Unit EDLT115 Learners and LearningAssignment 1 – Reading Response Task Semester 1, 2011 Assignment by Julie Papps Due: Monday April 4, 2011
Task 1: From Table 1 the question I have chosen is:Why is it important that teachers in primary and secondary schools includephysical education in their curriculum?Physical education within the school environment provides children with theopportunity to be involved in fitness activities, sport, and health and drugeducation. It is designed to encourage children to live a healthier and moreenjoyable lifestyle (Burgeson, C., Wechsler, H., Brener, N., Young, J., Spain, C.2009: 279). Hence it is important for teachers to include physical education in thecurriculum because physical education aids children of all ages in development,not just physical, but social, emotional and cognitive development (Krause, K.Bochner, S & Duchesne, S. 2006: 4). Furthermore physical education helps todevelop life skills such as team work, leadership and social interaction. Finally,physical education can support children to avoid diseases such as obesity anddiabetes.Krause, Bochner & Duchesne (2006: 5) illustrate that the development of motorskills is one of the most important physical developments in childhood. It hasbeen shown that physical activity has positive effects on growth and maturationin children. Children who engage in activities such as running, jumping, hopping,skipping, climbing, rolling, throwing and catching show more advanced motorskills, strength, balance, coordination and cardiovascular fitness compared withtheir inactive peers (Kohl III, H & Hobbs, K. 1998: 550). During middle childhoodthe ability to coordinate previously learned motor skills and develop hand - eye orfoot - eye coordination is important. Given the chance children are able tocombine these learned skills and move on to sports such as soccer and netball(Krause, K., Bochner, S. & Duchesne, S. 2006: 7). Graybeal (n.d.: para. 6) statesthat “students who participate in sixty minutes of physical activity everyday
experience improved academic performance, academic behavior, cognitiveability and attitudes”.Physical education can be the perfect setting in which to concentrate on socialskills because it aids children of all ages to develop skills such as honesty,teamwork, fair play, leadership, social interaction skills and respect forthemselves and others (International Platform on Sport and Development. n.d.:para. 2). The Australian Sports Commission (2001: para. 3) states that whilephysical activity provides bonding and a sense of belonging, it also challengeschildren to work in a group and think of others. Children get to feel part of a teamand can feed off the energy and enthusiasm of fellow team mates.Regular physical activity during childhood and adolescence can reduce the riskof developing certain chronic diseases in adulthood such as cardiovasculardisease, cancer, diabetes and obesity. Because physical activity in childreninfluences participation in exercise as an adult, physical education in schools cancontribute to children becoming more active and therefore, reducing the risk ofdeveloping these chronic diseases later in life (Lee, S., Burgeson, C., Fulton, J.& Spain, C. 2007: para. 5). Krause, Bochner & Duschne (2006: 7) identifytelevision and video games as competitors with physical activity when it comesto children’s spare time. Because television viewing reduces the opportunity tobe physically active outdoors, it therefore increases the opportunity for dietaryintake, lower metabolic rate and less physical activity which inturn increases thechance of developing obesity (KOHL III, H & Hobbs, K. 2006: 551). Researchalso illustrates that physical activity can have a positive effect on anxiety,depression, mood, emotion and self esteem (Coalter, F 2005: 12). NationalInstitutes in America have shown that when quality, quantity and intensity of
physical education is addressed, teachers will maximise a child’s potential for alifetime of physical activity, health and wellness (American Cancer Society,American Diabetes Association& American Heart Association. 2008: 3).In conclusion, as stated by Lee, Burgeson, Fulton & Spain (2007: para. 7)“quality physical education provides a unique opportunity for students to obtainthe knowledge and skills needed to establish and maintain physically activelifestyles throughout childhood, adolescence and into adulthood. Burgeson et al.(2009) demonstrates that children who participate in regular physical activity arefound to have strong and healthy bones, muscles and joints; are able to controlweight, build lean muscle and reduce fat; prevent or delay high blood pressure,diabetes and obesity and reduces feelings of depression and anxiety. As a resultmost early and middle school programs attach great importance to physicaleducation in schools. Therefore, as Pangrazi & Beighle (2009:21) illustratephysical education at an early age provides students with the skills needed to bephysically active throughout life and therefore should most certainly be apart ofthe curriculum in all primary and secondary schools.
Task 2: Reflect on your answer from Task 1 and discuss how this fits inwith your personal beliefs relating to teaching and learning in primaryschools.In this reflection I will discuss my personal beliefs on why I think it is importantthat physical education be apart of the curriculum in primary and secondaryschools. Physical education has formed an important part of my life sincechildhood. I have many fond memories of friendships made through sport, of howgood physical activity makes me feel both on the inside and out and howphysical education can set you up for a healthy and happy lifestyle, not just inchildhood but well into adulthood. It is for these reasons that I have chosenphysical education as my elective module for this course and also why I havechosen to answer the physical education question in this assignment.I feel the most important reason physical education should be incorporated intothe curriculum of primary and high school is that physical education can help toreverse the growing epidemic of childhood obesity. The Australian Government(2006: para. 5) estimates that 20 – 25% of Australian children are overweight orobese. Obesity is a chronic disease that threatens to undo decades of progressin the fight against other chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease,diabetes and cancer (American Cancer Society, American DiabetesAssociation& American Heart Association. 2008: 1). With children spending somuch time watching television and playing video games before and after school,I feel that it is even more important that children benefit from some type ofphysical activity at school in the form of physical education. Television viewingreduces the opportunity to be physically active outdoors, and therefore increasesthe opportunity for dietary intake which inturn increases the chance for childrento become obese (KOHL III, H & Hobbs, K. 2006: 551). Therefore, if all children
were seen to be undertaking physical education at school, it would ensure thatall children are at least getting some form of physical activity a few times perweek.As stated by Lee, Burgeson, Fulton & Spain (2007) physical education aidschildren to develop skills such as team work, leadership, honesty, fair play,respect for themselves and other, adherence to rules and social interaction skillswhich aid children to have better attitudes toward life in general. These are allskills that generally are not taught in the classroom. In fact, the classroomactually benefits from children acquiring these skills as physical activity has beenshown to improve academic performance, behaviour, cognitive ability andchildren’s attitudes Graybeal (n.d.: para. 6).Through personal experience physical activity also increases positive selfesteem and self image, while decreasing anxiety and depression. Sarafolean(2009: 1) explains that suicide as a result of anxiety and depression occurs inabout 8% of adolescent children and is more likely to be successful in youngboys than in young girls. Accordingly as stated by The International Platform onSport and Development (n.d : para 2) “physical education and activity canprovide an opportunity for young people to learn how to deal with competitionand how to cope with both winning and losing. These learning aspects highlightthe impact of physical education and sport on a child’s social and moraldevelopment in addition to physical skills and abilities”After thorough research and investigation into the effects of physical educationon primary and secondary students I believe physical education should hold avery important part of a teacher’s curriculum. With all the literature I have read
the positive impacts well outweigh the negative impacts on children of all ageswhen it comes to physical education and physical activities within the schoolsurroundings. Once I am teaching my own primary school class, physicaleducation will definitely be an important part of my teaching curriculum.
REFERENCEAmerican Cancer Society, American Diabetes Association & American Heart Association. (2008) Physical Education in Schools – Both Quality and Quantity are Important. Retrieved from http://www.everydaychoices.org/082008/PE%20in%20Schools%20Statem ent%20ACS%20ADA%20AHA%205.27.08%20_final_.pdfAustralian Sports Commission. (2001). The Social Impacts of Sport and Physical Recreation. Retrieved from http://ausport.gov.au/_data/assets/pdf_file/0006/276927/ABS- Social_impacts_of_spot.pdfBurgeson, C., Wechsler, H., Brener, N., Young, J., Spain, C. (2009). Physical Education and Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and programs Study 2000. Journal of School Health, 71 (7), 279 - 293. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2001.tb03505.xCoalter, F (2005) The Social Benefits of Sport. Pp. 12. Vol. 1. Edinburgh: SportscotlandGraybeal, L. (n.d.). Physical Education in Child Development. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_6462216_physical_education_child_develop ment.htmlInternational Platform on Sport and Development. (n.d.). Healthy Development of Children and Young People through Sport. Retrieved from http://www.sportanddev.org/en/learnmore/sport_education_and_child_you th_development2/healthy_development_of_children_and_young_people_t hrough_sport/Kohl III, H & Hobbs, K. (2006). Development of Physical Activity Behaviours Among Children and Adolescents. Paediatrics: Official Journal of the American Academy of Paediatrics. 549 – 554. doi: 10.1542/peds.101.3.S1.549Krause, K., Bochner, S & Duchesne, S. 2006 ‘Extract: Emerging Skills’ Educational Psychology for Learning and Teaching 2nd ed. Pp. 3-39 South Melbourne, Vic.Lee, S., Burgeson, C., Fulton, J. & Spain, C (2007). Physical Education and Activity: Results From the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. Journal of School Health, 77 (8), 435 – 463. doi: 10.111/j.1746- 1561.2007.00229.x
Pangrazi, R & Beighle, A. (2009) Teaching Children in the Physical Education Environment. In Robert P. Pangrazi & Aaron Beighle, Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Children, pp. 20-34. 16th Ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.Sarafolean, M (2009). Depression in School-Age Children and Adolescents Assessment and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.healthyplace.com/depression/children/depression-in-school- age-children-and-adolescents-characteristics-assessment-and- prevention/menu-id-68/The Australian Government. (2006) Child Obesity in Australia – Alarming Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.child-obesity.info/child- health/alarming-statistics-about-child-obesity-in-australia.html