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Smart cities, mobility and 5g: Is our world really changing?


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Keynote presentation for the IEEE Engineering Day 2017 at ISEL - Lisbon.

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Smart cities, mobility and 5g: Is our world really changing?

  1. 1. Smart Cities, Mobility and 5G: Is our world really changing? João Paulo Barraca
  2. 2. • Assistant Professor @ DETI.UA • Researcher @ IT since 2003 • ATNoG: • Recent Projects • DEVNF: Orchestration of NFV • SmartEntercom: SDN and NFV in actual products • MEC & vHGW: Mobile Edge Computing, Virtual Home Gateway PoCs • @CRUISE: Telemetry for Advanced Traffic System • LIFE-PAYT: IoT for Pay-You-Throw systems in 5 cities • EngageSKA/SKA: Research for the largest Radio Telescope • AENEAS: European science network and e-Infraestructure • SCoT: IoT Platform with Management and Security • PASMO: Demonst. IoT Playground in a coastal region • SGH: IoT enabled Smart Home Appliances • SOCIAL: Secure Software solutions for Social Support
  3. 3. M2M IoT Software Networks Future Internet Big Data
  4. 4. What are we doing? • Helping designing and building the world largest Radio Telescope • Generates 1 Exabyte per day that must compressed, indexed, transported out of a desert ;) • Prototyping 5G Networks, creating PoCs with Telcos and in real world scenarios • ICN, SDN, OpenStack, NFV, Traffic Steering, MEC, Car-to-car • Building IoT platforms and subsystems with strong management and security • Deploying sensors in factories, farms, greenhouses, sheep, goats, Univ. campus, water supplies, drones, appliances, beehives, lamps, buildings, roads, beaches, bridges, trash bins, lavatories, people, … • Developing large scale processing and storage systems • Data mining, Machine Learning, Failure Prediction
  5. 5. • Cities are under pressure from multiple fronts • Ageing population • Sustainability and Climate Changes • Economic restructuring • Delocalized businesses • Public spending efficiency • Result: increased management complexity, higher demand, higher density Image: Flickr, Deensel, CC BY 2.0
  6. 6. Smart Cities • Smart thinking is changing the city fabric • Do not rely on assumptions, hunches • Rely on hard data • Rethink processes, roles, methods, spaces…
  7. 7. Technology driven • But not focused on technology • Do no rely on human processes • Measure, create policies, and automate as much as possible • Create new use-cases and promote sustainable behaviors PAYT life
  8. 8. Smarter cities are here to stay • 70% of the world’s population will be living in cities by 2050 • Smarter Cities are not a trend. They are an actual need Image: ZypBike, Bikeemotion
  9. 9. Keyword: Digitalization • You cannot manage what you cannot measure • Acquire data through a network of sensors • Solutions should be systematic • Use algorithms and processes that implement policies • Humans should focus on the policies
  10. 10. Are cities changing? YES BUT: they cannot become smart with current technology (At least not without having to rob a bank and destroy the landscape) • They are not simply growing or adding technology. • Empowering citizens • Becoming programmable • Providing APIs and Real Time Data • Rethinking their role in the citizens life • Relying on data Image: Miroslav Petrasko
  11. 11. Challenges: Device Lifecycle • Sensors have limited duration (5-10y) and are a source of pollutants • We expect to have thousands/millions in a city • This results in real costs for municipalities
  12. 12. Challenges: Data Ownership and Privacy • Are we able to identify citizens from data? • Do we record personal information (name, gender, special needs)? • Is data going to be stored in a cloud? • Is data going to be shared? A YES to any of this questions creates a Legal Issue!
  13. 13. Challenges: Connectivity: Narrow Band • Long range in optimal scenarios (not cities) • But sensors will mostly be inside buildings and roads • No clear operation/business model • Very high latency and low duty cycle • Very low coverage density for most solutions • SIGFOX: Cost per device, cost per connection, low bandwidth Image: TTN Availability Map – November 2017
  14. 14. 5G as an Enabler • 5G acts as enabler for several verticals WITH social impact • Automotive • Media and Entertainment • Factories X.0 • Energy Grids • E-Health Image: Flickr, ignatgorazd
  15. 15. Image: 5G IA
  16. 16. Device Density devices/km2 Throughput 1 1K 1M Increased Coverage Higher Peak Throughput Higher Capacity 10Gb 1Gb 10kb New RAN Isolated Rural Urban Dense Very Dense (Smart City?)
  17. 17. 5G Objectives: 99.999% reliability • Cellular networks can become critical infrastructures • Connected factories • V2X communications • (or are going towards WAVE?) • Assisted Driving • Issue: what about liability?
  18. 18. 5G Objectives: 500 km/h Generalized, high speed mass transit Image: Sam Churchill
  19. 19. 5G Objectives: 10Tb/s/km2 • Office and home 5G internet • 10Gb peak: Rich multimedia streams (VoD, IPTv) Resident Density
  20. 20. 5G Objectives: 1M clients/km2 • Cities are becoming denser • ~30 Mega Cities by 2050 • Events are becoming larger • Everyone/everything will be connected Job Density
  21. 21. 5G Objectives: Increased Coverage • Everything will be connected • Parking spaces • Appliances • Cars, Fleets • Doors • Buildings, Roads, Street signs • Pets... Image: Custom Connect
  22. 22. Is 5G disruptive? Maybe…. Networks are evolving and 5G is another (challenging) evolution. Software Defined Networks are not new, then we have more capacity, higher bitrate, higher coverage, lower latency...
  23. 23. Mobility • A key mechanism for telco networks • Capacity planning • Monitoring systems • Management mechanisms… • Increases risk of service unavailability • With impact to the entire stack • 5ms or 1ms latency (with ho?) • 99.999% reliability (during ho?) • 1M clients/km2 (moving?) • At 500km/h? Image: Flickr, inefect69
  24. 24. Mobility
  25. 25. 5G? Image: TEKTELIC Communications, Inc.
  26. 26. Mobility • Higher density requires more expensive interference planning • May require autonomous adaptation by cells • Higher density results in more mobility events • With common localized flash peaks (events, restaurants) • Selective traffic offload is of particular interest to improve capacity • Exploit Wi-Fi through Wired backhaul
  27. 27. Mobility Today • Single point of attachment for data sessions • Mobility handled at lower stack level
  28. 28. Mobility with Virtual Devices • Devices may have state at the network edge • User driven mobility may impact network functions • Traffic Steering, Virtual Function instantiation, VF location GPON Access Network Broadband Network Gateway OLTpGW-I ONT Core Network Customer Virtual Network Infrastructure SDN Controller (OpenDayLight) VIM (OpenStack) Virtual Compute Infrastructure vFW vURLf NFVO Data Center PoP vDHC P vNAT Tunnel Virtual Port
  29. 29. Image: ETSI MEC
  30. 30. Mobility with MEC • Point of attachment near the edge • State present in MEC + N Apps
  31. 31. Mobility with MEC • User mobility has high impact • Move context? • Move code? • Move whole VM? • Don’t move, instantiate a new one?
  32. 32. Networks becoming fundamentally predictive Image: ETSI MEC
  33. 33. Networks becoming fundamentally predictive Image: ETSI MEC
  34. 34. Is our world really changing? We are NOT deploying 5G or Smart Cities for the sake of technology We are enabling new use cases, new business opportunities, improving everything, even if not touched by technology. Our world is actually changing (but it will take some time for technology to fully enable it) (and technology is just evolving)
  35. 35. Thanks João Paulo Barraca Want to help changing the world? Join us!