
“docker pull”
● enter the image with “docker run”,
do some changes
● record those changes with “docker commit”,
repeat as many time as needed
● then share the result with “docker push”,
on the public registry or on a private one
Why Go?
The Five Reasons Why We Used Go
Why Go?
1) static compilation
● “go build” will embed everything you need
(no more “install this in order to run my stuff”)
● … except dynamic libraries if you use cgo
(cgo lets you use any C library)
● and … except libc
(but who doesn’t have libc?)
● you can have a real static binary
(if you hack the build process a bit…)
Why Go?
1) static compilation
● easier to install, easier to test, easier to adopt
● good candidate for bootstrap
(i.e. the first installed thing,
which will install the other things)
● “no dependencies? me gusta!”
-- Anonymous BOFH
Why Go?
2) neutral
●
●
●
●

it’s not C++
it’s not Python
it’s not Ruby
it’s not Java
Why Go?
3) it has what we need
● good asynchronous primitives
(wait for I/O, wait for processes…)
● low-level interfaces
(manage processes, syscalls…)
● extensive standard library and data types
● strong duck typing
Why Go?
4) full development environment
Go addresses multiple issues of the development
workflow.
●
●
●
●
●

go doc (see documentation for any package)
go get (fetch dependencies on github etc.)
go fmt (solve “tabs vs. spaces” once for all)
go test (runs all Test* functions in *_test.go)
go run (rapid script-like prototyping)
Why Go?
5) multi-arch build
...without pre-processors
_linux.go
_darwin.go
Drawbacks
Because that’s the
most interesting thing
in Amazon reviews
“Go doesn’t solve any problem”
Jonn Mostovoy @podmostom29 Sep
@benoitc @arnaudsj in not solving any problems.
Everything they claim to solve is better solved in Dv2.
0, Erlang or will be solved in Rust..

But...
● Go is easier than Erlang
● Go is more real than Rust
● Don’t know about D 2.0 though!
maps aren’t thread-safe
● deliberate decision: they’re fast
(and it’s up to you to ensure that they’re safe)
● you have to protect access with sync.Mutex
● or, use channels of channels!
m := NewMap()
response := make(chan string)
m<-Get{Key: “fortytwo”, Replyto: response}
value := <-response
go get
● can’t pin a particular revision
● Docker had to vendor all dependencies
(i.e. import their source code in our repo)
● must deal with private repos manually
go test
● can’t have destructors/cleanups/… in tests
● use a test named “z_final_test.go”
● … which doesn’t work too well when running
individual tests!
go build
● it’s painful to build multiple binaries,
when they share some common code
● each program has to be in its own package,
and package must be “main”
● you have to put shared/common stuff aside,
or use named import tricks (bleh)
flag package
● doesn’t handle short/long options
(-o --option)
● doesn’t handle options grouping
(-abc -a -b -c)
● seriously just don’t use it
(use getopt or go-flags instead)
unless your primary target is Plan9 of course!
no IDE

Let’s ask Samuel Jackson
what he thinks about it
Error handling can be verbose
if err := openFile(); err != nil {
return err
}
if err := readAll(); err != nil {
return err
}
if err := closeFile(); err != nil {
return err
}
...
Error handling
● panic / recover
(don’t abuse it; only use it internally!)
● deploy one-off utility types
http://talks.golang.org/2013/bestpractices.slide#5
can’t select on readers/writers
select {
case data = <-inputChannel:
…
case data = <-otherInputChannel:
…
case data = connection.Read():
…
}
can’t select on readers/writers
● for readers:
○ start a goroutine with access to an output channel
○ the goroutine do blocking reads on the readers…
○ …and pushes the results on the output channel

● for writers:
○ adaptation is left as an exercise for the reader

→ reduce everything to channels!
Some useful resources:
● The Holy Reference:
http://golang.org/ref/spec
● Some useful patterns:
http://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html
● Some best practices:
http://talks.golang.org/2013/bestpractices.slide
● Embedded documentation:
godoc -http=:6060 & chrome http://localhost:6060

Michael Crosby — @crosbymichael
Jérôme Petazzoni — @jpetazzo
Victor Vieux — @vieux
Thank you!
Questions?
Michael Crosby — @crosbymichael
Jérôme Petazzoni — @jpetazzo
Victor Vieux — @vieux

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Docker and Go: why did we decide to write Docker in Go?

  • 1. Docker: an insider view Google Developers Group Meetup November 2013, Google West Campus 2 Michael Crosby — @crosbymichael Jérôme Petazzoni — @jpetazzo Victor Vieux — @vieux
  • 2. Outline ● ● ● ● ● ● what is Docker why it is written in Go some implementation details drawbacks more drawbacks discussion
  • 4. Docker solves the “Matrix from Hell”
  • 5. Docker solves the “Matrix from Hell”
  • 6. Docker solves the “Matrix from Hell” static website ? ? ? ? ? ? web frontend ? ? ? ? ? ? background workers ? ? ? ? ? ? user DB ? ? ? ? ? ? analytics DB ? ? ? ? ? ? queue ? ? ? ? ? ? dev VM QA server single prod server on-site cluster public cloud contributor laptop
  • 8. Worldwide shipping: another Matrix from Hell clothes ? ? ? ? wine ? ? ? ? coffee ? ? ? ? electronics ? ? ? ? cars ? ? ? ? raw materials ? ? ? ? ships trains trucks storage
  • 9. Solution: the intermodal shipping container clothes wine coffee electronics cars raw materials ships trains trucks storage
  • 10. Solution to the deployment problem: the Linux container
  • 11. What’s a Linux container? High level approach Chroot on steroids ● normal processes, but isolated ● share kernel with the host ● no device emulation (neither PV nor HVM) ● doesn’t need a /sbin/init (runs the app/DB/whatever directly) “Application Container”
  • 12. What’s a Linux container? Low level approach Lightweight Virtual Machine ● own process space ● own network interface ● can run stuff as root ● can have its own /sbin/init (different from the host) “Machine Container”
  • 13. Separation of concerns: Dave, from the dev team ● ● ● ● ● ● ● my code my framework my libraries my system dependencies my packaging system my distro my data I don’t care where it’s running or how.
  • 14. Separation of concerns: Oscar, from the ops team ● ● ● ● ● logs backups remote access monitoring uptime I don’t care what’s running in it.
  • 15. OK, so what’s Docker?
  • 16. Runtime for Linux containers jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ sudo docker run -t -i ubuntu bash root@092ee318746f:/# jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ sudo docker run -d johncosta/redis c6000fa5ddc6 jpetazzo@tarrasque:~$ sudo docker inspect c6000fa5ddc6 ... "NetworkSettings": { "IPAddress": "172.17.0.8", "Ports": { "6379/tcp": null } ...
  • 17. Standard format for containers, and a place to share them ● fetch an image from the registry with “docker pull” ● enter the image with “docker run”, do some changes ● record those changes with “docker commit”, repeat as many time as needed ● then share the result with “docker push”, on the public registry or on a private one
  • 18. Why Go? The Five Reasons Why We Used Go
  • 19. Why Go? 1) static compilation ● “go build” will embed everything you need (no more “install this in order to run my stuff”) ● … except dynamic libraries if you use cgo (cgo lets you use any C library) ● and … except libc (but who doesn’t have libc?) ● you can have a real static binary (if you hack the build process a bit…)
  • 20. Why Go? 1) static compilation ● easier to install, easier to test, easier to adopt ● good candidate for bootstrap (i.e. the first installed thing, which will install the other things) ● “no dependencies? me gusta!” -- Anonymous BOFH
  • 21. Why Go? 2) neutral ● ● ● ● it’s not C++ it’s not Python it’s not Ruby it’s not Java
  • 22. Why Go? 3) it has what we need ● good asynchronous primitives (wait for I/O, wait for processes…) ● low-level interfaces (manage processes, syscalls…) ● extensive standard library and data types ● strong duck typing
  • 23. Why Go? 4) full development environment Go addresses multiple issues of the development workflow. ● ● ● ● ● go doc (see documentation for any package) go get (fetch dependencies on github etc.) go fmt (solve “tabs vs. spaces” once for all) go test (runs all Test* functions in *_test.go) go run (rapid script-like prototyping)
  • 24. Why Go? 5) multi-arch build ...without pre-processors _linux.go _darwin.go
  • 25. Drawbacks Because that’s the most interesting thing in Amazon reviews
  • 26. “Go doesn’t solve any problem” Jonn Mostovoy @podmostom29 Sep @benoitc @arnaudsj in not solving any problems. Everything they claim to solve is better solved in Dv2. 0, Erlang or will be solved in Rust.. But... ● Go is easier than Erlang ● Go is more real than Rust ● Don’t know about D 2.0 though!
  • 27. maps aren’t thread-safe ● deliberate decision: they’re fast (and it’s up to you to ensure that they’re safe) ● you have to protect access with sync.Mutex ● or, use channels of channels! m := NewMap() response := make(chan string) m<-Get{Key: “fortytwo”, Replyto: response} value := <-response
  • 28. go get ● can’t pin a particular revision ● Docker had to vendor all dependencies (i.e. import their source code in our repo) ● must deal with private repos manually
  • 29. go test ● can’t have destructors/cleanups/… in tests ● use a test named “z_final_test.go” ● … which doesn’t work too well when running individual tests!
  • 30. go build ● it’s painful to build multiple binaries, when they share some common code ● each program has to be in its own package, and package must be “main” ● you have to put shared/common stuff aside, or use named import tricks (bleh)
  • 31. flag package ● doesn’t handle short/long options (-o --option) ● doesn’t handle options grouping (-abc -a -b -c) ● seriously just don’t use it (use getopt or go-flags instead) unless your primary target is Plan9 of course!
  • 32. no IDE Let’s ask Samuel Jackson what he thinks about it
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35. Error handling can be verbose if err := openFile(); err != nil { return err } if err := readAll(); err != nil { return err } if err := closeFile(); err != nil { return err } ...
  • 36. Error handling ● panic / recover (don’t abuse it; only use it internally!) ● deploy one-off utility types http://talks.golang.org/2013/bestpractices.slide#5
  • 37. can’t select on readers/writers select { case data = <-inputChannel: … case data = <-otherInputChannel: … case data = connection.Read(): … }
  • 38. can’t select on readers/writers ● for readers: ○ start a goroutine with access to an output channel ○ the goroutine do blocking reads on the readers… ○ …and pushes the results on the output channel ● for writers: ○ adaptation is left as an exercise for the reader → reduce everything to channels!
  • 39. Some useful resources: ● The Holy Reference: http://golang.org/ref/spec ● Some useful patterns: http://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html ● Some best practices: http://talks.golang.org/2013/bestpractices.slide ● Embedded documentation: godoc -http=:6060 & chrome http://localhost:6060 Michael Crosby — @crosbymichael Jérôme Petazzoni — @jpetazzo Victor Vieux — @vieux
  • 40. Thank you! Questions? Michael Crosby — @crosbymichael Jérôme Petazzoni — @jpetazzo Victor Vieux — @vieux