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J. Parker Emphysema Presentation Powerpoint


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J. Parker Emphysema Presentation Powerpoint

  2. 2. Emphysema Is A Common Disease <ul><li>Affects 2 out of 1,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>1.8 million Americans in the United States have emphysema. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema is ranked 15th among chronic conditions or diseases which limit people’s daily activity </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>More common in men vs. women </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show that the amount of women with the disease is gradually increasing </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>44% of people with emphysema have reported that their daily activities have been greatly limited due to the disease </li></ul>
  5. 5. Emphysema is a lung disease that is classified as a COPD. (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) <ul><li>There are several things that cause emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>It can be inherited </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged exposure to environmental toxins </li></ul><ul><li>and........... </li></ul>
  6. 6. The #1 cause is cigarette smoking <ul><li>82% of cases are related to smoking </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pathophysiology of Emphysema <ul><li>C ontinued exposure to noxious substances, such as cigarette smoke, causes destruction of the walls of the alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>The alveolar membrane surface area decreases, thus lessening the area available for gas exchange </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Progressive loss of the respiratory membrane results in an increased ratio of air to lung tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion defects start to occur </li></ul><ul><li>The number of pulmonary capillaries in the lung is decreased and that increases the resistance to pulmonary blood flow </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Pulmonary hypertension then occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Right heart failure may occur </li></ul><ul><li>Cor pulmonale (hypertrophy of the right ventricle) </li></ul><ul><li>DEATH </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Causes weakening of the walls of the small bronchioles and alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>When the walls are destroyed, the lungs loose their capacity to recoil and air becomes trapped in the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Residual volume increases </li></ul><ul><li>Vital capacity remains about normal </li></ul><ul><li>The destroyed lung tissue (called blebbs ) results in alveolar collapse </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>To counteract alveolar collapse, patients tend to breath through pursed lips. </li></ul><ul><li>This creates a continued positive pressure and prevents alveolar collapse </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>PaO2 further decreases, which may lead to increased red blood cell production and polycythemia (an excess of red blood cells) </li></ul><ul><li>PaCO2 also increases and becomes chronically elevated </li></ul><ul><li>The body then depends on the hypoxic drive to control respirations </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema is characterized by irreversible airway obstruction </li></ul>
  13. 13. Signs And Symptoms <ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>Wheezing </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic mucus production (chronic bronchitis) </li></ul><ul><li>Constant coughing or need to clear the throat </li></ul>
  14. 14. Most Common Health Complications <ul><li>Respiratory tract infections </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory failure </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul>
  15. 15. Physical Changes <ul><li>The most common physical change may be in the chest, which takes on a barrel-like appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Bluish discoloration of the lips and nail beds </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling and increased fluid in the lungs </li></ul>
  16. 16. Treatment <ul><li>Bronchodilators </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Lung Transplant (very few patients qualify) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Prevention <ul><li>Live away from polluted urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>#1 prevention is to STOP SMOKING </li></ul>