Understanding PHP memory

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Understanding PHP memory

  1. PHP 5 memory Understand and master
  2. Hello everybody  Julien PAULI  Programming with PHP since early 2000s  Programming in C  PHP Internals programmer/reviewer  PHP 5.5 & 5.6 Release Manager  @julienpauli  Tech blog at jpauli.github.io  jpauli@php.net
  3. What about you ?  Got some Unix/Linux understandings ?  Have already experienced C programming ?  Have already experienced PHP programming ?
  4. What we'll cover together  Memory , what's that ?  bytes, stack, heap, etc.  Measuring a process memory consumption  memory image map analysis  Understanding PHP memory consumption  Zend Memory Manager coming  Measuring PHP memory consumption  from PHP land or from system land
  5. Memory from hardware
  6. Memory from software
  7. Memory in a user process  The Virtual Memory image is divided in segments  text  data  heap  stack
  8. Memory usage can grow  Stack will grow as functions will get called  And will narrow as the calls stop and return  Heap will grow as the programmer will decide  Using dynamic allocation functions (malloc, mmap)  Programmer has to free memory by hand  If not : memory leak
  9. Monitoring memory
  10. Linux memory monitoring  'top' or /proc FS > cat /proc/28754/status VmPeak: 20452 kB VmSize: 20324 kB VmLck: 0 kB VmPin: 0 kB VmHWM: 316 kB VmRSS: 316 kB VmData: 16440 kB VmStk: 136 kB VmExe: 4 kB VmLib: 1664 kB VmPTE: 28 kB VmSwap: 0 kB Size of the VM map (out of total mem) Resident Set Size : Size actually in PM Size of the data segment in VM Size of the stack segment in VM Size of the text segment in VM pid
  11. Going even deeper  Let's show the detailed process memory map : > cat /proc/28754/smaps shared segment private mem shared mem
  12. PHP !
  13. PHP, just a process  PHP is just a process like any other  You then can monitor its memory usage by asking the OS <?php passthru(sprintf('cat /proc/%d/status', getmypid())); <?php function heap() { return shell_exec(sprintf('grep "VmRSS:" /proc/%d/status', getmypid())); }
  14. The PHP model Startup Shutdown Request #1 Request #2 Request #3 Startup Shutdown Request #1 Request #2 Request #3 php-fpm worker#1 php-fpm worker#2
  15. The PHP model  One same process may treat many requests  If the process leaks memory, you'll suffer from that  Request n+1 must know nothing about request n  Need to "flush" the request-allocated memory  Need to track request-bound memory claims  ZendMM is the layer that does the job  Share-nothing architecture : by design.
  16. Inside PHP  PHP internal request-bound heap allocator : Zend Memory Manager
  17. Why a custom layer ?  ZendMM  Allows monitoring of request-bound heap usage by basically counting malloc/free calls  Allows the PHP user to limit the heap mem usage  Allows caching of alloced blocks to prevent memory fragmentation and syscalls  Allows preallocating blocks of well-known-sizes for PHP internal structures to fit-in in an aligned way  Ease memory leaks debugging in core and exts
  18. ZendMM guards and leak tracker  Only works in debug mode PHP  report_memleaks=1 in php.ini  Does NOT replace valgrind
  19. Zend MM test script <?php ini_set('memory_limit', -1); /* unlimited ZendMM heap */ function heap() { return shell_exec(sprintf('grep "VmRSS:" /proc/%d/status', getmypid())); } echo heap(); $a = range(1, 1024*1024); /* Stress memory by allocating */ echo heap(); unset($a); /* Stress memory by freeing */ echo heap();
  20. Zend MM launch test > time USE_ZEND_ALLOC=1 php zendmm.php VmRSS: 9640 kB VmRSS: 159296 kB VmRSS: 10068 kB real 0m0.237s user 0m0.148s sys 0m0.080s > time USE_ZEND_ALLOC=0 php zendmm.php VmRSS: 9608 kB VmRSS: 148988 kB VmRSS: 140804 kB real 0m0.288s user 0m0.176s sys 0m0.108s
  21. Valgrind tests for Symfony2 command  app/console runs lots of PHP code under SF2 >USE_ZEND_ALLOC=1 valgrind php app/console debug:container total heap usage: 84,000 allocs, 84,000 frees, 25,966,154 bytes allocated >USE_ZEND_ALLOC=0 valgrind php app/console debug:container total heap usage: 813,570 allocs, 813,570 frees, 74,579,732 bytes allocated
  22. ZendMM internals
  23. ZendMM benefits  Better memory management  More memory efficient  Far less malloc/free calls  Less context switches, less Kernel stress  Less CPU usage  Less heap fragmentation / compaction  A PHP ~10% faster with ZendMM enabled  Really depends on use-case
  24. Memory manager internals  Layer on top of the heap  Will allocate memory from the heap by chunks of customizable size (segments)  Will use a customizable low level heap (malloc / mmap)
  25. A quick word on ZendMM internals  ZEND_MM_SEG_SIZE env variable to customize segment size  Must be power-of-two aligned  Default value is 256Kb
  26. ZendMM in PHP user land  memory_limit (INI setting)  memory_get_usage(true)  Returns the size of all the allocated segments  memory_get_usage()  Returns the occupied size in all the allocated segments  memory_get_[peak]_usage([real])  Returns the max memory that has been allocated/used. Could have been freed meantime
  27. ZendMM memory monitoring
  28. ini_set('memory_limit', -1); // unlimited memory function get_mem_stats() { printf("Memory usage %.2f Kbn", memory_get_usage() / 1024); if ($segSize = getenv('ZEND_MM_SEG_SIZE')) { printf("Heap segmentation : %d segments of %d bytes (%d Kb used)n", memory_get_usage(1)/$segSize, $segSize, memory_get_usage(1)/1024); } } get_mem_stats(); $a = str_repeat('a', 1024*1024*10); // 10 Mb get_mem_stats(); Adjusting heap segment size
  29. Adjusting heap segment size  Segment size = 256Kb (default value)  Segment size = 4Mb $> ZEND_MM_SEG_SIZE=262144 php /tmp/mem.php Memory usage 221.26 Kb Heap segmentation : 1 segments of 262144 bytes (256 Kb used) Memory usage 10461.47 Kb Heap segmentation : 42 segments of 262144 bytes (10752 Kb used) get_mem_stats(); $a = str_repeat('a', 1024*1024*10); // 10 Mb get_mem_stats(); $> ZEND_MM_SEG_SIZE=4194304 php /tmp/mem.php Memory usage 221.26 Kb Heap segmentation : 1 segments of 4194304 bytes (4096 Kb used) Memory usage 10461.47 Kb Heap segmentation : 4 segments of 4194304 bytes (16384 Kb used)
  30. memory_get_usage() ?  memory_get_usage() tells you how much your allocated blocs consume  They usually don't fill their segment entirely  Thus memory_get_usage(true) shows more  This doesn't count stack  This does only count request-bound memory  This doesn't count linked libraries present in the process memory map  This doesn't show non-request-bound memory
  31. Real memory image  valgrind massif
  32. Massif memory monitoring -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- n time(ms) total(B) useful-heap(B) extra-heap(B) stacks(B) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 309 56 37 19 0 2 341 384 357 27 0 3 376 1,343,992 1,340,371 3,621 0 4 408 1,360,480 1,355,289 5,191 0 5 443 1,376,512 1,367,265 9,247 0 6 471 1,753,976 1,735,671 18,305 0 7 505 2,345,152 2,275,927 69,225 0 8 535 2,405,224 2,329,798 75,426 0 9 570 2,433,408 2,348,849 84,559 0 10 613 2,592,912 2,461,650 131,262 0 11 657 2,681,240 2,534,247 146,993 0
  33. Massif details 94.52% (2,534,247B) (heap allocation functions) malloc/new/new[], --alloc-fns, etc. ->39.11% (1,048,576B) 0x87A7BB: zend_interned_strings_init (zend_string.c:48) | ->17.70% (474,464B) 0x866449: _zend_hash_quick_add_or_update (zend_alloc.h:95) | ->16.48% (441,936B) 0x85F66D: zend_register_functions (zend_API.c:2138) | ->11.93% (320,000B) 0x878625: gc_init (zend_gc.c:124) | ->11.93% (320,000B) 0x8585DF: OnUpdateGCEnabled (zend.c:82) | ->11.93% (320,000B) 0x86E353: zend_register_ini_entries (zend_ini.c:208)
  34. Recommendations / statements  Understand memory_get_usage()  It only shows request-bound allocations, not persistent allocations (that reside through requests)  PHP extensions may allocate persistent memory  Do NOT activate extensions you will not use  Libraries used by PHP may also allocate persistent memory  Use your OS to monitor your process memory accurately
  35. Playing with memory in PHP user land
  36. Master your PHP mem usage  In PHP land ...  all variable types consume memory  every script asked for compilation will eat memory  This memory will be allocated using ZendMM  The memory for parsed script is freed when the request ends  The memory for user variable is freed when the data is not used any more  And here comes the challenge  When isn't the data needed any more ??
  37. Compilation eats memory  Compiling a script eats request-bound memory  If you compile a class, that eats lots of memory  You'd better use that class at runtime  Use an autoloader to be sure <?php $mem = memory_get_usage(); require __DIR__ . '/../vendor/autoload.php'; require __DIR__ . '/../src/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/ContainerBuilder.php' echo memory_get_usage() - $mem . "n"; php app/bar.php 246,692
  38. PHP Variables  Variables are internally zval structs
  39. PHP Variables  What eats memory is what is stored into the zval, not really the zval itself :  A huge string  Tip : a file_get_contents('huge-file') is a huge string  A complex array or object  Resources don't really consume mem in zval <?php /* This consumes sizeof(zval) + 1024 bytes */ $a = str_repeat('a', 1024);
  40. PHP Variables  What you want to avoid is have PHP duplicate the zval  But PHP is kind about that  What you want to happen in PHP freeing the memory ASAP  Should you know when PHP duplicates or frees zval , that's the most important !
  41. zvals and refcount  PHP simply counts how many symbols (PHP vars) point to a zval  This is called the refcount <?php $a = "foo"; $b = $a;
  42. zvals and refcount  PHP uses a CopyOnWrite (COW) system for zvals  Memory is saved  Memory gets allocated only on changes <?php $a = "foo"; $b = $a; $a = 17;
  43. zvals and refcount  PHP frees memory for a zval when its refcount reaches 0  Yes, unset() just refcount-- , that's all <?php $a = "foo"; $b = $a; $c = $b; $b = "bar"; unset($a);
  44. No references needed  You see how smart PHP is with memory ?  It's been designed with that in mind  No references needed to hint PHP !  Don't try to hint PHP with references  References can lead to adverse effects  Force PHP to copy a zval  Prevents PHP from freeing memory of a zval &
  45. Tracking refcount  xdebug_debug_zval()  symfony_zval_info() namespace Foo; class A { public $var = 'varA'; } $a = new A(); xdebug_debug_zval('a'); a: (refcount=1, is_ref=0)=class FooA { public $var = (refcount=2, is_ref=0)='varA'; }
  46. Tracking refcount namespace Foo; class C { public $b; public function __construct(B $b) { $this->b = $b; } } $c = new C($b = new B); xdebug_debug_zval('c'); c: (refcount=1, is_ref=0)=class FooC { public $b = (refcount=2, is_ref=0)=class FooB { } } namespace Foo; class B { } unset($b); xdebug_debug_zval('c'); c: (refcount=1, is_ref=0)=class FooC { } c: (refcount=1, is_ref=0)=class FooC { public $b = (refcount=1, is_ref=0)=class FooB { } } unset($c->b); xdebug_debug_zval('c');
  47. Garbage collector ?  As of PHP5.3 , a garbage collector exists  Used to free circular references  And that's all !  PHP already frees itself your vars as their refcount reaches 0  And it's always been like that
  48. Circular references $a = new A; $b = new B (object) 'A' refcount = 1 $a (object) 'B' refcount = 1 $b
  49. Circular references $a->b = $b; $b->a = $a; (object) 'A' refcount = 2 $a (object) 'B' refcount = 2 $b $b->a $a->b
  50. Circular references  Objects are still in memory but no more PHP var point to them  We can call that a "PHP Userland memory leak" unset($a, $b); (object) 'A' refcount = 1 $b->a (object) 'B' refcount = 1 $a->b
  51. Garbage collector $a = new A; $b = new B; $a->b = $b; $b->a = $a; unset($a, $b); echo gc_collect_cycles(); // 2
  52. PHP references
  53. PHP references main line  Using references (&) in PHP can really fool you  They usually force the engine to duplicate memory containers  Which is bad for performance  Especially when the var container is huge
  54. References mismatch <?php function foo($data) { echo "in function : " . memory_get_usage() . "n"; } echo "Initial memory : " . memory_get_usage() . "n"; $r = range(1, 1024); echo "Array created : " . memory_get_usage() . "n"; foo($r); echo "End of function " . memory_get_usage() . "n"; Initial memory : 227.136 Array created : 374.912 in function : 374.944 End of function 374.944
  55. References mismatch <?php function foo($data) { echo "in function : " . memory_get_usage() . "n"; } echo "Initial memory : " . memory_get_usage() . "n"; $r = range(1, 1024); $r2 = &$r; echo "Array created : " . memory_get_usage() . "n"; foo($r); echo "End of function " . memory_get_usage() . "n"; Initial memory : 227.208 Array created : 375.096 in function : 473.584 End of function 375.128
  56. When does the engine separate ?  In any mismatch case : zval passed to function arginfo decl. zval received in function separated by engine? is_ref=0 refcount = 1 pass_by_ref=0 is_ref=0 refcount = 2 NO is_ref=1 refcount > 1 pass_by_ref=0 is_ref=1 refcount =1 YES is_ref=0 refcount > 1 pass_by_ref=0 is_ref=0 refcount > 1 ++ NO is_ref=0 refcount = 1 pass_by_ref=1 is_ref=1 refcount = 2 YES is_ref=1 refcount > 1 pass_by_ref=1 is_ref=1 refcount > 1 ++ NO is_ref=0 refcount > 1 pass_by_ref=1 is_ref=1 refcount = 2 YES
  57. Symfony_debug to notice mismatches  https://github.com/symfony/debug function bar($var) { } $a = "foo"; $b = &$a; bar($a); Notice: Separating zval for call to function 'bar' in /tmp/memory.php on line 20
  58. foreach behavior
  59. Foreach separation behavior  It happens sometimes foreach() duplicates your variable for iteration  This will eat performances in case of big or complex arrays being iterated  There is nothing special to say about objects implementing Traversable  The behavior is then just yours
  60. foreach iterating array #1  If the variable has a refcount of 1, no duplication is performed by foreach() $a = range(1,1024); echo memory_get_usage() . "n" ; foreach ($a as $v) { if ($v == 1) { echo memory_get_usage() . "n" ; } } echo memory_get_usage() . "n" ; 373936 374056 374056
  61. foreach iterating array #2  If the variable has a refcount >1, foreach() will duplicate it fully for iteration $a = range(1,1024); $b = $a; echo memory_get_usage() . "n" ; foreach ($a as $v) { if ($v == 1) { echo memory_get_usage() . "n" ; } } echo memory_get_usage() . "n" ; 373936 472512 374056
  62. foreach iterating array #3  If the variable is a reference, foreach() will work onto that array and won't perform duplication $a = range(1,1024); $b = &$a; echo memory_get_usage() . "n" ; foreach ($a as $v) { if ($v == 1) { echo memory_get_usage() . "n" ; } } echo memory_get_usage() . "n" ; 373936 374056 374056
  63. Monitoring memory usage  Not much tools exist (for PHP)  memory_get_usage()  OS' help (/proc , pmap , etc...)  Valgrind with massif tool  PHP Extensions  Xdebug  memprof  memtrack
  64. Quick intro to memprof  https://github.com/arnaud-lb/php-memory-profiler $b = range(1, 1024 * 1024); /* a lot of memory */ $b[] = foo(); loader('/Zend/Date.php'); /* a lot of PHP source code */ memprof_dump_callgrind(fopen('/tmp/trace.out', 'w'));
  65. Thank you for listening

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