From waste to products: some           examples using mild technologies       JP Bergé1, C. Donnay-Moreno1, H. Nguyen Thi ...
CONTEXT                                                         Primary   Biomass               Processing                ...
CONTEXT                                                                Primary       Biomass                  Processing  ...
CONTEXT                                                           Primary   Biomass                Processing             ...
CONTEXT                       By-products                                                       Secondary          Convers...
CONTEXT                      By-products                                                       Secondary     Enzymatic Hyd...
METHODOLOGY                                                          By-products                   Analysis               ...
METHODOLOGY                                                          By-products                   Analysis               ...
METHODOLOGY                                                          By-products                   Analysis               ...
METHODOLOGY                                                           By-products                   Analysis              ...
METHODOLOGY    Raw material                                              Enzyme     (by products)                         ...
METHODOLOGY                        OILY                    AQUEOUS                      SLUDGE           FAO Expert meetin...
Tuna                                                            Tuna Head                   Analysis                      ...
Tuna       Tuna head (1)                                      Protamex (0,1%)   (industrial by products)                  ...
Tuna                 DH = 23%                                           OILY   65% of total Proteins             AQUEOUS  ...
Tuna                                                          73% Proteins                                 OILY           ...
Tuna                                OILY       Shrimp             AQUEOUS               Nuoc Mam        feed              ...
Tuna   Nuoc Mam                                         ± hydrolysates 2 hours          Anchovies + salt               ± h...
Tuna        FAO Expert meeting on fish technology   19       Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
Tuna        FAO Expert meeting on fish technology   20       Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
Tuna        FAO Expert meeting on fish technology   21       Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
Cuttlefish                                                            Cuttlefish                                          ...
Cuttlefish    Cuttlefish viscera (1)                                    Pepsin (0,1%)     (industrial by products)        ...
Cuttlefish                  DH = 9%                                            OILY    71% of total Proteins             A...
Cuttlefish                                                           46% Proteins                                  OILY   ...
Cuttlefish                                 OILY        Feed ?             AQUEOUS               Membrane technology       ...
Cuttlefish       Membrane: molecular weight fractionation BDO                                                             ...
Shrimp                                                              Shrimp                                                ...
Shrimp     Shrimp head (1)                                         Pepsin (0,1%)    (industrial by products)              ...
Shrimp                                           OILY   73% of total Proteins                                      AQUEOUS...
Shrimp                                                           54% Proteins                                  OILY       ...
Shrimp                                   OILY         Poultry             AQUEOUS               Antibacterial          fee...
Shrimp          FAO Expert meeting on fish technology   33         Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
Sole                                                               Sole                                                   ...
Sole       Sole backbone (1)                                      Protamex (0,1%)       (industrial by products)          ...
Sole                                                 OILY     58- 65% of total Proteins             AQUEOUS  61 - 75% of t...
Sole          Food                          OILY                                                                 Sensory a...
Sole   Sensory analysis              Strategy                                   Experimental conditions           Descript...
Sole  Aromatic characterization                 Extraction of volatile components :                Solid phase micro-extra...
Sole   Aromatic characterization                        Identification – Semi-quantification          GC - MS - FID- Ident...
Sole        FAO Expert meeting on fish technology   41       Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
Sole        FAO Expert meeting on fish technology   42       Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
Sole        FAO Expert meeting on fish technology   43       Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
CONCLUSIONControlled hydrolysis can   – Reduce environmental impact of wastes   – Convert wastes into products for feed or...
CONCLUSIONBy Comparison to traditional silage   –   Much more rapid   –   Less oil in final product   –   Better nutrition...
PERSPECTIVESEnzyme technology is now well establishedVersatile uses of enzymes is possibleFood and Feed applications can b...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT   Many thanks to:         Carole Prost (ENITIAA)         Sensory analysis panel                FAO Expert ...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION        FAO Expert meeting on fish technology   48       Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
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From waste to product

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Presentation given as invited speaker during the FAO meeting on fish technology (November 2008, Agadir,, Morocco)

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From waste to product

  1. 1. From waste to products: some examples using mild technologies JP Bergé1, C. Donnay-Moreno1, H. Nguyen Thi My1,2, Z. Randriamahatody1,3, E. Soufi-Kechaou4,5, K. S. B. Sylla1,61 Département Sciences et Technologie Alimentaires Marines, IFREMER centre de Nantes, France2 Laboratoire de technologie de transformation, Université des pêches Nha Trang, Vietnama3 Laboratoire de biochimie fondamentale et appliquée, Université d’Antanarivo, Antanarivo, Madagascar4 Université de Nantes, GEPEA UMR-CNRS 6144, Saint Nazaire, France5 Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Laboratoire de sciences des matiériaux et environnement, Sfax, Tunisia6 Service d’hygiène et industrie des denrées alimentaires d’origine animale, ecole inter-états des sciences et médecine vétérinaires de Dakar, Dakar, Sénégal FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 1 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  2. 2. CONTEXT Primary Biomass Processing Products 40-60% By-products & By-catch Wastes FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 2 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  3. 3. CONTEXT Primary Biomass Processing Products 40-60% By-products & By-catch WastesDiscards Wastes Feed Fertilizer FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 3 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  4. 4. CONTEXT Primary Biomass Processing Products 40-60% By-products & By-catch Wastes Secondary Conversion Products FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 4 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  5. 5. CONTEXT By-products Secondary Conversion Products FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 5 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  6. 6. CONTEXT By-products Secondary Enzymatic Hydrolysis Products FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 6 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  7. 7. METHODOLOGY By-products Analysis Quality Quantity Protein Lipid Polymer Mineral Food grade Non Food Grade Seasonality Geography … FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 7 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  8. 8. METHODOLOGY By-products Analysis Quality Quantity Protein Lipid Polymer Mineral Food grade Non Food Grade Seasonality Geography … FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 8 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  9. 9. METHODOLOGY By-products Analysis Quality Quantity Protein Lipid Polymer Mineral Food grade Non Food Grade Seasonality Geography … FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 9 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  10. 10. METHODOLOGY By-products Analysis Quality Quantity Protein Lipid Polymer Mineral Food grade Non Food Grade Seasonality Geography … General Strategy FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 10 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  11. 11. METHODOLOGY Raw material Enzyme (by products) (large spectra protease) Water Temperature Time (-1 / +1) (-1 / +1) Reaction FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 11 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  12. 12. METHODOLOGY OILY AQUEOUS SLUDGE FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 12 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  13. 13. Tuna Tuna Head Analysis Quality Quantity Protein Lipid Mineral 16% 11% 11% Polymer Food grade Non Food Grade Seasonality Geography … (41%) (29%) (27%) Aquafeed + Fermented sauce FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 13 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  14. 14. Tuna Tuna head (1) Protamex (0,1%) (industrial by products) (large spectra protease) Water (0,5) Temperature Time (45°C) (≤ 6h) Reaction FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 14 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  15. 15. Tuna DH = 23% OILY 65% of total Proteins AQUEOUS 45% of total dry matter SLUDGE FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 15 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  16. 16. Tuna 73% Proteins OILY AQUEOUS 1% Lipids 27% Proteins 25% Minerals 64% Lipids SLUDGE 7% Minerals FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 16 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  17. 17. Tuna OILY Shrimp AQUEOUS Nuoc Mam feed SLUDGE FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 17 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  18. 18. Tuna Nuoc Mam ± hydrolysates 2 hours Anchovies + salt ± hydrolysates 3 hours ± hydrolysates 6 hours Days of production 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Nitrogen Chemistry: total, formol, amino, ammonical Sensory: color, odor, savor Nitrogen amino Nitrogen total FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 18 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  19. 19. Tuna FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 19 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  20. 20. Tuna FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 20 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  21. 21. Tuna FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 21 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  22. 22. Cuttlefish Cuttlefish viscera Analysis Quality Quantity Protein Lipid Mineral 16% 5% 2% Polymer Food grade Non Food Grade Seasonality Geography … (70%) (22%) (8%) Environment + Feed? FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 22 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  23. 23. Cuttlefish Cuttlefish viscera (1) Pepsin (0,1%) (industrial by products) (pH = 2) Water (1) Temperature Time (45°C) (≤ 2h) Reaction FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 23 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  24. 24. Cuttlefish DH = 9% OILY 71% of total Proteins AQUEOUS 60% of total dry matter SLUDGE FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 24 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  25. 25. Cuttlefish 46% Proteins OILY AQUEOUS 25% Lipids 27% Proteins 28% Minerals 64% Lipids SLUDGE 7% Minerals FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 25 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  26. 26. Cuttlefish OILY Feed ? AQUEOUS Membrane technology SLUDGE FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 26 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  27. 27. Cuttlefish Membrane: molecular weight fractionation BDO RETENTATE CDO SOLUTION DP PERMEATE FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 27 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  28. 28. Shrimp Shrimp head Analysis Quality Quantity Protein Lipid Chitin Mineral 16% 5% 2% Food grade Non Food Grade Seasonality Geography … (49%) (19%) (15%) (17%) Chitin + Feed FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 28 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  29. 29. Shrimp Shrimp head (1) Pepsin (0,1%) (industrial by products) (pH = 2) Water (1) Temperature Time (4O°C) (≤ 2h) Reaction FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 29 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  30. 30. Shrimp OILY 73% of total Proteins AQUEOUS 61% of total dry matter SLUDGE “SHELL” FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 30 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  31. 31. Shrimp 54% Proteins OILY 6% Lipids 38% Proteins AQUEOUS 40% Minerals 45% Lipids 11% Proteins SLUDGE 12% Minerals “SHELL” 10% Lipids 4% Minerals FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 31 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  32. 32. Shrimp OILY Poultry AQUEOUS Antibacterial feed SLUDGE “SHELL” Chitin FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 32 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  33. 33. Shrimp FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 33 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  34. 34. Sole Sole Backbone Analysis Quality Quantity Protein Lipid Mineral 11% 0,6% 1,5% Polymer Food grade Non Food Grade Seasonality Geography … (70%) (4%) (10%) Food FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 34 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  35. 35. Sole Sole backbone (1) Protamex (0,1%) (industrial by products) large spectra protease Water (1) Temperature Time (40 or 50°C) (3 or 6h) Reaction FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 35 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  36. 36. Sole OILY 58- 65% of total Proteins AQUEOUS 61 - 75% of total dry matter SLUDGE FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 36 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  37. 37. Sole Food OILY Sensory analysis & AQUEOUS + Aromatic characterization Feed (poultry) SLUDGE FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 37 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  38. 38. Sole Sensory analysis Strategy Experimental conditions Descriptors - Trained panel of 14 people - 4 samples : Validation : consensus - T40 t3 Notation - T40 t6 - T50 t3 - T50 t6 ANOVA PCA - “sniffing” characterization Discriminative Characterization descriptors of samples FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 38 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  39. 39. Sole Aromatic characterization Extraction of volatile components : Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) - 20 min equilibrium Volatile components adsorbed on SPME CAR/PDMS fiber - 30 min adsorption Head space 20 ml of hydrolysate Water bath at 30°C FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 39 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  40. 40. Sole Aromatic characterization Identification – Semi-quantification GC - MS - FID- Identification by MS and RI- Internal standard- Semi-quantification FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 40 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  41. 41. Sole FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 41 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  42. 42. Sole FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 42 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  43. 43. Sole FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 43 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  44. 44. CONCLUSIONControlled hydrolysis can – Reduce environmental impact of wastes – Convert wastes into products for feed or food purpose – Offer different range of product compared to “classical” process FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 44 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  45. 45. CONCLUSIONBy Comparison to traditional silage – Much more rapid – Less oil in final product – Better nutritional value (Trp and Lys increases) – More concentrated product – Oil can be separated and recovered (in case of fatty biomass)By comparison to “fishmeal” – Less energy consuming – Preservation of labile component (vitamin, antioxidant,…) – Food products FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 45 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  46. 46. PERSPECTIVESEnzyme technology is now well establishedVersatile uses of enzymes is possibleFood and Feed applications can be obtainedFish industry can achieved more added value fish fractions FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 46 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  47. 47. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Many thanks to: Carole Prost (ENITIAA) Sensory analysis panel FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 47 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008
  48. 48. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION FAO Expert meeting on fish technology 48 Agadir – Morocco, 24-28 November 2008

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