Update in clinical education

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Clinical Meeting Presentation - clinical Education

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  • Common Responses to this are: Why me? What can I teach? How do I teach it?   How can I learn to teach it?
  • (Demoins University) (Pharmacy Guild of Australia)
  • Update in clinical education

    1. 1. UPDATE IN CLINICAL EDUCATION: Pharmacy Students and Experiential learning
    2. 2. <ul><li>As members of a profession, we are entrusted with a responsibility to continuously renew our ranks by educating our future clinical colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the many challenges, we have a professional duty to teach young practitioners. </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2007; 71 (6) Article 120. </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacy students’ Approaches to Learning in an Australian University. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis being tested: </li></ul><ul><li>With increasing experience, students should employ deeper learning strategies over time </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of more productive learning strategies should be reflected in academic results. </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Meaning directed learning (Deep processing strategies & self regulation: Learning is the construction of knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction directed learning (Surface learning & reliance on regulation: Learning is intake of knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Undirected learning (Poor self regulation, dependence on external sources for help) </li></ul><ul><li>Application directed learning ( Strong vocational orientation & belief that learning is the use of knowledge) </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Measure & Evaluate the approaches to learning that students adopt </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the relationship between student approach to learning and academic performance outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Examine differences in students approach to learning between year groups and within the same year group over time </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the influence of gender & subject on students’ approach to learning </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Preference for ‘ Application directed (vocational) learning’ compared to other learning styles (p<0.05) </li></ul><ul><li>No maturation in learning style developed as students progressed through curriculum (p<0.05) </li></ul><ul><li>Students were more likely to use surface and reproductive approaches to learning in 2 nd and 3 rd year as opposed to meaning directed learning (p=0.01) </li></ul><ul><li>Results not influenced by gender or subject type (Comment: No data or P-values listed) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic results not influenced by learning style (p=0.01) </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Learning style and personality – KOLB’s Model </li></ul><ul><li>Learning style and Profession – Approaches to learning Model </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Style, Personality & Choice of Profession – no proven correlation for pharmacy </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Adult Learning Should Be… </li></ul><ul><li>Active , where adult learners need to be actively involved in their learning in order for them to develop their learning needs. </li></ul><ul><li>In context , where adults are motivated to obtain the necessary knowledge and skills to solve specific problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective , where adults learn from prior experience and generalize these experiences to new situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Practical , where adults learn by doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple exposures (short duration) & with a diverse range of preceptors and institutions </li></ul>
    9. 11. <ul><li>Difference between Undergraduate and post graduate pharmacy students </li></ul><ul><li>How many hours are considered essential for the development of practical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Status quo for preceptor:student:patient ratios in pharmacy placements </li></ul>
    10. 12. <ul><li>University Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply Vs Demand Vs Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality training sites and preceptors were quoted as major issues affecting accreditation of university courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placements Vs Academic Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workplace / Industry perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preceptor availability (52%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workload concern (9.2%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other: Reimbursement, student issues, amalgamation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply Vs Demand (46%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to engage in learning </li></ul></ul>
    11. 13. <ul><li>Account for; adult learning principles, curriculum and student engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Assist students to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand their selected occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the capacity to practice effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to authentic work activities (novel & routine) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observation & listening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to experienced practitioners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities to reinforce and refine practical skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand Limitations </li></ul>
    12. 14. <ul><li>Engaging registered pharmacists to act as preceptors / educators / facilitators </li></ul><ul><li>Maximise positive contributions from practice settings </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare students to be ‘agentic’ learners: This requires students to participate & negotiate in learning and become proactive and self directed adult learners as part of their professional preparation (Billet 2009) </li></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>Action Learning Project to improve satisfaction from all stakeholders for the pharmacy student experiential placements program </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Operational Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 : Clinical education needs analysis & training </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Implementation </li></ul>
    14. 16. Need / StakeHolder Benefit Students Industry University Multiple Preceptors √ √ √ Increased Capacity √ √ Appropriate preceptor-student ratios √ Authentic learning √ √ √ Workplace support √ √ √ Supervision training for pharmacists √ √ √ Mentoring training for pharmacists √ √ √ Enriched CPD portfolio √ Innovation √ √ √ Varied skills set & multitasked staff √ Networking and goodwill √ √ Increased research capacity √ √ √ Employment opportunities and staff retention √ √ √
    15. 17. <ul><li>In mid-late May 2010 staff pharmacists will be asked to participate in workplace questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous & voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify barriers for pharmacist involvement in education / supervision of students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify training needs/requests required for pharmacy staff to feel comfortable in the facilitation of student placements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a series of education seminars relevant to pharmacy staff needs on mentoring, facilitation & clinical supervision </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>Kolb’s experiential Learning Model (Accessed 2.4.10;http://leadershipchamps.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/kolbs-experiential-model.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2007; 71 (6) Article 120. Pharmacy students’ Approaches to Learning in an Australian University. Lorraine Smith, PhD, Bandana Saini, PhD, Ines Krass, PhD, Timothy Chen, PhD, Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich, PhD & Erica Sainsbury, MSc. Faculty of pharmacy, University of Sydney, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Owens, Susanne & Stupans,I. 2008. “Experiential Placements in Pharmacy: ‘Quality Indicators for Best Practice Approaches to Experiential Placements in Pharmacy Programs’”. The Carrick Institute for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. Australia. </li></ul>
    17. 19. <ul><li>Implications of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Placements: Cecilia M. Plaza, PharmD, MS, and JoLaine Reierson Draugalis, PhD. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2005; 69 (3) Article 45. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing Pharmacy Students’ Learning styles & personality types; A 10 year analysis. Avis, Shuck & Phillips 1999. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Vol 63. pp.27-33 </li></ul>

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